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Ethics and Criminal Justice Research
1. Individuals must be allowed to make their own decisions about participation in research.
Answer: True
2. Participation as a research subject must always be voluntary.
Answer: False
3. Ethical considerations in research are typically quite evident.
Answer: False
4. Confidentiality and anonymity mean the same thing, and can be used interchangeably.
Answer: False
5. Non-governmental organizations that conduct research involving human subjects need not
establish review committees known as institutional review boards.
Answer: False
6. As a rule, possible harm to subjects may be justified when the potential benefits of the
study outweigh the possible harm.
Answer: True
7. The research goal of voluntary participation may be impossible to follow.
Answer: True
8. Deception of subjects is never appropriate.
Answer: False
9. Harm to research subjects may be justified if the potential benefits of the study outweigh
the harm.
Answer: True
10. The benefits and burdens of participating in research should be distributed fairly.

Answer: True
1. With respect to harm in the conduct of research, ____.
a. only risk of psychological harm is acceptable
b. risk of physical harm is acceptable only when participants are paid enough money to
compensate them
c. research with more than minimal risk is no longer permitted
d. criminal justice research may generate special considerations regarding physical harm
Answer: D
2. Which example illustrates a research study in which there was potential harm to the
a. Bruce Johnson and associates’ research on violence
b. John Monahan’s study of heroin users in New York, where participants were gathered by
word of mouth among addicts
c. Reuter, MacCoun, and Murphy’s study using probation records to identify drug dealers
d. Reuter and associates study of drug addicts
Answer: C
3. Which technique works well when interviewing subjects about topics that may be
emotionally or psychologically challenging?
a. having the researcher ask questions from behind a curtain
b. asking the subject to respond to questions on a laptop computer
c. putting the researcher in a disguise so that the subject does not know their identity
d. putting the subject in a disguise so that they cannot be identified
Answer: B
4. When assessing the potential for harm, the researcher should _____.

a. proceed only when they are confident that no harm will result
b. proceed only when the harm potential is psychological and not physical
c. never proceed when harm is more than minimally possible
d. proceed when the potential benefit outweighs the potential harm
Answer: D
5. The researcher can lessen the potential for harm when doing research by ____.
a. putting themselves in the line of danger to avoid harm to the participant
b. never telling the subject about the potential of harm
c. using field studies as the main source of research
d. considering which study design to use based on its potential for harm
Answer: D
6. When conducting field or survey interviews, ____.
a. names and addresses should remain on data-collection forms until the research has been
b. each interviewer should have a copy of the master identification file linking numbers to
c. only anonymous data collection is considered permissible
d. only legitimate researchers should have access to the master file
Answer: D
7. When reporting research findings in professional journals, ____.
a. negative findings should be omitted
b. technical failures and mistakes should be reported
c. unexpected findings should not be reported.
d. limitations in the research need not be discussed
Answer: B

8. Which example would create an ethical dilemma when doing applied research that is
evaluative in nature?
a. In an attempt to measure the success of a prison pre-release program, the researchers
measure re-arrests and re-convictions and determine the programs to be failures.
b. Program staff of a pre-trial diversion program visit the homes of those awaiting trial on a
nightly basis to make sure that they adhere to a curfew.
c. Upon review of a juvenile probation department, researchers found that contact sheets,
which are designed to keep track of both phone and personal interactions between the officer
and the juvenile, in one probation officer’s files were all dated June 15th.
d. To measure the success of an adult drug treatment facility, researchers offered both the
clients and the treatment staff confidentiality.
Answer: C
9. Which of the following is a purpose of institutional review boards?
a. to evaluate safeguards to protect the welfare of human subjects
b. to make sure that the data analysis is appropriate and is correctly performed
c. to determine whether tenure recommendations should be made based on research
d. to make sure that researchers have enough money for travel
Answer: A
10. One of the most important issues addressed by institutional review boards relates to
a. voluntariness of participation
b. the adequacy of the experimental design
c. whether funding was received from an appropriate source
d. the qualifications of the researcher
Answer: A
11. The norm of voluntary participation is usually satisfied by ____.

a. compensation for participants
b. debriefing
c. informed consent
d. ensuring confidentiality
Answer: C
12. Informed consent ____.
a. allows subjects to weigh the risks and benefits of participating
b. is not required when results are kept confidential
c. must disclose the true purpose of the research
d. is rarely used in criminal justice research
Answer: A
13. According to federal regulations, which of the following populations is classified as a
“special” population?
a. public employees
b. juvenile delinquents
c. undergraduate students
d. new parents
Answer: B
14. In the U.S., federally designated special populations ____.
a. are exempt from informed consent
b. cannot be exposed to a greater amount of risk than other populations
c. must be compensated for research participation
d. cannot be used in research unless it will directly benefit them
Answer: B
15. Which type of research is likely to be exempt from review under federal guidelines?

a. research involving the analysis of existing data
b. research involving only moderate risk
c. research in which confidentiality will be protected
d. research involving competent adults
Answer: A
16. Institutional review boards ____.
a. provide expert advice on how to resolve ethical dilemmas present in some research
b. are only necessary when research involves special populations
c. can be helpful when a researcher is struggling to publish his or her work
d. often assist researchers in applications for funding
Answer: A
17. Haney, Banks, and Zimbardo designed a simulated prison to measure ____.
a. the dispositional hypothesis
b. the innate predisposition to violence
c. the situational hypothesis
d. how violent inmates can be subdued
Answer: C
18. Attempts to guard against harm to the participants in the simulated prison were
accomplished by ____.
a. making certain that all participants were psychologically healthy
b. having “guards” and “inmates” trade roles every 24 hours
c. administering tranquilizers in food and beverages
d. telling the participants in advance about all the potential harm
Answer: A
19. In the Stanford prison study, ____.

a. subjects accepted their roles very readily
b. debriefing sessions were held at the conclusion of the project
c. participants were allowed to leave the simulation periodically
d. inmates were paid more than were guards
Answer: A
20. Ethical issues raised with the Sanford prison study include ________.
a. promising to pay participants but not doing so
b. allowing physical abuse of research subjects
c. failure to obtain informed consent
d. allowing guards to make up and modify rules
Answer: C
21. A local university is hosting the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) for a large group
of prospective law students. Since there is such a large group taking the test, some professors
of sociology from the local university decide to administer a questionnaire to the group
asking their ideas on teenage sexual promiscuity. The professors informed the group about
their research project. They assured them that their identity will not be disclosed and all
information gathered will remain confidential. Which ethical issue was not considered?
a. explaining the purpose
b. voluntary participation
c. anonymity
d. confidentiality
Answer: B
22. In the U.S., adult prisoners _____.
a. have, historically, been physically harmed by research participation
b. must be paid the prison system’s typical inmate wage for participation
c. cannot participate in research that asks about their criminal history

d. can get extra “good time” in exchange for participating
Answer: A
23. A group of researchers from an urban university want to employ some target hardening
techniques in their area. Which outcome might they expect?
a. an immediate increase in crime in their area
b. a decrease in crime in surrounding areas
c. an increase in crime in surrounding areas
d. crime rates that remain unchanged
Answer: C
24. Which statement best describes the purpose of an institutional review board?
a. to give guidance on reducing potential harm to subjects
b. to determine if the proposed research is worthy of study
c. to turn violators of ethical principles over to the police
d. to make it difficult for any social science research to be completed
Answer: A
25. Which action is central to voluntary participation?
a. paying subjects for participating
b. ensuring that there is some clear personal benefit for participants
c. emphasizing benefits while withholding information on risks
d. disclosing research purpose with informed consent
Answer: D
26. When it is not possible to match research data to the identities of participants, _____ has
been achieved.
a. confidentiality
b. the absence of deception

c. anonymity
d. assurance of voluntary participation
Answer: C
27. If a researcher uses only those subjects who volunteer for a study, then which outcome
may be expected?
a. Non-volunteers will feel left out.
b. The results may not be generalizable.
c. No one would be interested in the outcome.
d. Subjects may not like the results.
Answer: B
28. Researchers may face legal liability when _____.
a. they make honest mistakes in data analysis
b. they become participants in the criminal activity they are observing
c. they do not include everyone who wants to participate
d. never, since researchers are protected from legal liability
Answer: B
29. A promise of anonymity is unlikely to be possible when ____.
a. department of corrections summary data are used
b. personal interviews are conducted
c. questionnaires do not request identifying information
d. research involves observation in open, public settings
Answer: B
30. The dictionary definition of the word “ethical” is “conforming to standards of conduct of
a. a given profession or group

b. the dominant religious group
c. society as a whole
d. the relevant legal codes
Answer: A
1. Harm to subjects, researchers, or third parties is possible in ____________________
studies that collect information from or about persons engaged in criminal activity;
Answer: Falseield
2. When a professor uses students in her class as research participants, there is a potential for
ethical problems in that their participation may not be __________________.
Answer: voluntary
3. If a researcher cannot match a given response to a specific research subject, the research
can promise __________________.
Answer: anonymity
4. If a researcher is able to link information with a given person’s identity but promises not to
do so publicly, the researcher is promising ____________________.
Answer: confidentiality
5. Research involving observations of subjects involved in criminal activities may expose the
researcher to ____________________ liability.
Answer: legal
6. The two main ways of promoting compliance with ethical principles are _______________
and _______________.
Answer: codes of ethics, institutional review boards
7. Because of some controversial medical and social science research, the U.S. Department of
____________________ has established regulations designed to protect human subjects.
Answer: Health and Human Services

8. The norm of voluntary participation is usually satisfied through
Answer: informed consent
9. Haney, Banks, and Zimbardo’s prison simulation examined whether the prison
environment itself creates brutal, dehumanizing conditions unrelated to the kinds of people
who live and work in the institutions. The explanation is referred to as a(n)
____________________ hypothesis.
Answer: situational
10. In order to make sure that there was no long-term damage done to the participants of a
simulated prison, the researchers held ____________________ sessions with “prisoners” and
“guards” after the termination of the project.
Answer: debriefing

Test Bank for Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology
Michael G. Maxfield, Earl R. Babbie
9781305261105, 9781111346911

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