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CHAPTER 1 TEST BANK
Criminal Justice and Scientific Inquiry
TRUE/FALSE
1. We live in a world of two realities; agreement and experiential.
Answer: True
2. Casual human inquiry is typically more rigorous are probabilistic methods.
Answer: False
3. Personal human inquiry is prone to errors such as overgeneralization, inaccurate
observation, replication, and selective observation.
Answer: False
4. Making observations in a more selective way helps to reduce error.
Answer: False
5. Selective observation is a danger of overgeneralization.
Answer: True
6. Each of us is born into and inherits a culture made up, in part, of firmly accepted
knowledge about the workings of the world.
Answer: True
7. The idea that exceptions can be used to prove rules is valid.
Answer: False
8. We should accept research findings with caution even if they come from experts, because
results may be mistaken or misinterpreted.
Answer: True
9. The four purposes of research are exploration, description, explanation, and application.
Answer: True
10. As you review the research literature, you should make note of how other researchers
approach problems of interest, and consider whether the same designs will meet your
research objective.
Answer: True
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Most criminal justice professionals routinely review ____ to get the most up-to-date and
accurate information.
a. computer readouts and news reports
b. archived and updated spreadsheets
c. performance reports and statistical tabulations
d. popular media sources
Answer: C
2. One objective of this book is to help future criminal justice professionals become _____.
a. informed consumers of research
b. informed consumers of books
c. experts in the department of justice
d. expert readers
Answer: A
3. We live in a world of two realities: _____.
a. expressed and assumed
b. experiential and agreement
c. expressed and agreement
d. experiential and assumed
Answer: B
4. Things we know from direct experience are a direct result of ____ reality.

a. agreement
b. expressed
c. assumed
d. experiential
Answer: D
5. Things we consider real because we’ve been told they are real reflect ____ reality.
a. agreement
b. expressed
c. assumed
d. experiential
Answer: A
6. Traditional beliefs about patrol effectiveness, response time, and detective work are
examples of ____ reality.
a. known
b. agreement
c. experiential
d. assumed
Answer: B
7. What type of research involves measurement and interpretation?
a. epistemological
b. logical
c. empirical
d. conceptual
Answer: C
8. By accepting what everybody knows, we rely on ____.
a. tradition
b. myth
c. reality
d. logic
Answer: A
9. When we trust the judgments of people who have special training, such as a doctor or a
lawyer, we relying on _____ as a way of knowing.
a. wisdom
b. expertise
c. authority
d. power
Answer: C
10. If you make sure that what you are looking at is what you intended to look at, you can
avoid _____.
a. overgeneralization
b. inaccurate observation
c. illogical reasoning
d. miscalculations
Answer: B
11. If you have concluded that a particular pattern exists and have developed a general
understanding of why, you may be tempted to ignore facts that don’t fit. This illustrates
_____.
a. inaccurate observation
b. overgeneralization
c. illogical reasoning
d. selective observation
Answer: D
12. The idea that “the exception that proves the rule” is an example of _____.
a. inaccurate observation
b. overgeneralization
c. illogical reasoning
d. selective observation
Answer: C
13. Scientific inquiry is a(n) _____ activity.
a. conscious
b. private
c. casual
d. informal
Answer: A
14. In science, an assertion must have be the product of ____ reasoning
a. independent
b. question and answer
c. logical
d. developmental
Answer: C
15. A(n) _____ can be thought of as a complex set of relationships among several concepts.
a. analysis
b. theory
c. operationalization

d. generalization
Answer: B
16. Patterns of cause and effect are _____ in nature.
a. probabilistic
b. absolute
c. experiential
d. nihilistic
Answer: A
17. The keystone of inquiry is _____.
a. sampling
b. induction
c. literature review
d. observation
Answer: D
18. Which of the following is included in the “CRAAP Test?”
a. convenience
b. reliability
c. accuracy
d. acceptability
Answer: C
19. Empirical research involves measurement and _____.
a. variables
b. interpretation
c. description

d. objectives
Answer: B
20. Science avoids inaccuracy by making _____ a careful and deliberate activity.
a. reason
b. description
c. fallacy
d. observation
Answer: D
21. What are the four purposes of research?
a. exploration, description, explanation, application
b. exploration, description, funding, application
c. exploration, development, inquisition, funding
d. exploration, development, inquisition, application
Answer: A
22. You observe police activity in your city for one week, and then you summarize what you
observed. What type of study have you performed?
a. explorative
b. descriptive
c. explanative
d. applicative
Answer: B
23. When we attempt to answer questions about why something happens, the purpose of our
research is _____.
a. exploration
b. description
c. explanation
d. application
Answer: C
24. The two major types of applied research are _____.
a. program evaluation and policy analysis
b. program development and causal analysis
c. psychosocial evaluations and policy creation
d. goal setting and policy implementation
Answer: A
25. Your college has implemented a new policy on campus regarding underage drinking. You
want to find out if it has been effective. The purpose of your research is _____.
a. exploration
b. description
c. explanation
d. evaluation
Answer: D
26. Identifying why some people believe that police are doing a good job while other people
believe they are nor is an example of _____.
a. explanatory research
b. idiographic explanation
c. singular explanation
d. application research
Answer: A
27. Determining whether a program designed to reduce burglary actually had the intended
effect is an example of _____.
a. explanation
b. evaluation
c. application
d. deduction
Answer: B
28. Justice organizations are increasingly using techniques of _____ to study patterns of cases
and devise appropriate responses.
a. problem analysis
b. systematic interpretation
c. literature review
d. inductive reasoning
Answer: A
29. A(n) _____ is the most appropriate method for studying both general concern and fear for
personal safety
a. survey
b. observational study
c. experiment
d. randomized trial
Answer: A
30. The final stage of the research process is _____.
a. interpretation
b. literature review
c. analysis
d. application
Answer: D
COMPLETION
1. When we want to try to predict our own personal futures, we use casual and
_______________ reasoning.
Answer: probabilistic
2. Traditional beliefs about patrol effectiveness, response time and detective work are
examples of _________________ reality.
Answer: agreement
3. _____________ means repeating a study, in order to determine whether similar results are
obtained each time.
Answer: Replication
4. If you believe that the exception proves the rule, you are engaging in _____________
reasoning.
Answer: illogical
5. A(n) _____________ is a complex set of relationships among several concepts.
Answer: Theory
6. ___________ is the final stage of the research process.
Answer: Application
7. Manipulation of data for the purpose of drawing conclusions is known as _____________.
Answer: analysis
8. In our daily lives, we base reality of experience and __________.
Answer: agreement
9. __________ leads to misrepresentation and simplification of problems.
Answer: Overgeneralization
10. According to the _____________, a consistent run of good or bad luck is presumed to
foreshadow its opposite.
Answer: gambler’s fallacy

Test Bank for Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology
Michael G. Maxfield, Earl R. Babbie
9781305261105, 9781111346911

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