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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 2 Chapter 1: Introduction to Project Management True/False 1. Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing schedule and resource data to top management in the military, computer, and construction industries. Answer: True Rationale: Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing schedule and resource data to top management in the military, computer, and construction industries. Today’s project management involves much more, and people in every industry and every country manage projects. 2. A difference between operations and projects is that operations end when their objectives have been reached, whereas projects do not. Answer: False Rationale: Projects are different from operations in that they end when their objectives have been reached or the project has been terminated. 3. Every project should have a well-defined objective. Answer: True Rationale: A project has a unique purpose. Every project should have a well-defined objective. 4. Projects should be developed in increments. Answer: True Rationale: A project is developed using progressive elaboration. Projects are often defined broadly when they begin, and as time passes, the specific details of the project become clearer. Therefore, projects should be developed in increments. 5. Resources in a project should be used effectively because they are limited. Answer: True Rationale: A project requires resources, often from various areas. Resources, however, are limited and must be used effectively to meet project and other corporate goals. 6. A project manager’s primary role is to provide the funding for a project. Answer: False Rationale: A project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for a project. 7. One of the main reasons why project management is challenging is because of the factor of uncertainty. Answer: True Rationale: A project involves uncertainty. Every project is unique and thus it is sometimes difficult to define its objectives clearly, estimate how long it will take to complete, or determine how much it will cost. This uncertainty is one of the main reasons project management is so challenging. 8. Questions about how a team will track schedule performance is related to a project’s scope. Answer: False Rationale: Project scope deals with questions such as, “What work will be done as part of the project?”, “What unique product, service, or result does the customer or sponsor expect from the project?”, or “How will the scope be verified?” 9. In order to be realistic, a project manager should always set discrete goals instead of a range of objectives. Answer: False Rationale: Projects involve uncertainty and limited resources. Thus they rarely finish according to their original scope, time, and cost goals. Instead of discrete target goals, it is often more realistic to set a range of goals. 10. Managing the triple constraint primarily involves making trade-offs between resources and quality. Answer: False Rationale: Managing the triple constraint involves making trade-offs between scope, time, and cost goals for a project. Experienced project managers know that one must decide which aspect of the triple constraint is most important. 11. The only responsibility of a project manager is to meet the specific scope, time, and cost goals of a project. Answer: False Rationale: Project managers must strive not only to meet specific scope, time, cost, and quality goals of projects but also facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of people involved in project activities or affected by them. 12. A project’s stakeholders consist of its customers, users, and suppliers. Answer: True Rationale: Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities, and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of a project. 13. Opponents of a project do not belong to the category of stakeholders. Answer: False Rationale: Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities, and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of a project. 14. The importance of stakeholders’ needs and expectations is limited to the beginning of a project. Answer: False Rationale: Stakeholders’ needs and expectations are important in the beginning and throughout the life of a project. Successful project managers develop good relationships with project stakeholders to understand and meet their needs and expectations. 15. Project procurement management primarily involves identifying stakeholder needs while managing their engagement throughout the life of the project. Answer: False Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization. 16. The primary role of project stakeholder management is to ensure that the project will satisfy the stated needs for which it was undertaken. Answer: False Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project stakeholder management includes identifying and analyzing stakeholder needs while managing and controlling their engagement throughout the life of the product. 17. Project human resource management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with a project. Answer: True Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project human resource management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project. 18. Stakeholder analyses, work requests, and project charters are tools used in integration management. Answer: True Rationale: Project selection methods, project management methodologies, stakeholder analyses, work requests, and project charters are some of the tools used in integration management. 19. Earned value management is a tool primarily used in human resource management. Answer: False Rationale: Project budgets, net present value, return on investment, payback analysis, and earned value management are tools used in cost management. 20. Responsibility assignment matrices and project organizational charts are examples of tools used in procurement management. Answer: False Rationale: Motivation techniques, empathic listening, responsibility assignment matrices, project organizational charts, and team building exercises are tools used in human resource management. 21. Maturity models, statistical methods, and test plans are examples of tools used in quality management. Answer: True Rationale: Quality metrics, maturity models, statistical methods, and test plans are some of the tools used in quality management. 22. Project managers work with the project sponsors to define success for particular projects. Answer: True Rationale: Project managers work with the project sponsors, the project team, and other stakeholders to meet project goals. They also work with sponsors to define success for particular projects. 23. Good project managers assume that their definition of success is the same as the sponsors. Answer: False Rationale: Good project managers do not assume that their definition of success is the same as the sponsors. They take the time to understand their sponsors’ expectations and then track project performance based on important success criteria. 24. Program managers are change agents. Answer: True Rationale: Program managers are responsible for more than the delivery of project results. They are change agents responsible for the success of products and processes developed by these projects. 25. Effective program managers recognize that managing a project is much more complex than managing a program. Answer: False Rationale: Effective program managers recognize that managing a program is much more complex than managing a single project. 26. Individual projects always address strategic goals whereas portfolio management addresses tactical goals. Answer: False Rationale: Tactical goals are generally more specific and short-term than strategic goals, which emphasize long-term goals for an organization. Individual projects often address tactical goals, whereas portfolio management addresses strategic goals. 27. It is mandatory for project managers working on large information technology projects to be experts in the field of information technology. Answer: False Rationale: Project managers for large IT projects do not have to be experts in the field of IT, but they must have working knowledge of various technologies and understand how the project would enhance the business. 28. To be a successful manager, the only skills an IT project manager needs to possess is excellent technical skills. Answer: False Rationale: IT project managers must be willing to develop more than their technical skills to be productive team members and successful project managers. Everyone, no matter how technical they are, should develop business and soft skills. 29. The introduction of new software makes basic tools, such as Gantt charts and network diagrams, inexpensive and easy to create. Answer: True Rationale: As computer hardware became smaller and more affordable and software companies developed graphical, easy-to-use interfaces, project management software became less expensive and more widely used. New software makes basic tools such as Gantt charts and network diagrams inexpensive, easy to create, and available for anyone to update. 30. The enterprise project management software, which aids project and portfolio management, is a low-end tool. Answer: False Rationale: A category of project management software is high-end tools, sometimes referred to as enterprise project management software. These tools provide robust capabilities to handle very large projects and dispersed workgroups. Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is a difference between projects and operations? A. Projects are undertaken to sustain an organization’s business whereas operations are not. B. Operations are undertaken to create unique products, services, or results whereas projects are not. C. Projects are temporary endeavours whereas an organization’s operations are ongoing in nature. D. Operations have well-defined objectives whereas projects do not need to have a unique purpose. Answer: C Rationale: A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.” Operations, on the other hand, is work done in organizations to sustain the business. 2. Which of the following is true of projects? A. They have an indefinite beginning and end. B. They have a unique purpose. C. They are developed using regressive elaboration. D. They are permanent in nature. Answer: B Rationale: One of the attributes of projects is that they has have a unique purpose. Every project should have a well-defined objective. 3. The role of a _____ is to provide direction and funding for a project. A. project sponsor B. project manager C. support staff member D. project team Answer: A Rationale: Most projects have many interested parties or stakeholders, but someone must take the primary role of sponsorship. The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project. 4. Galaxy, a construction company, buys a particular brand of tiles manufactured by Tiles and Floors, an eco-friendly tile manufacturing company. However, Tiles and Floors has declared bankruptcy and closed down. At present, Galaxy is facing a crisis because there are no other manufacturers in the market that supplies eco-friendly tiles. Which of the following constraints is Galaxy currently facing? A. Resources B. Time C. Scope D. Cost Answer: A Rationale: Every project is constrained in different ways. For some projects, resources are the main concern. 5. Steve, an engineer in a construction company, is at present working on a home construction project. The home is being built for the Robinson family, the owners of the home. Steve is working with his project team and support staff to ensure the project is completed on time. In such a scenario, the project sponsor is _____. A. Steve B. the support staff C. the project team D. the Robinson family Answer: D Rationale: Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities, and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, among others. In a home construction project, the project sponsors would be the potential new homeowners. 6. Project _____ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully. A. human resource B. scope C. time D. cost Answer: B Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully. 7. Project _____ management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken. A. cost B. time C. risk D. quality Answer: D Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken. 8. Which of the following project management knowledge areas primarily involve generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information? A. Project cost management B. Project procurement management C. Project time management D. Project communications management Answer: D Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project communications management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information. 9. Project procurement management mainly involves: A. making effective use of the people involved with the project. B. buying goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization. C. generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information. D. identifying and analyzing stakeholder needs while managing and controlling their engagement. Answer: B Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization. 10. Which of the following project management knowledge areas is an overarching function that affects and is affected by the different knowledge areas? A. Project cost management B. Project stakeholder management C. Project integration management D. Project communications management Answer: C Rationale: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Project integration management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas. 11. An important tool for project scope management is _____. A. fast tracking B. crashing C. a Gantt chart D. a work breakdown structure Answer: D Rationale: Scope management uses scope statements, work breakdown structures, statements of work, requirements analyses, scope management plans, scope verification techniques, and scope change controls. 12. Which of the following tools are most likely to be used in project time management? A. Payback analysis B. Impact matrices C. Gantt charts D. Fishbone diagrams Answer: C Rationale: Time management uses Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critical path analysis, crashing, fast tracking, and schedule performance measurements. 13. Fast tracking is an example of a tool used in _____ management. A. time B. quality C. communication D. risk Answer: A Rationale: Time management tools include Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critical path analysis, crashing, fast tracking, and schedule performance measurements. 14. In which of the following areas of management is payback analysis most likely to be used? A. Human resource B. Communication C. Cost D. Quality Answer: C Rationale: Tools used in cost management include payback analysis, earned value management, project portfolio management, and cost estimates among others. 15. A _____ is a tool used in quality management. A. probability matrice B. checklist C. request for proposal D. critical path analysis Answer: B Rationale: Quality management uses include quality metrics, checklists, quality control charts, Pareto diagrams, and fishbone diagrams among others. 16. Team building exercises and motivation techniques are tools used in _____ management. A. procurement B. scope C. human resource D. cost Answer: C Rationale: Motivation techniques, empathic listening, resource histograms, and team building exercises are tools used in human resource management. 17. Which of the following tools can best help in efficient communication management? A. Kick-off meetings B. Impact matrices C. Requests for quotes D. Fast tracking Answer: A Rationale: Kick-off meetings are an important tool in project communication management. Other tools in project communication management are communications management plans, conflict management, communications media selection, and progress reports. 18. A _____ is a tool used in risk management. A. work breakdown structure B. project organizational chart C. critical path analysis D. probability matrice Answer: D Rationale: Risk management plans, risk registers, probability/impact matrices, and risk rankings are different tools used in risk management. 19. Which of the following statements is true of project management? A. It is a simple discipline with a limited scope. B. It has specific tools which work universally across all kinds of projects. C. It does not guarantee successes for all projects. D. Its framework consists solely of project management knowledge areas. Answer: C Rationale: Despite its advantages, project management is a very broad, often complex discipline. What works for one project may not work for another. Thus it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and skills in managing projects. 20. Which of the following is true of program managers? A. They report to project managers who represent the next level in the hierarchy. B. They recognize that managing a program is simpler than managing a project. C. They provide leadership and direction for project managers heading the projects within a program. D. They are responsible solely for the delivery of project results. Answer: C Rationale: A program manager provides leadership and direction for the project managers heading the projects within a program. Program managers also coordinate the efforts of project teams, functional groups, suppliers, and operations staff supporting the projects to ensure that products and processes are implemented to maximize benefits. 21. Which of the following is a difference between project management and portfolio management? A. Project management involves making wise investment decisions whereas portfolio management does not. B. Portfolio management is an easy task whereas project management is a more difficult task. C. Portfolio management asks questions like, “Are we carrying out projects efficiently?” whereas project management asks questions such as “Are we investing in the right areas?” D. Project management addresses specific, short-term goals whereas portfolio management focuses on long-term goals. Answer: D Rationale: Individual projects often address tactical goals, whereas portfolio management addresses strategic goals. Tactical goals are generally more specific and short-term than strategic goals. 22. A difference between strategic and tactical goals is that: A. strategic goals are more specific than tactical goals. B. tactical goals encompass broader dimensions than strategic goals. C. tactical goals are more important for a project than strategic goals. D. strategic goals are long-term in nature whereas tactical goals are short-term. Answer: D Rationale: Tactical goals are generally more specific and short-term than strategic goals, which emphasize long-term goals for an organization. 23. Which of the following questions reflect the strategic goals of project portfolio management? A. Are we carrying out projects well? B. Are projects on time and on budget? C. Are we investing in the right areas? D. Do stakeholders know what they should be doing? Answer: C Rationale: The strategic goals of project portfolio management raise questions such as “Are we working on the right projects?”, “Are we investing in the right areas?”, and “Do we have the right resources to be competitive?” 24. Martha works as a project manager at a bank. Due to certain changes in external factors, Martha needs to make a few alterations in the tactical goals of her project. In such a scenario, which of the following will best help Martha cope with the change? A. Negotiation B. Project environment knowledge C. Motivation D. Soft skills Answer: B Rationale: The project environment differs from organization to organization and project to project, but some skills will help in almost all project environments. These skills include understanding change and understanding how organizations work within their social, political, and physical environments. Project managers must be comfortable leading and handling change, because most projects introduce changes in organizations and involve changes within the projects themselves. 25. Joe is a project manager in an IT company and has over the years, gained substantial knowledge in his area of work. However, while managing his team, he often loses his temper. In addition, he fails to be an active listener when his team members approach him with work related challenges. In which of the following areas does Joe need to develop his skills in? A. Application area knowledge B. Project environment knowledge C. Standards and regulations D. Human relations skills Answer: D Rationale: Achieving high performance on projects requires soft skills, otherwise called human relations skills. Project managers need good soft skills to understand, navigate, and meet stakeholders’ needs and expectations. They need to be able to listen actively to what others are saying, help develop new approaches for solving problems, and then persuade others to work toward achieving project goals. 26. Which of the following best defines the role of leaders? A. They focus on short-term objectives. B. They work on achieving primarily tactical goals. C. They work solely toward day-to-day details of meeting specific tasks. D. They inspire people to reach goals. Answer: D Rationale: Generally, a leader focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives while inspiring people to reach those goals. 27. A Gantt chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a ______ format. A. calendar B. line graph C. bar graph D. pie chart Answer: A Rationale: A Gantt chart was developed by Henry Gantt for scheduling work in factories. A Gantt chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in calendar form. 28. A critical path: A. is the shortest path through a network diagram. B. represents schedule information in calendar form. C. determines the earliest completion date of a project. D. is a quality management tool to ensure a project meets the minimum quality standards. Answer: C Rationale: The critical path is the longest path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project. It shows which tasks affect the target completion date of a project, and it can change as work proceeds and more information becomes available. 29. A _______ is an organizational group responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization. A. Project Management Office B. Project Management Professional C. Project Management Center D. Portfolio Group Answer: A Rationale: In the 1990s, many companies began creating Project Management Offices to help them handle the increasing number and complexity of projects. A Project Management Office (PMO) is an organizational group responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization. 30. Which of the following provides certification as a Project Management Professional? A. PMS B. PMC C. PMI D. PMP Answer: C Rationale: PMI or the Project Management Institute provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP). A Project Management Professional (PMP) is someone who has documented sufficient project experience and education, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated knowledge of project management by passing a comprehensive examination. 31. Which of the following refers to a set of principles that guides decision making based on personal values of what is considered right and wrong? A. Ethics B. Civics C. Laws D. Politics Answer: A Rationale: Ethics is a set of principles that guides decision making based on personal values of what is considered right and wrong. Making ethical decisions is an important part of project managers’ personal and professional lives because it generates trust and respect with other people. 32. Which of the following is true of low-end tools of the project management software? A. They are designed for especially large projects with multiple users. B. Their main advantage is that they have unlimited functionality. C. They provide basic project management features. D. They are referred to as an enterprise project management software. Answer: C Rationale: In a project management software, low-end tools provide basic project management features and are often recommended for small projects and single users. 33. Which of the following types of tools is usually recommended for small projects and single users? A. Low-end B. Midrange C. High-end D. Upper range Answer: A Rationale: Low-end tools provide basic project management features and generally cost less than $200 per user They are often recommended for small projects and single users. 34. Enterprise project management software’s are also known as _____ tools of project management software. A. baseline B. midrange C. low-end D. high-end Answer: D Rationale: Project management software tools can be divided into three general categories based on functionality and price. One of these tools are high-end tools which are sometimes referred to as enterprise project management software. 35. Which of the following is a difference between low-end and midrange tools of the project management software? A. Low-end tools are designed to handle primarily multiple users whereas midrange tools are created to handle single users. B. Low-end tools provide robust capabilities to handle dispersed workgroups whereas midrange tools do not. C. Midrange tools provide basic project management features whereas low-end tools offer enterprise and portfolio management functions. D. Midrange tools are designed to handle larger projects than low-end tools. Answer: D Rationale: In a project management software, midrange tools is a step up from low-end tools. They are designed to handle larger projects, multiple users, and multiple projects. Completion 1. Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing _____ and resource data to top management in the military, computer, and construction industries. Answer: schedule 2. A(n) _____ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Answer: project 3. _____ refers to work done in organizations to sustain the business. Answer: Operations 4. _____ include people, hardware, software, or other assets. Answer: Resources 5. A project’s sponsor is also known as a(n) _____. Answer: primary customer 6. In project management, the three limitations of scope, time, and cost are referred to as the _____. Answer: triple constraint 7. The question, “What unique product does the customer expect from the project?” is an example of a(n) _____ constraint. Answer: scope 8. The question, “What is the project’s schedule?” is an example of a(n) _____ constraint. Answer: time 9. “What is the project’s budget?” This is an example of a project’s _____ constraint. Answer: cost 10. The _____ of project management includes quality, scope, time, and cost constraints. Answer: quadruple constraint 11. _____ is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.” Answer: Project management 12. Project management _____ describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. Answer: knowledge areas 13. Project _____ management includes estimating how long it will take to complete work, develop an acceptable project schedule, and ensure timely completion of a project. Answer: time 14. Project _____ management consists of preparing and managing the budget for a project. Answer: cost 15. A(n) _____ is “a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.” Answer: program 16. _____ refers to the process in which organizations group and manage projects and programs as a cluster of investments that contribute to the entire enterprise’s success. Answer: Project portfolio management 17. The _____ software integrates information from multiple projects to show the status of active, approved, and future projects across an entire organization. Answer: portfolio project management 18. Soft skills are also known as _____ skills. Answer: human relations 19. The critical path is the _____ path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project. Answer: longest 20. The _____ is an international professional society for project managers founded in 1969. Answer: Project Management Institute 21. Passing the CPA exam is a standard for accountants. Similarly, passing the PMP exam is becoming a standard for _____. Answer: project managers 22. Ethics is a set of principles that guides decision making based on _____ of what is considered right and wrong. Answer: personal values 23. _____ tools, a step up from low-end tools, are designed to handle larger projects, multiple users, and multiple projects. Answer: Midrange 24. High-end tools in project management software have enterprise and _____ functions that summarize and combine individual project information to provide an enterprise view of all projects. Answer: portfolio management 25. High-end tools are generally licensed on a(n) _____ basis. Answer: per-user Essay 1. Describe the triple constraint. What are the three components and what is the relationship between them? Answer: Every project is constrained in different ways by its scope, time, and cost goals. These limitations are sometimes referred to in project management as the triple constraint. To create a successful project, a project manager must consider scope, time, and cost and balance these three often-competing goals. He or she must consider the following: Scope: This goal involves questions such as, “What work will be done as part of the project? What unique product, service, or result does the customer or sponsor expect from the project? How will the scope be verified?” Time: This goal encompasses questions such as, “How long should it take to complete the project? What is the project’s schedule? How will the team track actual schedule performance? Who can approve changes to the schedule?” Cost: This goals deals with questions such as, “What should it cost to complete the project? What is the project’s budget? How will costs be tracked? Who can authorize changes to the budget?” Managing the triple constraint involves making trade-offs between scope, time, and cost goals for a project. Experienced project managers know that they must decide which aspect of the triple constraint is most important. If time is most important, one must change the initial scope and/or cost goals to meet the schedule. If scope goals are most important, one may need to adjust time and/or cost goals. 2. List and describe each of the ten project management knowledge areas. Answer: Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. These are as follows: (1) Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully. (2) Project time management includes estimating how long it will take to complete the work, developing an acceptable project schedule, and ensuring timely completion of the project. (3) Project cost management consists of preparing and managing the budget for the project. (4) Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken. (5) Project human resource management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project. (6) Project communications management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information. (7) Project risk management includes identifying, analyzing, and responding to risks related to the project. (8) Project procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization. (9) Project stakeholder management includes identifying and analyzing stakeholder needs while managing and controlling their engagement throughout the life of the project. (10) Project integration management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas. 3. What are some of the qualities of a good project manager? Explain. Answer: Project managers often take on the role of both leader and manager. Good project managers know that people make or break projects, so they must set a good example to lead their team to success. They are aware of the greater needs of their stakeholders and organizations, so they are visionary in guiding their current projects and in suggesting future ones. Companies that excel in project management grow project “leaders,” emphasizing development of business and communication skills. Yet good project managers must also focus on getting the job done by paying attention to the details and daily operations of each task. The best project managers have leadership and management characteristics; they are visionary yet focused on the bottom line. Above all else, good project managers focus on achieving positive results. 4. Discuss the PMP certification. What are the advantages of obtaining PMP certification? Answer: The Project Management Institute (PMI) provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP)—someone who has documented sufficient project experience and education, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated knowledge of the field of project management by passing a comprehensive examination. Organizations that support PMP certification see the value of investing in programs to improve their employees’ knowledge in project management. Many employers today require specific certifications to ensure their workers have current skills, and job seekers find that they often have an advantage when they earn and maintain marketable certifications. Passing the PMP exam is becoming a standard for project managers. Project management certification is also enabling professionals in the field to share a common base of knowledge. Sharing a common base of knowledge is important because it helps advance the theory and practice of project management. PMI also offers additional certifications, including agile techniques, scheduling, risk, and program management. 5. Discuss the PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Answer: PMI approved a new Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct that took effect in January 2007. This code applies not only to PMPs, but to all PMI members and individuals who hold a PMI certification, apply for a PMI certification, or serve PMI in a volunteer capacity. It is vital for project management practitioners to conduct their work in an ethical manner. Even if one is not affiliated with PMI, these guidelines can help one conduct their work in an ethical manner, which helps the profession earn the confidence of the public, employers, employees, and all project stakeholders. The PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct includes short chapters addressing vision and applicability, responsibility, respect, fairness, and honestly. Chapter 2: The Project Management and Information Technology Context True/False 1. Project managers should lead projects in isolation in order to truly serve the needs of the organization. Answer: False Rationale: Even though projects are temporary and intended to provide a unique product or service, you cannot run projects in isolation. If project managers lead projects in isolation, it is unlikely that they will ever truly serve the needs of the organization. 2. Using a systems approach is critical to successful project management. Answer: True Rationale: A systems approach in project management enables holistic understanding of interdependencies, optimizing performance by addressing complexities comprehensively, ensuring efficient resource allocation and strategic alignment with organizational goals. 3. Systems analysis addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and modifying a system. Answer: False Rationale: Systems management addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and modifying a system. 4. Project managers and their teams must keep in mind the effects of any project on the interests and needs of the entire system or organization instead of focusing on the immediate concerns of the project. Answer: True Rationale: Although it is easier to focus on the immediate and sometimes narrow concerns of a particular project, project managers and other staff must keep in mind the effects of any project on the interests and needs of the entire system or organization. 5. When you separate business and organizational issues from project management planning, you do a better job of ensuring project success. Answer: False Rationale: When you integrate business and organizational issues into project management planning and look at projects as a series of interrelated phases, you do a better job of ensuring project success. 6. According to the symbolic frame, the most important aspect of any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. Answer: True Rationale: The symbolic frame focuses on symbols and meanings. In this frame, the most important aspect of any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. 7. Most colleges and universities have very strong functional organizations. Answer: True Rationale: Colleges and universities typically have strong functional organizations characterized by specialized departments (e.g., academic affairs, administration, student services) that efficiently manage distinct functions, ensuring effective delivery of educational services and administrative support across diverse campus needs. 8. An organization that uses a project organizational structure earns their revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract. Answer: True Rationale: A project organizational structure is hierarchical, but instead of functional managers or vice presidents reporting to the CEO, program managers report to the CEO. Their staffs have a variety of skills needed to complete the projects within their programs. An organization that uses this structure earns its revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract. 9. Project managers in matrix organizations have staff from various functional areas working on their projects. Answer: True Rationale: Project managers in matrix organizations have staff from various functional areas working on their projects. 10. Most people believe that the underlying causes of many companies’ problems can be traced to its organizational structure. Answer: False Rationale: Organizational culture is very powerful, and many people believe the underlying causes of many companies ’ problems are not in the organizational structure or staff; they are in the culture. 11. The same organization can have different subcultures. Answer: True Rationale: It is also important to note that the same organization can have different subcultures. The IT department may have a different organizational culture than the finance department, for example. 12. Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where activities are organized around individuals. Answer: False Rationale: Project work is most successful in organizations in which work activities are organized around groups or teams, rather than individuals. An organizational culture that emphasizes group work is best for managing projects. 13. An organizational culture with strong unit integration makes the project manager’s job more difficult. Answer: False Rationale: Most project managers strive for strong unit integration to deliver a successful product, service, or result. An organizational culture with strong unit integration makes the project manager ’s job easier. 14. Internal stakeholders include groups affected by the project such as government officials or concerned citizens. Answer: False Rationale: External project stakeholders include the project ’s customers (if they are external to the organization), competitors, suppliers, and other external groups potentially involved in the project or affected by it, such as government officials or concerned citizens. 15. Project managers must take adequate time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders. Answer: True Rationale: Because the purpose of project management is to meet project requirements and satisfy stakeholders, it is critical that project managers take adequate time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders. 16. The best way to sustain a project is to withhold the required money, human resources, and visibility for the project. Answer: False Rationale: The best way to kill a project is to withhold the required money, human resources, and visibility. 17. Project managers must have cooperation from people in other parts of the organization. Answer: True Rationale: Project managers must have cooperation from people in other parts of the organization. If certain functional managers are not responding to project managers’ requests for necessary information, top management must step in to encourage the functional managers to cooperate. 18. Standards and guidelines to follow when performing project management must be devised by top management. Answer: True Rationale: The content of a project management plan and instructions for providing status information might seem like common sense to senior managers, but many new IT project managers have never created plans or created a nontechnical status report. Top management must support the development of these standards and guidelines, and encourage or even enforce their use. 19. It is much more expensive to make major changes to a project during the earlier phases. Answer: False Rationale: In early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually lowest and the level of uncertainty is highest. It is much more expensive to make major changes to a project during latter phases. 20. The last phase of the traditional project life cycle is the implementation phase. Answer: False Rationale: The last phase of the traditional project life cycle is the close-out phase. In it, all of the work is completed, and customers should accept the entire project. 21. The Adaptive Software Development (ASD) life cycle model assumes that software development follows an adaptive approach because the requirements cannot be clearly expressed early in the life cycle. Answer: True Rationale: The adaptive software development (ASD) life cycle model assumes that software development follows an adaptive approach because the requirements cannot be clearly expressed early in the life cycle. 22. An organization usually commits more money as a project continues, therefore a management review should occur after each phase to evaluate progress, potential success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals. Answer: True Rationale: Because the organization usually commits more money as a project continues, a management review should occur after each phase to evaluate progress, potential success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals. 23. The nature of hardware development projects is more diverse than software-oriented projects. Answer: False Rationale: The nature of software development projects is even more diverse than hardware-oriented projects. A software development project might include creating a simple, stand-alone Microsoft Excel or Access application, or a sophisticated, global e-commerce system that uses state-of-the-art programming languages and runs on multiple platforms. 24. The team members of a virtual team are all of the same nationality. Answer: False Rationale: A virtual team is a group of people who work together despite time and space boundaries using communication technologies. Team members might all work for the same company in the same country, or they might include employees as well as independent consultants, suppliers, or even volunteers providing their expertise from around the globe. 25. Leadership style has no impact on the success of virtual teams. Answer: False Rationale: The project manager’s leadership style affects all teams, especially virtual ones. Multiple Choice 1. Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment, and project managers need to consider projects within the greater organizational context. _____ describes this holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization. A. Linear analysis B. Systems thinking C. Reductionism D. The silo approach Answer: B Rationale: To handle complex situations effectively, project managers need to take a holistic view of a project and understand how it relates to the larger organization. Systems thinking describes this holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization. 2. _____ refers to a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of a system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs. A. Linear programming B. Independent component analysis C. Principal component analysis D. Systems analysis Answer: D Rationale: Systems analysis is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs. 3. The symbolic perspective of an organization: A. focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities to meet the goals and policies set by top management. B. views the organization as coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. C. focuses on providing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of people. D. focuses on the meanings of the culture, language, traditions, and image of the organization. Answer: D Rationale: The symbolic frame focuses on symbols and meanings. In this frame, the most important aspect of any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. 4. The _____ perspective of an organization focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities in order to meet the goals and policies set by top management. A. structural frame B. human resources frame C. political frame D. symbolic frame Answer: A Rationale: The structural frame deals with how the organization is structured (usually depicted in an organizational chart) and focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities to meet the goals and policies set by top management. This frame is very rational and focuses on coordination and control. 5. The _____ frame of an organization focuses on providing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of people. A. structural B. human resources C. political D. symbolic Answer: B Rationale: The human resources (HR) frame focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of people. It recognizes that mismatches can occur between the needs of the organization and those of individuals and groups, and works to resolve any potential problems. 6. The _____ perspective on organizations assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. A. political frame B. symbolic frame C. structural frame D. human resources frame Answer: A Rationale: The political frame addresses organizational and personal politics. Politics in organizations take the form of competition among groups or individuals for power and leadership. The political frame assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. 7. Grey’s Infotech sells customized hardware and software solutions for businesses. The salespeople for Grey’s have a strict dress code when meeting clients. They are required to wear dark business suits, in order to convey the company’s dedication to quality. The meaning conveyed to the clients’ through the salespeople’s clothing is part of the _____ frame of the organization. A. political B. symbolic C. structural D. human resources Answer: B Rationale: The symbolic frame focuses on symbols and meanings. In this frame, the most important aspect of any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. The symbolic frame also relates to the company’s culture. How do people dress? How many hours do they work? How do they run meetings? 8. In Rizzati Corp, vice presidents in departments such as engineering, manufacturing, IT, and human resources report directly to the chief executive officer and undertake their tasks independently of each other. The staffs of these departments have specialized skills in their respective disciplines. Rizatti Corp can be said to have a _____ organizational structure. A. project B. symbolic C. matrix D. functional Answer: D Rationale: A functional organizational structure is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart. Functional managers or vice presidents in specialties such as engineering, manufacturing, IT, and human resources report to the chief executive officer (CEO). 9. In a _____ organizational structure, program managers, rather than functional managers or vice presidents, report to the CEO. Their staffs have a variety of skills needed to complete all required tasks within their programs. A. project B. symbolic C. matrix D. functional Answer: A Rationale: A project organizational structure also is hierarchical, but instead of functional managers or vice presidents reporting to the CEO, program managers report to the CEO. 10. In a _____ organizational structure, personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers. A. project B. symbolic C. matrix D. functional Answer: C Rationale: A matrix organizational structure represents the middle ground between functional and project structures. Personnel often report both to a functional manager and one or more project managers. 11. Project managers have the most authority in a pure _____ organizational structure. A. functional B. project C. matrix D. circular Answer: B Rationale: Project managers have the most authority in a pure project organizational structure and the least amount of authority in a pure functional organizational structure. 12. Project managers have the least amount of authority in a pure _____ organizational structure. A. functional B. project C. matrix D. circular Answer: A Rationale: Project managers have the most authority in a pure project organizational structure and the least amount of authority in a pure functional organizational structure. 13. Which of the following is true of a matrix organizational structure? A. In a matrix organizational structure, employees are organized into departments according to their skills, and there is little interaction between employees from different departments. B. Project managers in matrix organizations have staff from only a single functional area working on their projects. C. In a strong matrix organizational structure, the project manager controls the project budget and has moderate to high authority. D. A matrix organizational structure is hierarchical, but instead of functional managers reporting to the CEO, program managers report to the CEO. Answer: C Rationale: In a strong matrix organizational structure, the project manager controls the project budget and has moderate to high authority. 14. _____ refers to a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization. A. Chain of command B. Line of control C. Organizational culture D. Organizational structure Answer: C Rationale: Organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization. It often includes elements of the four frames. 15. The _____ characteristic of organizational culture describes the degree to which management’s decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization. A. member identity B. group emphasis C. people focus D. unit integration Answer: C Rationale: The people focus characteristic of organizational culture describes the degree to which management’s decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization. Good project managers often balance the needs of individuals and the organization. 16. _____ refers to the degree to employees identify with the organization as a whole, rather than with their types of job or profession. A. Member identity B. People focus C. Group emphasis D. Unit integration Answer: A Rationale: Member identity refers to the degree to employees identify with the organization as a whole, rather than with their types of job or profession. 17. _____ refers to the degree to which departments within an organization are encouraged to coordinate with each other. A. Member identity B. People focus C. Group emphasis D. Unit integration Answer: D Rationale: Unit integration refers to the degree to which units or departments within an organization are encouraged to coordinate with each other. 18. In organizational culture, people focus refers to _____. A. the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment B. the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee and control employee behavior C. the degree to which management ’s decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on employees within the organization D. the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking Answer: C Rationale: People focus refers to the degree to which management’s decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization. 19. In organizational culture, means-end orientation refers to _____. A. the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment B. the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee and control employee behavior C. the degree to which management focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve results D. the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking Answer: C Rationale: Means-ends orientation refers to the degree to which management focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve results. 20. _____ refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment. A. Means-ends orientation B. Open-systems focus C. Conflict tolerance D. Risk tolerance Answer: B Rationale: Open-systems focus refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment 21. In organizational culture, control refers to _____. A. the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment B. the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee employee behavior C. the degree to which management focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve results D. the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking Answer: B Rationale: Control refers to the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee and control employee behavior. 22. _____ are an example of external stakeholders for an organization. A. Top managers B. Functional managers C. Employees D. Competitors Answer: D Rationale: External project stakeholders include the project ’s customers (if they are external to the organization), competitors, suppliers, and other external groups potentially involved in the project or affected by it, such as government officials or concerned citizens. 23. A(n) _____ refers to a product or service, such as a technical report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project. A. deliverable B. input C. system D. resource Answer: A Rationale: A deliverable is a product or service, such as a technical report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project. 24. Which of the following is true of the project life cycle? A. In the early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually lowest. B. In the later phases of the project life cycle, the level of uncertainty is usually the highest. C. It is much more expensive to make major changes to a project during the earlier phases than the latter phases. D. More resources are usually needed during the initial phases of a project than during the middle or final phases. Answer: A Rationale: In the early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually lowest and the level of uncertainty is highest. 25. The first two traditional project phases (concept and development) focus on planning, and are often referred to as _____. A. project feasibility B. project acquisition C. project implementation D. project close-out Answer: A Rationale: The first two traditional project phases (concept and development) focus on planning, and are often referred to as project feasibility. 26. A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the _____ phase of the project life cycle, and an overview of the work involved is created. A. implementation B. acquisition C. concept D. close-out Answer: C Rationale: In the concept phase of a project, managers usually develop some type of business case, which describes the need for the project and basic underlying concepts. A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in this first phase, and an overview of the required work is created. 27. In the development phase of the project life cycle: A. the project team creates more detailed project plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS. B. the project team delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders. C. managers develop a business case, which describes the need for the project and basic underlying concepts. D. managers prepare a preliminary or rough cost estimate for the required work. Answer: A Rationale: In the development phase, the project team creates more detailed project management plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS. 28. In the _____ phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders. A. development B. implementation C. concept D. close-out Answer: B Rationale: The third phase of the traditional project life cycle is implementation. In this phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders. 29. The _____ model of a systems development life cycle assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined. A. spiral life cycle B. waterfall life cycle C. incremental build life cycle D. RAD life cycle Answer: B Rationale: The waterfall life cycle model has well-defined, linear stages of systems analysis, design, construction, testing, and support. This life cycle model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined. 30. The _____ model of a systems development life cycle provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities. A. spiral life cycle B. RAD life cycle C. waterfall life cycle D. incremental build life cycle Answer: D Rationale: The incremental build life cycle model provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities. 31. In the _____ model, developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously. A. RAD life cycle B. prototyping life cycle C. spiral life cycle D. incremental build life cycle Answer: B Rationale: The prototyping life cycle model is used for developing software prototypes to clarify user requirements for operational software. It requires heavy user involvement, and developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously. This approach is often used in systems that involve a great deal of user interface design, such as website projects. 32. The _____ model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype, using tools such as computer-aided software engineering, joint requirements planning, and joint application design to facilitate rapid prototyping and code generation. A. incremental build life cycle B. waterfall life cycle C. RAD life cycle D. spiral life cycle Answer: C Rationale: The RAD life cycle model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype. This life cycle model also requires heavy user involvement and helps produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality. 33. Which of the following best describes a kill point in the project life cycle? A. The period of time given to managers during the feasibility phases to decide on the cost, quality, and time constraints for the project B. A review of the status of a project at each phase of development to determine if it should be continued, redirected, or terminated C. The point of time in the project lifecycle after which it is impossible to terminate a running project D. The final submission of the project deliverables after which the project is terminated Answer: B Rationale: A management review should occur after each phase to evaluate progress, potential success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals. These management reviews, called phase exits or kill points, are very important for keeping projects on track and determining if they should be continued, redirected, or terminated. 34. Which of the following is a disadvantage of virtual teams as compared to traditional teams? A. Increased costs for office space and support B. Reduced opportunities for informal transfer of information C. Limited flexibility in team working hours D. Reduced dependence on technology and processes for accomplishing work Answer: B Rationale: Virtual teams reduce the ability of team members to network and transfer information informally. 35. Which of the following best describes outsourcing? A. An organization selling its products in a market outside its domestic market B. An organization’s acquisition of goods and services from an outside source C. An organization setting up manufacturing and retailing facilities in a new country D. An organization’s use of virtual teams with employees located in different countries Answer: B Rationale: Outsourcing is an organization’s acquisition of goods and services from an outside source. The term offshoring is sometimes used to describe outsourcing from another country. 36. Which of the following is true of virtual teams? A. It is easier for a virtual team to build relationships and trust. B. Negative incentives do not impact virtual team members. C. It is important to select team members carefully. D. As they never meet, virtual teams do not have conflicts. Answer: C Rationale: It is important to select team members carefully and to form a team in which all roles are covered. All virtual team members must also understand their roles on the team. 37. Which of the following is true of the agile approach to software development? A. In the agile method, requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration. B. An agile approach sets scope goals, but leaves time and cost goals flexible. C. Agile is a predictive model of software development. D. In the agile approach, requirements must be clearly expressed early in the life cycle. Answer: A Rationale: Agile means using a method based on iterative and incremental development, in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration. Completion 1. A(n) _____ is an overall model for thinking about things as sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose. Answer: systems philosophy 2. _____ are sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose. Answer: Systems 3. _____ addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making a change to a system. Answer: Systems management 4. The three spheres of systems management are business, organization, and _____. Answer: technology 5. The _____ frame of the organization is the one that is usually depicted in an organizational chart. Answer: structural 6. The _____ frame of an organization relates to the company’s culture. Answer: symbolic 7. Three general classifications of organizational structures are _____, project, and matrix. Answer: functional 8. In a(n) _____ organizational structure, project managers have little or no authority. Answer: functional 9. _____ refers to the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee employee behavior. Answer: Control 10. _____ refers to the degree to which work activities are organized around teams, rather than individuals. Answer: Group emphasis 11. Some projects have a senior manager called a(n)_____ who acts as a key proponent for a project. Answer: champion 12. A major element of good practice concerns _____ , which addresses the authority and control for key IT activities in organizations, including IT infrastructure, IT use, and project management. Answer: IT governance 13. A(n) _____ refers to a product or service, such as a report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project. Answer: deliverable 14. In the _____ phase of the project life cycle, the work is completed, and customers should accept the entire project. Answer: close-out 15. A(n) _____ is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing information systems. Answer: SDLC systems development life cycle systems development life cycle (SDLC) 16. _____ life cycle models of systems development assume that the scope of the project can be articulated clearly and the schedule and cost can be predicted accurately. Answer: Predictive 17. The term _____ describes new approaches that focus on close collaboration between programming teams and business experts. Answer: agile software development 18. _____ is an organization’s acquisition of goods and services from an outside source. Answer: Outsourcing Essay 1. Describe the concept of a systems approach. Answer: The term systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a holistic and analytical approach to solving complex problems that includes using a systems philosophy, systems analysis, and systems management. A systems philosophy is an overall model for thinking about things as systems. Systems are sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose. For example, the human body is a system composed of many subsystems—the nervous system, the skeletal system, the circulatory system, the digestive system, and so on. Systems analysis is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs. Once this is completed, the systems analyst then examines alternative solutions for improving the current situation, identifies an optimum, or at least satisfactory, solution or action plan, and examines that plan against the entire system. Systems management addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and modifying a system. 2. What are the four frames of organizations? Describe each frame. Answer: The structural frame deals with how the organization is structured (usually depicted in an organizational chart) and focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities in order to meet the goals and policies set by top management. This frame is very rational and focuses on coordination and control. For example, within the structural frame, a key information technology issue is whether a company should centralize the information technology personnel in one department or decentralize across several departments. The human resources frame focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people. It recognizes that there are often mismatches between the needs of the organization and the needs of individuals and groups and works to resolve any potential problems. For example, many projects might be more efficient for the organization if personnel worked 80 or more hours a week for several months. This work schedule would probably conflict with the personal lives of those people. Important issues in information technology related to the human resources frame are the shortage of skilled information technology workers within the organization and unrealistic schedules imposed on many projects. The political frame addresses organizational and personal politics. Politics in organizations take the form of competition among groups or individuals for power and leadership. The political frame assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Often, important decisions need to be made based on the allocation of scarce resources. Competition for scarce resources makes conflict a central issue in organizations, and power improves the ability to obtain scarce resources. Project managers must pay attention to politics and power if they are to be effective. It is important to know who opposes your projects as well as who supports them. Important issues in information technology related to the political frame are the power shifts from central functions to operating units or from functional managers to project managers. The symbolic frame focuses on symbols and meanings. What is most important about any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. Was it a good sign that the CEO came to a kick off meeting for a project, or was it a threat? The symbolic frame also relates to the company’s culture. How do people dress? How many hours do they work? How do they run meetings? Many information technology projects are international and include stakeholders from various cultures. Understanding those cultures is also a crucial part of the symbolic frame. 3. Describe each of the three major types of organizational structure. Answer: A functional organizational structure is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart. Functional managers or vice presidents in specialties such as engineering, manufacturing, information technology (IT), and human resources (HR) report to the chief executive officer (CEO). Their staffs have specialized skills in their respective disciplines. For example, most colleges and universities have very strong functional organizations. Only faculty in the Business department teach business courses; faculty in the History department teach history; faculty in the Art department teach art, and so on. A project organizational structure also has a hierarchical structure, but instead of functional managers or vice presidents reporting to the CEO, program managers report to the CEO. Their staffs have a variety of skills needed to complete the projects within their programs. An organization that uses this structure earns their revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract. For example, many defense, architectural, engineering, and consulting companies use a project organizational structure. These companies often hire people specifically to work on particular projects. A matrix organizational structure represents the middle ground between functional and project structures. Personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers. For example, information technology personnel at many companies often split their time between two or more projects, but they report to their manager in the Information Technology department. Project managers in matrix organizations have staff from various functional areas working on their projects. Matrix organizational structures can be strong, weak, or balanced, based on the amount of control exerted by the project managers. 4. Why is top management commitment crucial for project managers? Answer: Project managers need adequate resources. The best way to kill a project is to withhold the required money, human resources, and visibility for the project. If project managers have top management commitment, they will also have adequate resources and not be distracted by events that do not affect their specific projects. Project managers often require approval for unique project needs in a timely manner. For example, on large information technology projects, top management must understand that unexpected problems may result from the nature of the products being produced and the specific skills of the people on the project team. For example, the team might need additional hardware and software halfway through the project for proper testing, or the project manager might need to offer special pay and benefits to attract and retain key project personnel. With top management commitment, project managers can meet these specific needs in a timely manner. Project managers must have cooperation from people in other parts of the organization. Since most information technology projects cut across functional areas, top management must help project managers deal with the political issues that often arise in these types of situations. If certain functional managers are not responding to project managers’ requests for necessary information, top management must step in to encourage functional managers to cooperate. Project managers often need someone to mentor and coach them on leadership issues. Many information technology project managers come from technical positions and are inexperienced as managers. Senior managers should take the time to pass on advice on how to be good leaders. They should encourage new project managers to take classes to develop leadership skills and allocate the time and funds for them to do so. 5. What is a systems development life cycle? What are some of the predictive models associated with the systems development life cycle? Answer: A systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing information systems. Some popular models of a systems development life cycle include the waterfall model, the spiral model, the incremental build model, the prototyping model, and the Rapid Application Development (RAD) model. These life cycle models are examples of a predictive life cycle, meaning that the scope of the project can be clearly articulated and the schedule and cost can be accurately predicted. The project team spends a large portion of the project effort attempting to clarify the requirements of the entire system and then producing a design. Users are often unable to see any tangible results in terms of working software for an extended period. Below are brief descriptions of several predictive SDLC models: The waterfall life cycle model has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and support. This life cycle model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined. The spiral life cycle model was developed based on experience with various refinements of the waterfall model as applied to large government software projects. It recognizes the fact that most software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approach. The incremental build life cycle model provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities. The prototyping life cycle model is used for developing software prototypes to clarify user requirements for operational software. It requires heavy user involvement, and developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously. Developers can throw away or keep prototypes, depending on the project. The Rapid Application Development (RAD) life cycle model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype. This life cycle model also requires heavy user involvement and helps produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality. Developers use RAD tools such as CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering), JRP (Joint Requirements Planning), and JAD (Joint Application Design) to facilitate rapid prototyping and code generation. Test Bank for Information Technology Project Management Kathy Schwalbe 9781133526858, 9781133627227, 9780324786927, 9781337101356, 9780324665215

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