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1. Sampling is often used when it is not possible to collect information from all persons you
want to study and when it is not necessary to collect information from all persons.
Answer: True
2. The summary description of a given variable in the sample is called a sample statistic.
Answer: True
3. A sample element is that unit about which information is collected and that provides the
basis of analysis.
Answer: True
4. A good way to avoid sampling bias in the assessment of public opinion about a specific
criminal justice topic is to employ the use of a radio call-in show.
Answer: False
5. A list of all elements in a population is referred to as the sampling frame.
Answer: True
6. Random selection permits the researcher to link findings from a sample to the body of
probability theory in order to estimate the accuracy of those findings.
Answer: True
7. Stratified sampling results in a greater degree of representativeness, but at the same time,
increases the probable sampling error.
Answer: False
8. Cluster sampling is a very efficient tool, but the efficiency means a less accurate sample
because with each cluster, there is a chance for sampling error.
Answer: True

9. When no reasonable sampling frame exists and a probability sample cannot be drawn, at
least estimates about the sample accuracy are available through nonprobability samples.
Answer: False
10. The standard error is the measure of sampling error.
Answer: True
1. A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample will be representative of the
population from which it is drawn if ____.
a. all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected for the sample
b. the researcher uses a method of selection based upon convenience
c. every nth person is selected for the sample
d. none of these answers are correct
Answer: A
2. The purpose of sampling is to select a set of elements from a population so that the
descriptions of the sample statistics accurately portray the parameters of the population. This
is best achieved through the use of ____.
a. a convenience sample
b. random selection
c. the sampling element
d. sampling error
Answer: B
3. Which of the following is not a reason for using random selection methods in selecting
a. Random selection is a check on conscious or unconscious bias.
b. Random selection gives access to probability theory.
c. Random selection allows for estimates of error.

d. Random selection allows the researcher to selects cases on an intuitive basis
Answer: D
4. Which of the following is true concerning sampling error?
a. If many independent random samples are drawn from a population, then the sample
statistics from those samples are distributed in a predictable way around the population
b. Probability theory does not allow us to use a formula to estimate how closely the sample
statistics are clustered.
c. The standard error cannot identify how spread out of clustered the sample statistics are
around the population parameter.
d. None of these answers are correct.
Answer: A
5. Which statement is true concerning the relationship between standard error and sample
a. There is a positive relationship.
b. There is an inverse relationship.
c. As sample size decreases, the standard error decreases.
d. As sample size increases, the standard error increases.
Answer: B
6. Confidence levels allow the researcher to have some idea of how closely their samples
reflect the parameter. Which statement about confidence levels is true?
a. If a simple random sample is used, probability theory suggests that researchers can be 95
percent sure the estimates of that sample fall within one standard error of the parameter.
b. If a simple random sample is used, probability theory suggests that researchers can be 68
percent sure that estimates of that sample fall within two standard errors of the parameter.

c. If a simple random sample is used, probability theory suggests that researchers can almost
be positive (99+ percent) that estimates of that sample fall within three standard errors of the
true value.
d. If a simple random sample is used, probability theory suggests that researchers can be
positive that sample mean is equivalent to population mean.
Answer: C
7. Which of the following is not appropriate for use as a sampling frame?
a. telephone directories when you wish to sample attitudes toward a new law
b. lists of licensed drivers when you wish to ask juveniles their opinions about drinking
c. taxpayer rolls when the researcher is interested in public concerns about school
appropriations in their community
d. American Medical Association membership lists to survey doctors about their attitudes
concerning HMOs
Answer: B
8. Systematic sample is?
a. Systematic sampling is a poor example of simple random sampling.
b. Systematic sampling is often used as a substitute for stratified sampling.
c. Systematic sampling is frequently used rather than a simple random sample.
d. Systematic sampling is a non-probability sampling.
Answer: C
9. A researcher who uses a stratified sampling technique ____.
a. does not select elements from homogeneous subsets of a population
b. recognizes the extent that subsets that are homogeneous on stratified variables will
generally result in homogeneity on other variables as well
c. cannot estimate that a stratified sample is likely to be more representative on a number of
variables than a simple random sample

d. does not use probability sampling method
Answer: B
10. When researching a population where it is impossible or impractical to compile a list of
the elements, which sampling technique is appropriate to use?
a. stratified sample
b. systematic sample
c. cluster sample
d. simple random sample
Answer: C
11. Which of the following illustrates a population in which cluster sampling would be the
best choice?
a. law enforcement officers in the United States
b. Uniform Crime Reports
c. convicted violent criminals
d. news paper reports
Answer: A
12. Which of the following is an example of a multistage cluster sample?
a. the Self Report Survey
b. the National Crime Victimization Survey
c. Uniform Crime Reports
d. court records
Answer: B
13. When considering probability sampling in general, it is usually the preferred method for
selecting study elements because probability sampling _____.
a. sanctions intuition on the part of the researcher

b. permits the researcher to estimate the sampling error
c. allows unconscious biases in the selection process
d. allows selection of the best subjects
Answer: B
14. In order to study active criminals who have not been arrested for their criminal acts, the
researcher would be wise to employ which type of sampling technique?
a. purposive sampling
b. snowball sampling
c. convenience sampling
d. stratified random sampling
Answer: B
15. The quasi-list of elements from which participants will be selected is called the ____.
a. parameter
b. sampling frame
c. population
d. sample
Answer: C
16. Dr. Jason wanted to find out what the citizens of Savannah think about a proposed law
that would require sex offenders to be treated in the community in lieu of prison confinement,
and he decided to randomly call people listed in the phone book. What is his sampling frame?
a. the citizens of Savannah
b. the proposed law
c. telephone listings
d. sex offenders in prison
Answer: C

17. Your criminal justice class requires a study of the success of your state’s drug courts. The
professor suggests that you first select 10 counties from your state. From those 10 counties,
you will select the two largest cities from each. Finally, the drug courts in each of the cities
will be monitored to measure success. What type of sampling design did your professor
a. stratified sampling
b. multistage cluster sampling
c. multistage cluster sampling with stratification
d. judgmental sampling
Answer: B
18. Quota samples, judgmental samples, snowball samples, and convenience samples are all
examples of ____.
a. nonprobability sampling
b. probability sampling
c. sampling distributions
d. sampling frames
Answer: A
19. Multistage cluster sampling with stratification, systematic sampling, simple random
sampling and disproportionate stratified sampling are examples of _____.
a. nonprobability sampling
b. probability sampling
c. sampling distributions
d. sampling frames
Answer: B
20. The unit about which information is gathered and forms the basis for analysis is known as
a ____.

a. sampling element
b. unit of observation
c. sampling frame
d. sample
Answer: A
21. The size of the sample and the standard error are related in which way?
a. The standard error is not related to the size of the sample.
b. When the sample size increases so does the standard error.
c. When the sample size increases the standard error decreases.
d. The standard error moves in the same direction as the sample size.
Answer: C
22. When a researcher uses a multistage cluster sampling technique, they must repeat several
sets, including listing and ____.
a. stratifying
b. counting
c. sampling
d. randomizing
Answer: C
23. A Residence Assistant (RA) at a local university devises a plan to spot check the dorm for
illegal drinking by randomly selecting a starting door for the first check, and then knocking
on every fifth door. What technique is the RA using?
a. stratified sampling
b. simple random sampling
c. quota sampling
d. systematic sampling

Answer: D
24. A researcher using stratified sampling wants to reduce the ____.
a. sampling error
b. standard error
c. number of dependent variables
d. time it takes to draw a sample
Answer: A
25. National Crime Victimization Survey and the British Crime Survey both use ____ to
gather data.
a. simple random samples
b. stratified sampling
c. multistage cluster sampling
d. quota sampling
Answer: C
26. Under what conditions would it be appropriate to use a snowball sampling technique?
a. when the characteristic of interest to the study is a deviant one and only a small number of
people who know one another are required
b. when your questionnaire can be administered in a narrow geographic area
c. when all you need to do is interview persons from a population where the sampling frame
is known
d. when the researcher absolutely must have a sample that is representative of the population
from which it is drawn
Answer: A
27. Following the model of London, England, Center City, USA decides to install closed
circuit television (CCTV) cameras in a downtown park in hopes of reducing the public’s fear

of crime. Which technique would be the best choice to determine if fear has in fact
a. Send out a questionnaire to all citizens living in Center City, USA.
b. Select, via simple random sampling, 20 citizens to interview.
c. Interview, via convenience sampling, citizens that are in the park.
d. None of these answers are correct.
Answer: C
28. If the variable that you are interested in studying is so rare that it is unlikely to be
discovered using random sampling, what is the best alternative?
a. accidental sampling
b. quota sampling
c. stratified sampling
d. purposive sampling
Answer: D
29. Which statement is accurate?
a. The reason that researchers use probability samples is because they guarantee
representativeness of the sample.
b. In general, the more heterogeneous a population, the smaller the sample needed for
c. A simple random sample is appropriate when a researcher wants to over-represent a
characteristic in the population
d. A sample is representative of the population from which it is drawn if the aggregate
characteristics of the sample approximate those of the general population.
Answer: D
1. The use of _______________ sampling helps researchers generalize to a larger population.

Answer: probability
2. When a sample closely reflects the population in terms of aggregate characteristics, the
sample is said to be _______________ of the population.
Answer: representative
3. The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is
called the _______________.
Answer: sampling element
4. The _______________ is the range of sample statistics we would obtain if we selected
many samples.
Answer: sampling distribution
5. When researchers can list each element of a population, that list is known as the
Answer: sampling frame
6. In probability theory, the _______________ indicates how closely the sample estimates
will be distributed around the population parameter.
Answer: standard error
7. The correspondence between a target population and sampling frames affects the
_______________ of the samples.
Answer: representativeness
8. Estimates of population parameters, standard error, and confidence intervals assume
unbiased sampling. The foundation of unbiased sampling is the _______________.
Answer: simple random sample
9. To ensure that variables that occur rarely in a population will be represented in a sample,
the researcher would want to employ a(n) _______________ sampling technique.
Answer: disproportionate
10. The primary goal of _______________ is homogeneity.
Answer: stratification

Test Bank for Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology
Michael G. Maxfield, Earl R. Babbie
9781305261105, 9781111346911

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