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This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 6 Chapter 5: Project Scope Management True/False 1. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them. Answer: True Rationale: One of the most important and most difficult aspects of project management is defining the scope of a project. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them. 2. Deliverables are only product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software. Answer: False Rationale: Deliverables can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes. 3. Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project. Answer: True Rationale: Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. It ensures that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products the project will produce and what processes the project team will use to produce them. 4. The scope management plan can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project. Answer: True Rationale: The scope management plan is a subsidiary part of the project management plan. It can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project. 5. The project’s size, complexity, importance, and other factors do not affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements for scope planning. Answer: False Rationale: The project’s size, complexity, importance, and other factors affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements. 6. Information from the project charter provides a basis for further defining the project scope. Answer: True Rationale: The charter describes the high-level scope, time, and cost goals for the project objectives and success criteria, a general approach to accomplishing the project’s goals, and the main roles and responsibilities of important project stakeholders. 7. Project scope statements must include the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions. Answer: False Rationale: Project scope statements should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria, and detailed information on all project deliverables. It is also helpful to document other scope-related information, such as the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions. 8. The scope of a project is clear and specific from the start. Answer: False Rationale: As time progresses, the scope of a project should become more clear and specific. 9. Many information technology projects also require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement. Answer: True Rationale: Many IT projects require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement. 10. The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced. Answer: True Rationale: The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are created or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced. 11. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS. Answer: True Rationale: The project scope management plan, scope statement, requirements documentation, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS. 12. The scope baseline in a WBS consists of the requirements documentation and enterprise environmental factors. Answer: False Rationale: The scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary. 13. The WBS is organized solely around project phases. Answer: False Rationale: A project team often organizes the WBS around project products, project phases, or the project management process groups. 14. A work package represents one component of the product that the project aims to deliver. Answer: False Rationale: A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. It represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls. 15. A work package must always represent less than 80 hours of work. Answer: False Rationale: A work package represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls. If a project has a relatively short time frame and requires weekly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one week or less. If a project has a very long time frame and requires quarterly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one month or more. 16. The tasks in a WBS must be developed as a sequential list of steps. Answer: False Rationale: A concern when creating a WBS is how to organize it to provide the basis for the project schedule. You should focus on what work needs to be done and how it will be done, not when it will be done. In other words, the tasks do not have to be developed as a sequential list of steps. 17. The executing tasks of the WBS remain constant from project to project. Answer: False Rationale: The executing tasks vary the most from project to project, but many of the tasks under the other project management process groups would be similar for all projects. 18. Many organizations provide different guidelines and templates for developing WBSs. Answer: True Rationale: Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBSs, as well as examples of WBSs from past projects. Microsoft Project 2010 comes with several templates, and more are available on Microsoft’s Web site and other sites. 19. Mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. Answer: True Rationale: Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. This more visual, less structured approach to defining and then grouping tasks can unlock creativity among individuals and increase participation and morale among teams. 20. The format of the WBS dictionary is essentially the same for all projects. Answer: False Rationale: WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed information about each WBS item. The format of the WBS dictionary can vary based on project needs. 21. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. Answer: True Rationale: A basic principle of creating a good WBS and its WBS dictionary is that a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. 22. Scope creep if not managed well can lead to the failure of information technology projects. Answer: True Rationale: Even when the project scope is fairly well defined, many IT projects suffer from scope creep—the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. Many IT projects fail due to scope creep. Multiple Choice 1. The term ______ describes a product produced as part of a project. A. variance B. scope C. deliverable D. work package Answer: C Rationale: Thee term deliverable describes a product created as part of a project. Deliverables can be product related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes. 2. Scope refers to: A. each level of work that is outlined in a work breakdown structure. B. the end product created as part of a project that is delivered to the client. C. tasks that are decomposed into smaller tasks in a work breakdown structure. D. the work involved in creating the products and the processes used to create them. Answer: D Rationale: Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them. 3. _____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them. A. Collecting requirements B. Defining scope C. Controlling scope D. Validating scope Answer: A Rationale: Collecting requirements involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products for the project as well as the processes used for creating them. The project team creates requirements documentation and a requirements traceability matrix as outputs of the requirements collection process. 4. _____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved. A. Creating scope B. Defining scope C. Controlling scope D. Validating scope Answer: B Rationale: Defining scope involves reviewing the scope management plan, project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved. 5. _____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables. A. Creating scope B. Defining scope C. Controlling scope D. Validating scope Answer: D Rationale: Validating scope involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process. 6. Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the _____ process in project scope management. A. planning B. monitoring and controlling C. closing D. executing Answer: A Rationale: Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the planning process of the project scope management. 7. The ______ documents how project needs will be analyzed, documented, and managed. A. requirements traceability matrix B. requirements management plan C. WBS D. project scope statement Answer: B Rationale: The requirements management plan documents how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. 8. Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization is known as _____. A. variance B. benchmarking C. prototyping D. decomposition Answer: B Rationale: Benchmarking, or generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization, can be used to collect requirements. 9. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed. A. requirements traceability matrix B. Gantt chart C. state transition table D. entity-attribute-value model Answer: A Rationale: A requirements traceability matrix (RTM) is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed. 10. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. A. project charter B. business case C. project scope statement D. work breakdown structure Answer: D Rationale: After collecting requirements and defining scope, the next step in project scope management is to create a work breakdown structure. A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope. 11. The main technique used in creating a WBS is _____, which involves subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces. A. conglomeration B. accumulation C. decomposition D. catalyzation Answer: C Rationale: The main tool or technique involved in creating a WBS is decomposition—that is, subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces. 12. A(n) ____ is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. A. variance B. objective C. deliverable D. work package Answer: D Rationale: A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. 13. The _____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project. A. project charter B. scope statement C. WBS D. Gantt chart Answer: B Rationale: The scope statement should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project. It is very important to ensure consistency between the project charter, scope statement, WBS, and Gantt chart to define the scope of the project accurately. 14. In the _____ approach for constructing a WBS, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point. A. top-down B. bottom-up C. mind-mapping D. analogy Answer: D Rationale: A method for constructing a WBS is the analogy approach. In the analogy approach, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point. 15. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail. A. analogy B. bottom-up C. top-down D. mind mapping Answer: C Rationale: To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail. 16. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS starts with the largest items of the project and breaks them into subordinate items. A. analogy B. bottom-up C. top-down D. mind mapping Answer: C Rationale: To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective. 17. In the _____ approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. A. analogy B. bottom-up C. top-down D. mind mapping Answer: B Rationale: In the bottom-up approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. Project managers often use the bottom-up approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team. 18. The _____ technique for creating a WBS uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks. A. analogy B. bottom-up C. top-down D. mind mapping Answer: D Rationale: Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas. Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. 19. Which of the following is recommended for the creation of a good WBS? A. Any WBS item should be the responsibility of all the people working on it. B. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. C. Each WBS item should be created assuming that the requirements are inflexible. D. The work content of a WBS item is independent of the WBS items below it. Answer: B Rationale: Some basic principles apply to creating any good WBS and its WBS dictionary. Firstly, a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it. 20. Scope creep refers to: A. the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. B. subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces. C. the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS. D. a task at the lowest level of the WBS. Answer: A Rationale: Scope creep refers to the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. 21. _____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders. A. Scope validation B. Scope planning C. Scope control D. Scope baseline Answer: A Rationale: Scope validation involves formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables. This acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables. 22. _____ refers to the difference between planned and actual performance. A. Decomposition B. Variance C. Scope validation D. Scope creep Answer: B Rationale: Variance is the difference between planned and actual performance. 23. _____ refers to the process of developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system. A. Prototyping B. Variance C. Decomposition D. Use case modeling Answer: A Rationale: Prototyping involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system. 24. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. A. Prototyping B. JAD C. RAD D. Use case modeling Answer: D Rationale: Use case modeling is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. It is an effective tool for understanding requirements of information systems. 25. _____ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems. A. Prototyping B. JAD C. RAD D. Use case modeling Answer: B Rationale: Joint Application Design (JAD) uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders — the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on —to jointly define and design information systems. Completion 1. _____ includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. Answer: Project scope management 2. _____ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them. Answer: Scope 3. The main outputs of _____ are the project scope statement and updates to project documents. Answer: scope definition 4. Creating the _____ involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components. Answer: WBS work breakdown structure work breakdown structure (WBS) WBS (work breakdown structure) 5. _____ refer to “conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification.” Answer: Requirements 6. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed. Answer: requirements traceability matrix requirements traceability matrix (RTM) RTM 7. The main outputs of scope definition are the _____ and project document updates. Answer: project scope statement 8. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope. Answer: WBS work breakdown structure 9. Subdividing the project deliverables into smaller pieces is known as _____. Answer: decomposition 10. The _____ includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary. Answer: scope baseline 11. Tasks in a WBS that are decomposed into smaller tasks are called _____ tasks. Answer: summary 12. PMI uses the term “_____” to describe each level of work in the WBS. Answer: task 13. A work package is a task at the _____ level of the WBS. Answer: lowest 14. Some organizations prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects. These are known as _____. Answer: guidelines 15. In the _____ approach to creating a WBS, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. Answer: bottom-up 16. _____ is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas when creating a WBS. Answer: Mind mapping 17. A(n) _____ is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item. Answer: WBS dictionary 18. _____ is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. Answer: Scope creep 19. The main tool for performing scope validation is _____ and group decision making techniques. Answer: inspection 20. _____ involves controlling changes to the project scope while keeping project goals and business strategy in mind. Answer: Scope control 21. _____ is the difference between planned and actual performance. Answer: Variance 22. _____ involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system. Answer: Prototyping 23. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. Answer: Use case modeling Essay 1. List and briefly describe the six main processes involved in project scope management. Answer: 1. Planning scope management involves determining how the project’s scope and requirements will be managed. The project team works with appropriate stakeholders to create a scope management plan and requirements management plan. 188 2. Collecting requirements involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them. The project team creates stakeholder requirements documentation, a requirements management plan, and a requirements traceability matrix as outputs of the requirements collection process. 3. Defining scope involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved. The main outputs of scope definition are the project scope statement and updates to project documents. 4. Creating the WBS involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components. The main outputs include a work breakdown structure, a WBS dictionary, a scope baseline, and updates to project documents. 5. Verifying scope involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process. If the deliverables are not acceptable, the customer or sponsor usually requests changes. The main outputs of this process, therefore, are accepted deliverables, change requests, work performance information, and updates to project documents. 6. Controlling scope involves controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project—a challenge on many information technology projects. Scope changes often influence the team’s ability to meet project time and cost goals, so project managers must carefully weigh the costs and benefits of scope changes. The main outputs of this process are work performance information, change requests, and updates to the project management plan, project documents, and organizational process assets. 2. What is a work breakdown structure? What are the inputs and tools used for creating one? Answer: A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. Because most projects involve many people and many different deliverables, it is important to organize and divide the work into logical parts based on how the work will be performed. The WBS is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changes. Since the WBS defines the total scope of the project, some project management experts believe that work should not be done on a project if it is not included in the WBS. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a good WBS. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS. The main tool or technique is decomposition, that is, subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces. The outputs of the process of creating the WBS are the WBS itself, the WBS dictionary, a scope baseline, and project document updates. 3. List and briefly describe five approaches for creating work breakdown structures. Answer: Using Guidelines If guidelines for developing a WBS exist, it is very important to follow them. Some organizations—the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) for example—prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects. Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBSs, as well as examples of WBSs from past projects. At the request of many of its members, the Project Management Institute recently developed a WBS Practice Standard to provide guidance for developing and applying the WBS to project management. Project managers and their teams should review appropriate information to develop their unique project WBSs more efficiently. The Analogy Approach In the analogy approach, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point. Some organizations keep a repository of WBSs and other project documentation on file to assist people working on projects. Viewing examples of other similar projects’ WBSs allows you to understand different ways to create a WBS. The Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches Most project managers consider the top-down approach of WBS construction to be conventional. To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into their subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail. After finishing the process, all resources should be assigned at the work package level. The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective. In the bottom-up approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. The bottom-up approach can be very time-consuming, but it can also be a very effective way to create a WBS. Project managers often use the bottom-up approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team. Mind Mapping Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas. Instead of writing tasks down in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. This more visual, less structured approach to defining and then grouping tasks can unlock creativity among individuals and increase participation and morale among teams. After discovering WBS items and structure using the mind-mapping technique, you could then translate the information into chart or tabular form. Mind mapping can be used for developing WBSs using the top-down or bottom-up approach. 4. Describe the process of scope verification. Answer: Scope verification involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders. This acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables. To receive formal acceptance of the project scope, the project team must develop clear documentation of the project’s products and procedures to evaluate if they were completed correctly and satisfactorily. To minimize scope changes, it is crucial to do a good job of verifying project scope. The scope management plan, scope baseline, requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix, validated deliverables, and work performance data are the main inputs for scope validation. The main tools for performing scope validation are inspection and group decision-making techniques. The customer, sponsor, or user inspects the work after it is delivered and decides if it meets requirements. The main outputs of scope validation are accepted deliverables, change requests, work performance information, and project documents updates. 5. What are some of the suggestions for improving the requirements process? Answer: 1. Develop and follow a requirements management process that includes procedures for initial requirements determination. 2. Employ techniques such as prototyping, use case modeling, and Joint Application Design to understand user requirements thoroughly. Prototyping involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system. These working replicas may be throwaways or an incremental component of the deliverable system. Prototyping is an effective tool for gaining an understanding of requirements, determining the feasibility of requirements, and resolving user interface uncertainties. Use case modeling is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. It is an effective tool for understanding requirements for information systems. Joint Application Design (JAD) uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems. These techniques also help users become more active in defining system requirements. 3. Put all requirements in writing and keep them current and readily available. Several tools are available to automate this function. For example, a type of software called a requirements management tool aids in capturing and maintaining requirements information, provides immediate access to the information, and assists in establishing necessary relationships between requirements and information created by other tools. 4. Create a requirements management database for documenting and controlling requirements. Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools or other technologies can assist in maintaining a repository for project data. A CASE tool’s database can also be used to document and control requirements. 5. Provide adequate testing to verify that the project’s products perform as expected. Conduct testing throughout the project life cycle. 6. Use a process for reviewing requested requirements changes from a systems perspective. 7. Emphasize completion dates. 8. Allocate resources specifically for handling change requests. Chapter 6: Project Time Management True/False 1. An activity is an element of work that has an expected duration, cost, and resource requirements. Answer: True Rationale: An activity or task is an element of work normally found on the work breakdown structure (WBS) that has expected duration, cost, and resource requirements. 2. In project time management, the primary output of defining activities is a schedule management plan. Answer: False Rationale: In project time management, the main output of defining activities are an activity list, activity attributes, a milestone list, and project management plan updates. 3. In project time management, the next step after sequencing activities is to define these activities. Answer: False Rationale: Estimating activity resources involves estimating how many resources— people, equipment, and materials—a project team should use to perform project activities. In project time management, this process follows after sequencing activities. 4. Project schedules grow out of basic documents such as the project charter. Answer: True Rationale: Project schedules grow out of the basic documents that initiate a project. The project charter often mentions planned project start and end dates, which serve as the starting points for a more detailed schedule. 5. A schedule management plan includes information which describes the format and frequency of schedule reports required for the project. Answer: True Rationale: A schedule management plan includes information on reporting formats. This information describes the format and frequency of schedule reports required for the project. In addition, it also includes information on process descriptions and describes how all of the schedule management processes will be performed. 6. To define activities, the project team should start with reviewing the schedule management plan, scope baseline, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational processes. Answer: True Rationale: Defining activities involves identifying the specific actions that will produce the project deliverables in enough detail to determine resource and schedule estimates. The project team reviews the schedule management plan, scope baseline, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets to begin defining activities. 7. It is important for the activity list and activity attributes to be in agreement with the work breakdown structure. Answer: True Rationale: The activity list and activity attributes should be in agreement with the work breakdown structure. Information is added to the activity attributes as it becomes available; this information includes logical relationships and resource requirements that are determined in later processes. 8. Milestones are easy to achieve and are always achieved through one main activity. Answer: False Rationale: A milestone on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration. It often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestone, but the milestone itself is like a marker to help in identifying necessary activities. 9. After defining project activities, the next step in project time management is developing the schedule. Answer: False Rationale: After defining project activities, the next step in project time management is sequencing them or determining their dependencies. 10. A dependency pertains to the sequencing of project activities or tasks. Answer: True Rationale: A dependency or relationship pertains to the sequencing of project activities or tasks. Determining these relationships or dependencies among activities has a significant impact on developing and managing a project schedule. 11. Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing. Answer: True Rationale: Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing. A network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among project activities and their sequencing. 12. The arrows in a network diagram represent missed milestones in a project. Answer: False Rationale: A network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among project activities and their sequencing. The arrows in a network diagram represent the activity sequencing or relationships between tasks. 13. In a network diagram, it is mandatory for every item on the WBS to be shown instead of only those activities with dependencies. Answer: False Rationale: The network diagram represents activities that must be done to complete the project. Not every item on the WBS needs to be shown on the network diagram; only activities with dependencies need to be shown. 14. A merge occurs when one node precedes multiple nodes. Answer: False Rationale: A merge occurs when two or more nodes precede a single node. On the other hand, bursts occur when two or more activities follow a single node. 15. Start-to-finish relationships are the most frequently used dependencies between activities. Answer: False Rationale: One of the four types of dependencies or relationships between activities is the start-to-finish dependency. This is a relationship in which the “from ” activity must start before the “to” activity can be finished. This type of relationship is rarely used, but it is appropriate in some cases. 16. A drawback of the precedence diagramming method is that it cannot be used unless dummy activities are employed. Answer: False Rationale: The precedence diagramming method offers a number of advantages over the AOA technique. One advantage is that using this method avoids the need to use dummy activities. 17. In project time management, one should control the schedule before estimating the duration for each activity. Answer: False Rationale: In project time management, before one can estimate the duration for each activity, one must have a good idea of the quantity and type of resources (people, equipment, and materials) that will be assigned to each activity. 18. In a Gantt chart, thick black bars represent milestones achieved in a project. Answer: False Rationale: Gantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in calendar form. In a Gantt chart, a black diamond symbol represents a milestone. 19. A Tracking Gantt chart is based on the percentage of work completed for project tasks or the actual start and finish dates. Answer: True Rationale: A Tracking Gantt chart is based on the percentage of work completed for project tasks or the actual start and finish dates. It allows the project manager to monitor schedule progress on individual tasks and the whole project. 20. A disadvantage of using Gantt charts is that they do not provide a standard format for displaying planned project schedule information. Answer: False Rationale: The main advantage of using Gantt charts is that they provide a standard format for displaying planned and actual project schedule information. 21. In a critical path analysis, the shortest path is what drives the completion date for the project. Answer: False Rationale: In a critical path analysis, several tasks are done in parallel on projects, and most projects have multiple paths through a network diagram. The longest path or the path that contains the critical tasks is what drives the completion date for the project. 22. The critical path on a project can change as the project progresses. Answer: True Rationale: The critical path represents the shortest time required to complete a project. The critical path on a project can change as the project progresses. 23. A backward pass through the network diagram determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity. Answer: False Rationale: A backward pass through the network diagram determines the late start and late finish dates for each activity. In contrast, a forward pass determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity. 24. Knowing the amount of float allows project managers to know whether a project schedule is flexible. Answer: True Rationale: Knowing the amount of float or slack allows project managers to know whether the schedule is flexible and how flexible it might be. A fast and easy way to determine early and late start and finish dates and free and total slack amounts for activities is by using project management software. 25. The main disadvantage of crashing is that it lengthens the time needed to finish a project. Answer: False Rationale: The main advantage of crashing is that it shortens the time needed to finish a project. The main disadvantage is that it often increases total project costs. 26. The technique of fast tracking can result in lengthening the project schedule. Answer: True Rationale: The main disadvantage of fast tracking is that it can lengthen the project schedule because starting some tasks too soon often increases project risk and results in rework. 27. Critical chain scheduling assumes that resources multitask and maximizes multitasking. Answer: False Rationale: Critical chain scheduling is a method that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date. It assumes that resources do not multitask or at least minimize multitasking. 28. One of PERT’s main disadvantages is that it does not address the risk associated with duration estimates. Answer: False Rationale: PERT’s main disadvantages are that it involves more work than CPM because it requires several duration estimates, and there are better probabilistic methods for assessing schedule risk. 29. The final process in project time management is developing the schedule. Answer: False Rationale: The final process in project time management is controlling the schedule Like scope control, schedule control is a portion of the integrated change control process under project integration management. 30. A drawback of the project management software is that it does not have the capacity to calculate the critical path(s) for a project. Answer: False Rationale: A project management software can be used to draw network diagrams, determine the critical path for a project, create Gantt charts, and report, view, and filter specific project time management information. Multiple Choice 1. The first process involved in project time management is _____. A. defining activities B. estimating activity durations C. planning schedule management D. sequencing activities Answer: C Rationale: Schedule management is the first process in project time management and involves determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling the project schedule. 2. Which of the following processes in project time management involves identifying the specific tasks that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables? A. Defining activities B. Sequencing activities C. Developing the schedule D. Estimating activity durations Answer: A Rationale: In project time management, the process of defining activities involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables. 3. In project time management, which of the following processes generate the main outputs of an activity list, activity attributes, and a milestone list? A. Sequencing activities B. Defining activities C. Resource estimating activities D. Estimating activity durations Answer: B Rationale: In project time management, the main outputs of the sequencing activities process are an activity list, activity attributes, a milestone list, and project management plan updates. 4. In project time management, which of the following processes primarily involve identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities? A. Defining activities B. Sequencing activities C. Planning schedule management D. Estimating activity durations Answer: B Rationale: Sequencing activities involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities. The main outputs of this process include project schedule network diagrams and project documents updates. 5. In project time management, which of the following processes involve calculating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities? A. Defining activities B. Sequencing activities C. Planning schedule management D. Estimating activity durations Answer: D Rationale: Estimating activity durations involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities. Outputs include activity duration estimates and project documents updates. 6. In project time management, which of the following processes involve analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule? A. Planning schedule management B. Developing the schedule C. Controlling the schedule D. Defining activities Answer: B Rationale: Developing the schedule involves analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule. Outputs include a schedule baseline, project schedule, schedule data, project calendars, project management plan updates, and project documents updates. 7. In project time management, the process of _____ primarily involves checking and managing changes to the project schedule. A. estimating activity durations B. developing the schedule C. controlling the schedule D. estimating activity resources Answer: C Rationale: In project time management, the process of controlling the schedule involves controlling and managing changes to the project schedule. Outputs include work performance information, schedule forecasts, and change requests among others. 8. In project time management, a(n) _____ is an output of controlling the schedule A. activity duration estimate B. project management plan update C. activity attribute D. milestones list Answer: B Rationale: Controlling the schedule involves controlling and managing changes to the project schedule. Outputs include work performance information, schedule forecasts, change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, and organizational process assets updates. 9. Which of the following documents is most likely to include planned project start and end dates which serve as the starting points for a detailed schedule? A. Resource breakdown structure B. Milestones list C. Organizational process assets update D. Project charter Answer: D Rationale: The project charter often mentions planned project start and end dates, which serve as the starting points for a more detailed schedule. 10. Which of the following is a difference between an activity list and an activity attribute? A. As opposed to an activity attribute, an activity list provides resource requirements and constraints related to activities. B. An activity list provides a more concrete list of milestones for a project than an activity attribute. C. An activity attribute is a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule whereas an activity list is not. D. An activity attribute provides more schedule-related information about each activity than an activity list. Answer: D Rationale: The activity list is a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule. The list should include the activity name, an activity identifier or number, and a brief description of the activity. The activity attributes provide more schedule-related information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, and so forth. 11. A(n) _____ on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration. A. milestone B. activity attribute C. activity sequence D. schedule baseline Answer: A Rationale: A milestone on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration. It often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestone, but the milestone itself is like a marker to help in identifying necessary activities. 12. In project time management, the main goal of _____ is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work. A. defining activities B. estimating activity durations C. estimating activity resources D. controlling the schedule Answer: A Rationale: The goal of defining activities is to ensure that the project team completely understands all the work it must do as part of the project scope so the team can start scheduling the work. Activity information is a required input to the other time management processes. 13. In project time management, the next step after defining project activities is: A. planning schedule management. B. determining their dependencies. C. controlling the schedule. D. estimating activity duration. Answer: B Rationale: After defining project activities, the next step in project time management is sequencing them or determining their dependencies. The sequencing process involves evaluating the reasons for dependencies and the different types of dependencies. 14. Which of the following types of dependencies are inherent in the nature of work being performed on a project? A. Mandatory B. Discretionary C. External D. Random Answer: A Rationale: Mandatory dependencies are inherent in the nature of work being performed on a project. They are sometimes referred to as hard logic. 15. _____ dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care because they may limit later scheduling options. A. Mandatory B. Discretionary C. External D. Inherent Answer: B Rationale: Discretionary dependencies are defined by the project team. They are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care because they may limit later scheduling options. 16. Which of the following dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities? A. Mandatory B. Discretionary C. External D. Inherent Answer: C Rationale: External dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities. 17. In an AOA network diagram, _____ occur when two or more activities follow a single node. A. combinations B. buffers C. mergers D. bursts Answer: D Rationale: When creating an AOA network diagram, bursts occur when two or more activities follow a single node. 18. A network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities is known as a(n) _____. A. PDM B. CPM C. ADM D. PERT Answer: A Rationale: The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities. It is particularly useful for visualizing certain types of time relationships. 19. AOA network diagrams use only _____ dependencies. A. start-to-start B. finish-to-start C. finish-to-finish D. start-to-finish Answer: B Rationale: A finish-to-start dependency is the most common type of relationship or dependency and AOA network diagrams use only finish-to-start dependencies. It is a relationship in which the “from” activity or predecessor must finish before the “to” activity or successor can start. 20. Which of the following is a relationship in which the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity is started? A. Start-to-start B. Finish-to-finish C. Finish-to-start D. Start-to-finish Answer: A Rationale: A start-to-start dependency is a relationship in which the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity or successor is started. 21. Which of the following is true of a finish-to-finish dependency? A. It is a dependency in which the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity or successor is started. B. It is a dependency in which in which the “from” activity must finish before the “to” activity or successor can start. C. It is a dependency in which the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be finished. D. It is a dependency in which the “from” activity must start before the “to” activity can be finished. Answer: C Rationale: A finish-to-finish dependency is a relationship in which the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be finished. One task cannot finish before another finishes. 22. Which of the following is true of dummy activities? A. They have long durations. B. They show logical relationships between activities. C. They have a large range of resources. D. They have limited time periods. Answer: B Rationale: Dummy activities have no duration and no resources, but are occasionally needed on AOA network diagrams to show logical relationships between activities. 23. Which of the following is one of the main outputs of estimating activity resources process? A. Project documents update B. Milestone list C. Work breakdown structure D. Activity duration estimate Answer: A Rationale: The main outputs of the resource estimating process include a list of activity resource requirements, a resource breakdown structure, and project documents updates. 24. After working with key stakeholders to define activities and calculate their resources, the next process in project time management is to: A. develop the schedule. B. control the schedule. C. determine their dependencies. D. estimate the duration of activities. Answer: D Rationale: After working with key stakeholders to define activities, determine their dependencies, and estimate their resources, the next process in project time management is to estimate the duration of activities. 25. In project time management, the ultimate goal of _____ is to provide a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project. A. defining activities B. sequencing activities C. developing a schedule D. estimating activity resources Answer: C Rationale: The ultimate goal of developing a realistic project schedule is to provide a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project. Project time management processes often go through several iterations before a project schedule is finalized. 26. _____ provide(s) a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format. A. Gantt charts B. Critical path analysis C. Arrow diagramming method D. PERT analysis Answer: A Rationale: Gantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in calendar form. They are sometimes referred to as bar charts because the activities’ start and end dates are shown as horizontal bars. 27. Which of the following is a network diagramming technique used primarily to predict total project duration? A. Gantt chart B. Critical path analysis C. Resource breakdown structure D. Arrow diagramming method Answer: B Rationale: Critical path method (CPM) —also called critical path analysis —is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration. This important tool helps combat project schedule overruns. 28. The critical path is the _____ path through a network diagram, and it represents the _____ amount of slack or float. A. longest; longest B. longest; shortest C. shortest; longest D. shortest; shortest Answer: B Rationale: A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed. It is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float. 29. The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities is known as a _____. A. forward pass B. backward pass C. fast tracking D. free slack Answer: D Rationale: A technique that can help project managers make schedule trade-offs is determining the free slack and total slack for each project activity. Free slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities. 30. _____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date. A. Total slack B. Free float C. Backward pass D. Forward pass Answer: A Rationale: Total slack or total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date. 31. The _____ for an activity is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date. A. early finish date B. late finish date C. late start date D. early start date Answer: C Rationale: The late start date is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date. 32. The technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost is known as _____. A. dependency B. crashing C. critical chain scheduling D. feeding buffers Answer: B Rationale: Crashing is a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost. The main advantage of crashing is shortening the time needed to finish a project. 33. Which of the following techniques involve doing activities in parallel that one would normally do in sequence? A. Critical chain scheduling B. Crashing C. Fast tracking D. PERT analysis Answer: C Rationale: Fast tracking involves doing activities in parallel that one would normally do in sequence. The main advantage of fast tracking is that it can shorten the time needed to finish a project. 34. A similarity between the crashing technique and the fast tracking technique is that: A. both spread out tasks over a long period of time to ensure the quality of work is maintained. B. both invariably result in increases in total project costs. C. both can shorten the time needed to finish a project. D. both are network diagramming techniques used primarily to predict total project duration. Answer: C Rationale: The main advantage of fast tracking, like crashing, is that it can shorten the time needed to finish a project. 35. Critical chain scheduling protects tasks on the critical chain from being delayed by using _____, which consist of additional time added before tasks on the critical chain that are preceded by non-critical-path tasks. A. critical paths B. feeding buffers C. dummy activities D. fast tracking Answer: B Rationale: Critical chain scheduling protects tasks on the critical chain from being delayed by using feeding buffers, which consist of time added before tasks on the critical chain if they are preceded by other tasks that are not on the critical path. 36. _____ states that work expands to fill the time allowed. A. Murphy’s Law B. Miller’s Law C. Parkinson’s Law D. Einstein’s Law Answer: C Rationale: Parkinson’s Law states that work expands to fill the time allowed. 37. A difference between the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and critical path method (CPM) is that: A. CPM addresses the risk associated with duration estimates whereas PERT does not. B. unlike CPM, PERT estimates only when there is no risk of uncertainty. C. CPM involves more work than PERT because it requires several duration estimates. D. PERT uses different duration estimates whereas CPM uses one specific duration estimate. Answer: D Rationale: PERT uses probabilistic time estimates —duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations —instead of one specific or discrete duration estimate, as CPM does. 38. Which of the following is a similarity between scope control and schedule control? A. Both are initial processes of project time management. B. Both of their primary goals is to define project goals and milestones. C. Both are portions of the integrated change control process under project integration management. D. Both of these processes should occur before estimating activity durations. Answer: C Rationale: Like scope control, schedule control is a portion of the integrated change control process under project integration management. Controlling the schedule is the final process in project time management. 39. Which of the following is an output of schedule control? A. Lessons-learned reports B. Activity attributes C. Resource requirements D. Milestones list Answer: A Rationale: The main outputs of schedule control include work performance measurements, organizational process assets updates such as lessons-learned reports related to schedule control, change requests, project management plan updates, and project documents updates. 40. A draft schedule for a project is most likely to be found in a _____. A. project buffer B. project charter C. resource breakdown structure D. project’s dummy activities list Answer: B Rationale: One of the first reality checks for a project manager is to review the draft schedule that is usually included in the project charter. Although this draft schedule might include only a project start and end date, the project charter sets some initial schedule expectations for the project. Completion 1. In a project schedule, the variable that has the least amount of flexibility is _____. Answer: time 2. _____ involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project. Answer: Project time management 3. In project time management, the process of _____ involves deciding how many people, equipment, and materials a project team should use to perform project activities. Answer: estimating activity resources 4. After reviewing the project management plan, project charter, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets, the project team uses expert judgment, analytical techniques, and meetings to develop the _____. Answer: schedule management plan 5. The _____ is a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule. Answer: activity list 6. The activity list should include the _____, an activity identifier, and a brief description of the activity. Answer: activity name 7. In the activity defining process, the project team should review the _____ and activity attributes with project stakeholders before moving on to the next step in project time management. Answer: activity list 8. A(n) _____ is a schematic display of the logical relationships among project activities and their sequencing. Answer: network diagram 9. In a network diagram, a(n) _____ is the starting and ending point of an activity. Answer: node 10. In a(n) _____ relationship, the “from” activity must start before the “to” activity can be finished. Answer: start-to-finish 11. _____ have no duration and no resources but are occasionally needed on AOA network diagrams to show logical relationships between activities. Answer: Dummy activities 12. A hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type is known as a(n) _____. Answer: resource breakdown structure 13. _____ is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task. Answer: Effort 14. Duration estimates can be provided as a discrete number, a range, or as a(n) _____. Answer: three-point estimate 15. The ultimate goal of developing a realistic project schedule is to provide a basis for monitoring project progress for the _____ dimension of the project. Answer: time 16. A(n) _____ Gantt chart compares planned and actual project schedule information. Answer: Tracking 17. A white diamond on a Tracking Gantt chart represents a(n) _____. Answer: slipped milestone 18. A(n) _____ for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed. Answer: critical path 19. A(n) _____ determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity in a project. Answer: forward pass 20. The _____ is based on the fact that any complex system at any point in time often has only one aspect or constraint that limits its ability to achieve more of its goal. Answer: Theory of Constraints (TOC) 21. _____ occurs when a resource works on more than one task at a time. Answer: Multitasking 22. _____ states that if something can go wrong, it will. Answer: Murphy’s Law 23. The main outputs of _____ include work performance measurements, organizational process assets updates, and project document updates. Answer: schedule control 24. One of the first reality checks on scheduling that a project manager should make is to review the _____. Answer: draft schedule 25. A drawback of using _____ or sample files is that managers and their teams might rely heavily on them and ignore unique concerns for their particular projects. Answer: templates Essay 1. List and briefly describe the main processes involved in project time management. Answer: The main processes involved in project time management are as follows: (1) Planning schedule management involves determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling the project schedule. (2) Defining activities involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables. (3) Sequencing activities involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities. (4) Estimating activity resources involves estimating how many resources—people, equipment, and materials—a project team should use to perform project activities. (5) Estimating activity durations involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities. (6) Developing the schedule involves analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule. (7) Controlling the schedule involves controlling and managing changes to the project schedule. 2. What are milestones? Describe. Answer: Milestones are the most important and visible events in a project and normally have no duration. It often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestone, but the milestone itself is like a marker to help in identifying necessary activities. Milestones are also useful tools or setting schedule goals and monitoring progress. Not every deliverable or output created for a project is really a milestone. 3. What is a network diagram? Describe two network diagramming methods. Answer: Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing. They are a schematic display of the logical relationships among project activities and their sequencing. They represent activities that must be done to complete the project. Every activity on the network diagram must be completed in order for the project to finish. Two types of network diagramming methods are as follows: (1) The arrow diagramming method (ADM): This is a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence of activities. A node is simply the starting and ending point of an activity. The first node signifies the start of a project, and the last node represents the end of a project. (2) The precedence diagramming method (PDM): This is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities. It is particularly useful for visualizing certain types of time relationships. 4. Describe critical path analysis. How is the critical path calculated? Answer: Critical path analysis is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration. This important tool can help combat project schedule overruns. A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed. It is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float. To find the critical path for a project, one must first develop a good network diagram, which, in turn, requires a good activity list based on the work breakdown structure. Once a network diagram is created, one must also estimate the duration of each activity to determine the critical path. Calculating the critical path involves adding the durations for all activities on each path through the network diagram. The longest path is the critical path. 5. What is the Theory of Constraints? Describe critical chain scheduling, an application of the Theory of Constraints. Answer: The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is a management philosophy developed by Eliyahu M. Goldratt and is based on the metaphor of a chain and its weakest link: Any complex system at any point in time often has only one aspect or constraint that limits the ability to achieve more of the system’s goal. For the system to attain any significant improvements, that constraint must be identified, and the whole system must be managed with it in mind. Critical chain scheduling is a method that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date. An important concept in critical chain scheduling is the availability of scarce resources. For instance, if a particular piece of equipment is needed full time to complete each of two tasks that were originally planned to occur simultaneously, critical chain scheduling acknowledges that one must either delay one of those tasks until the equipment is available or find another piece of equipment in order to meet the schedule. Other important concepts related to critical chain scheduling include multitasking and time buffers. Test Bank for Information Technology Project Management Kathy Schwalbe 9781133526858, 9781133627227, 9780324786927, 9781337101356, 9780324665215

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