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Chapter 6
Data Communication and the Cloud
True/False Questions
1) A computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another over
transmission lines or wirelessly.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement accurately defines a computer network as a system where multiple computers
are interconnected to share resources and exchange information using transmission lines or
wireless connections.
2) A computer network between Seattle and Philadelphia is made possible through a LAN.
Answer: False
Rationale:
LANs (Local Area Networks) typically connect devices within a limited geographical area,
such as a single building or campus. For communication between distant locations like
Seattle and Philadelphia, a WAN (Wide Area Network) would be used, not a LAN.
3) A university would use a WAN to connect its campuses in two cities.
Answer: True
Rationale:
WANs (Wide Area Networks) are designed to connect devices over long distances, such as
between different cities or even countries. Connecting campuses in two cities would require a
WAN infrastructure to facilitate communication between them.
4) With a WAN, an organization is allowed to place communications lines wherever it wants,
because all lines reside on its premises.
Answer: False
Rationale:

In a WAN (Wide Area Network), communication lines often span across long distances,
sometimes even across different regions or countries. While organizations can control the
network equipment and configurations within their premises, they typically do not have
control over the entire WAN infrastructure, including the physical placement of
communication lines.
5) An internet is a network of networks that connects LANs, WANs, and other internets.
Answer: True
Rationale:
An internet (with a lowercase "i") is a global network infrastructure that connects multiple
smaller networks, including LANs (Local Area Networks), WANs (Wide Area Networks),
and other internets, forming a vast interconnected network of networks.
6) An intranet is a private internet that is used exclusively within an organization.
Answer: True
Rationale:
An intranet is a private network based on internet technologies, accessible only to authorized
users within an organization. It is used for internal communications, collaboration, and
sharing of resources, providing a secure and controlled environment for organizational
activities.
7) A switch is a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits wired traffic on a LAN.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A switch is a network device used to connect devices within a LAN (Local Area Network). It
operates at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model and forwards data packets between
devices based on MAC addresses, enabling efficient communication within the network.
8) An NIC is a device that connects a computer's or printer's circuitry to network wires.
Answer: True
Rationale:

An NIC (Network Interface Card) is a hardware component installed in computers, printers,
or other devices to enable them to connect to a network. It provides the physical interface
between the device's circuitry and the network wires, allowing for communication over the
network.
9) UTP cable contains sets of wires that are twisted together to improve signal quality.
Answer: True
Rationale:
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable is a common type of networking cable consisting of
pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together. The twisting helps to reduce electromagnetic
interference and crosstalk, improving the signal quality and reducing data transmission errors.
10) For two devices to communicate, they must use the same protocol.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In network communication, a protocol defines a set of rules and conventions for exchanging
data between devices. For effective communication to occur, both devices must use the same
protocol or adhere to compatible protocols to understand each other's communication format
and procedures.
11) The World Wide Web sponsors committees that create and publish protocols and other
standards.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While the World Wide Web (WWW) is a global system of interconnected web pages accessed
via the internet, it does not directly sponsor committees for creating and publishing protocols
and standards. Standards organizations like the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and
the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) are responsible for developing and publishing
internet protocols and standards.
12) Wired LAN connections use a protocol standard called Ethernet to communicate.
Answer: True

Rationale:
Ethernet is a widely used protocol standard for wired LAN (Local Area Network)
connections. It defines rules and procedures for data transmission over wired connections,
specifying how devices communicate, access the network, and handle data packets.
13) Wired LAN connections use the IEEE 802.3 protocol, while wireless LAN connections
use the IEEE 802.11 protocol.
Answer: True
Rationale:
IEEE 802.3 is the standard protocol for wired LAN connections, commonly known as
Ethernet. IEEE 802.11 is the standard protocol for wireless LAN connections, often referred
to as Wi-Fi. These protocols define the rules for communication and data transmission in
their respective types of networks.
14) NICs which support 10/100/1000 Ethernet allow for transmission at a rate of 10, 100, or
1,000 Mbps.
Answer: True
Rationale:
NICs (Network Interface Cards) that support 10/100/1000 Ethernet are capable of operating
at transmission speeds of 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 1,000 Mbps (1 Gbps), depending on the
network environment and the capabilities of the network equipment.
15) The abbreviations k, M, and G have the same meaning for computer memory as they
have for communication speeds.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In the context of communication speeds, the abbreviations k, M, and G typically represent
kilobits per second (kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), and gigabits per second (Gbps),
respectively. However, in the context of computer memory, k usually represents kilobytes, M
represents megabytes, and G represents gigabytes.

16) Communication speeds are expressed in bytes, whereas memory sizes are expressed in
bits.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Communication speeds are typically expressed in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second
(kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per second (Gbps). Memory sizes, on the
other hand, are expressed in bytes (B), kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), etc.
17) Bluetooth is a wireless protocol designed for transmitting data over long distances.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Bluetooth is a wireless communication protocol designed for short-range communication
between devices, typically within a range of about 10 meters (30 feet). It is commonly used
for connecting devices like smartphones, headphones, and peripherals.
18) When you connect to the Internet, you are actually connecting to an ISP.
Answer: True
Rationale:
When individuals or organizations connect to the Internet, they typically do so through an
Internet Service Provider (ISP), which provides access to the internet infrastructure and
assigns them an IP address. ISPs offer various types of internet connectivity, such as dial-up,
DSL, cable, fiber optic, etc.
19) An ISP provides the customer with a legitimate Internet address.
Answer: True
Rationale:
An ISP (Internet Service Provider) assigns customers a legitimate Internet Protocol (IP)
address, allowing them to connect to the internet and communicate with other devices and
servers on the network. This IP address is necessary for routing data packets between the
customer's device and other destinations on the internet.

20) As DSL signals interfere with telephone signals, DSL data transmission and telephone
conversations cannot occur simultaneously.
Answer: False
Rationale:
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology allows data transmission over existing telephone
lines without interfering with telephone conversations. DSL separates voice and data signals
using frequency division multiplexing (FDM), allowing both data transmission and telephone
conversations to occur simultaneously over the same line.
21) DSL modems use their own protocols for data transmission.
Answer: True
Rationale:
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) modems use protocols specific to DSL technology for
transmitting data over telephone lines. These protocols govern how data is encoded,
transmitted, and decoded between the DSL modem and the DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line
Access Multiplexer) at the service provider's end.
22) Cable modems modulate in such a way that their signals interfere with TV signals.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Cable modems use a modulation technique that allows data transmission over cable television
infrastructure without interfering with TV signals. Cable modem signals are transmitted over
separate frequency bands from TV signals, ensuring that they do not cause interference with
television reception.
23) Broadband lines typically have transmission speeds less than 56 Kbps.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Broadband lines typically offer transmission speeds significantly higher than 56 Kbps.
Broadband technologies like DSL, cable, fiber optic, and wireless can provide speeds ranging

from several Mbps (Megabits per second) to several Gbps (Gigabits per second), offering
much faster internet connectivity compared to traditional dial-up connections.
24) TCP/IP Protocol architecture is a scheme of four protocol types arranged in layers.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) architecture is a suite of
protocols used for communication over the internet. It consists of a stack of protocols
organized into four layers: the Link Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer, and Application
Layer. These layers facilitate communication between devices connected to the internet.
25) HTTPS is the secure version of HTTP.
Answer: True
Rationale:
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is indeed the secure version of HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol). It adds a layer of encryption using SSL/TLS (Secure Sockets
Layer/Transport Layer Security) to HTTP, ensuring secure communication between web
browsers and servers, particularly for sensitive data transmission like login credentials and
financial information.
26) SMTP is the protocol used between browsers and Web servers.
Answer: False
Rationale:
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is not used between web browsers and web servers.
Instead, SMTP is the protocol used for sending and receiving email messages between mail
servers. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the protocol typically used between web
browsers and web servers for accessing web pages and other resources.
27) FTP is the protocol used between browsers and Web servers.
Answer: False
Rationale:

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is not typically used between web browsers and web servers for
accessing web pages. FTP is primarily used for transferring files between a client and a server
over a network. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the standard protocol used for
accessing web pages and resources on web servers via web browsers.
28) Unlike HTTP, FTP does not have a secure version.
Answer: False
Rationale:
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) does have a secure version known as FTPS (FTP Secure) or
FTP-SSL, which adds a layer of encryption to FTP for secure file transfer. Similarly, SFTP
(SSH File Transfer Protocol) is another secure file transfer protocol often used instead of
FTP. Therefore, FTP does have secure alternatives.
29) The primary protocol of the Internet is called IP.
Answer: True
Rationale:
IP (Internet Protocol) is indeed the primary protocol of the Internet. It is responsible for
addressing, routing, and delivering data packets across networks, enabling communication
between devices connected to the Internet. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) works in
conjunction with IP to provide reliable data delivery.
30) A packet is a piece of a message that is handled by programs that implement IP.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In networking, a packet is indeed a unit of data that is transmitted over a network. It contains
both the data being transmitted and control information, such as source and destination
addresses, sequence numbers, and error detection codes. Programs that implement IP handle
the routing and delivery of packets across networks.
31) TCP provides internet routing and IP provides reliable internet transport.
Answer: False
Rationale:

This statement is incorrect. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is responsible for providing
reliable data transmission between devices on a network, ensuring that data packets are
delivered in the correct order and without errors. IP (Internet Protocol), on the other hand, is
responsible for routing packets across networks, providing the addressing and routing
mechanism necessary for data delivery. Therefore, TCP provides reliable transport, while IP
handles routing.
32) ICANN controls the assignment of all IP addresses, both public and private.
Answer: False
Rationale:
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) does not control the
assignment of private IP addresses. Private IP addresses are typically assigned by network
administrators within private networks, following standards defined by organizations such as
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA). ICANN primarily oversees the assignment of public IP addresses and domain
names.
33) If you had a private IP address for your computer, every time you moved it, the Internet
would have to update its addressing mechanisms to route traffic to your new location.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Private IP addresses are used within private networks and are not visible to the public
internet. They are typically assigned dynamically or statically by network administrators and
do not change based on the physical location of devices. Therefore, the internet does not need
to update its addressing mechanisms when devices with private IP addresses are moved
within a private network.
34) A domain name is a worldwide-unique name that is affiliated with a public IP address.
Answer: True
Rationale:

A domain name is indeed a unique, human-readable name that is associated with a specific IP
address or set of IP addresses on the internet. It serves as a more memorable and user-friendly
way to access websites and other internet resources compared to using IP addresses directly.
35) The owner of a domain name is capable of changing the affiliated IP addresses at its
discretion.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Domain name owners typically have control over the DNS (Domain Name System) records
associated with their domain names. This allows them to modify the DNS records, including
the IP addresses (A records) or other types of records (such as CNAME records), to point to
different servers or IP addresses as needed. Therefore, domain name owners can change the
affiliated IP addresses at their discretion.
36) A URL usually consists of a protocol followed by a domain name or public IP address.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a web address that typically consists of a protocol
(such as HTTP or HTTPS), followed by a domain name (or public IP address) that identifies
the location of a resource on the internet. Optionally, a URL may also include additional path
and query parameters to specify the exact resource within the domain.
37) To ensure security, VPN client software decrypts the original message so that its contents
are protected from snooping.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is incorrect. VPN (Virtual Private Network) client software encrypts the
original message (along with the entire communication session) to ensure its confidentiality
and integrity while in transit over the internet. Decryption of the original message occurs at
the VPN server endpoint, allowing the intended recipient to access the message's contents
securely.

38) In three-tier architecture, the user tier consists of computers that run Web servers and
process application programs.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In three-tier architecture, the user tier (also known as the presentation tier) consists of client
devices such as computers, smartphones, or tablets that interact directly with users. The
middle tier (also known as the application tier or business logic tier) typically consists of
application servers that handle business logic and application processing. The data tier (also
known as the database tier) consists of databases or data storage systems that store and
manage the application's data. Therefore, the user tier does not run web servers; instead, it
interacts with web servers hosted in the middle tier.
39) Web servers run on a server-tier computer and manage HTTP traffic by sending and
receiving Web pages to and from clients.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Web servers are software applications that run on server-tier computers and are responsible
for managing HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) traffic by handling requests from clients
(such as web browsers) and sending back web pages or other resources in response. They
process incoming requests, retrieve the requested resources, and deliver them to clients over
the internet.
40) HTML is the most common language for defining the structure and layout of Web pages.
Answer: True
Rationale:
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is indeed the most common language used for defining
the structure and layout of web pages on the World Wide Web. HTML provides a
standardized way to create web documents by using markup tags to describe the structure,
content, and appearance of web pages, including text, images, links, and multimedia
elements.
41) Web pages include hyperlinks, which are pointers to other Web pages.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Hyperlinks are indeed an essential feature of web pages. They are clickable elements (usually
text or images) that allow users to navigate between different web pages or resources on the
internet. Hyperlinks contain URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) that specify the destination
of the link, pointing to other web pages, documents, or resources.
42) The term "cloud" is used to refer to the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over
the Internet.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The term "cloud" in computing refers to the delivery of computing services, including
servers, storage, databases, networking, software, and more, over the internet ("the cloud").
Cloud computing allows users to access and use shared resources on-demand, paying only for
the resources they consume, without needing to own or maintain physical infrastructure. This
model is often described as the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the internet.
43) One of the advantages of cloud-based hosting is the in-depth visibility of security and
disaster preparedness.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. While cloud-based hosting offers various advantages, such as
scalability and flexibility, the in-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness may not
always be straightforward or readily accessible to cloud customers. Cloud service providers
typically manage and maintain the underlying infrastructure and security measures, but
customers may not have full visibility into these aspects. Additionally, security and disaster
preparedness visibility may vary depending on the specific cloud provider and the service
level agreement (SLA) in place.
44) An organization that provides software as a service provides only operating systems and
application programs.
Answer: False

Rationale:
This statement is false. Software as a Service (SaaS) providers offer much more than just
operating systems and application programs. SaaS delivers software applications over the
internet on a subscription basis, allowing users to access and use the software via web
browsers or APIs without needing to install or maintain the software locally. SaaS offerings
can include a wide range of software applications, such as customer relationship management
(CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), collaboration tools, productivity software, and
more.
45) The most basic cloud offering is platform as a service (PaaS), which is the cloud hosting
of a bare server computer or disk drive.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a cloud computing service model that
provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the
complexity of building and maintaining the underlying infrastructure. PaaS offerings
typically include development tools, middleware, database management systems, and other
components necessary for application development and deployment. PaaS abstracts away the
underlying infrastructure, including server computers and disk drives, providing a higherlevel platform for developers.
46) Salesforce.com is an example of a cloud vendor who provides software as a service.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Salesforce.com is a well-known example of a cloud vendor that
provides Software as a Service (SaaS). Salesforce offers a suite of cloud-based CRM
(Customer Relationship Management) software solutions that enable businesses to manage
customer interactions, track sales, automate marketing activities, and more. Customers access
Salesforce's CRM software through web browsers or mobile apps, paying a subscription fee
for the service rather than purchasing and maintaining the software on-premises.
47) Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3 are both examples of platform as a service.

Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) and Amazon S3 (Simple
Storage Service) are both examples of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), not Platform as a
Service (PaaS). Amazon EC2 provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud, allowing
customers to launch virtual servers (instances) and scale computing resources based on
demand. Amazon S3 offers scalable object storage for storing and retrieving data, such as
files, documents, images, and videos. PaaS offerings, on the other hand, provide higher-level
platforms for application development and deployment, abstracting away the underlying
infrastructure.
48) Remote access systems save time and travel expense and make the skills and abilities of
an expert available in places where he or she is not physically located.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Remote access systems, such as virtual private networks (VPNs) and
remote desktop applications, enable users to access computing resources and data from
remote locations over a network connection, typically the internet. By providing remote
access, organizations can save time and travel expenses associated with physical presence
requirements. Additionally, remote access systems allow experts to provide support,
troubleshoot issues, and collaborate with colleagues or clients from anywhere, making their
skills and abilities available even when they are not physically present.
49) Teleaction reduces the need for local support staff.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Teleaction, which involves the use of telecommunications
technologies to perform actions or tasks remotely, may not necessarily reduce the need for
local support staff. While teleaction can enable certain tasks to be performed remotely, such
as customer support or technical assistance, it may also create new demands for local support
staff to handle on-site issues, maintain physical infrastructure, and provide hands-on
assistance that cannot be accomplished remotely. Therefore, the impact of teleaction on the

need for local support staff may vary depending on the specific context and requirements of
the organization.
50) Teleaction increases the value of robotics.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Teleaction, by enabling remote operation and control of robotic
systems through telecommunications technologies, can indeed increase the value of robotics
in various fields. Teleoperated robots, controlled by human operators from remote locations,
can perform tasks in environments that are hazardous, inaccessible, or impractical for humans
to enter physically. Examples include teleoperated robots used in space exploration, disaster
response, healthcare, manufacturing, and more. Teleaction enhances the capabilities of
robotic systems by extending their reach, flexibility, and applicability across diverse domains.
Multiple Choice Questions
1) A computer ________ is a collection of computers that communicate with one another
over transmission lines or wirelessly.
A) database
B) application
C) network
D) server
Answer: C
Rationale:
A network is indeed a collection of computers that are interconnected, allowing them to
communicate and share resources, such as files, printers, and internet access. Networks can
be established using various transmission mediums, including wired transmission lines (e.g.,
Ethernet cables) or wireless connections (e.g., Wi-Fi).
2) Which of the following is the distinguishing feature of a LAN as compared to a WAN?
A) single location

B) number of users
C) bandwidth
D) hardware requirements
Answer: A
Rationale:
The distinguishing feature of a LAN (Local Area Network) compared to a WAN (Wide Area
Network) is that a LAN typically covers a single location, such as a building, campus, or
office space. In contrast, a WAN can span multiple geographic locations, connecting LANs
across large distances.
3) Computers that reside in different geographic locations are connected using a(n)
________.
A) WAN
B) LAN
C) URL
D) IP address
Answer: A
Rationale:
When computers located in different geographic locations are connected, they typically
utilize a Wide Area Network (WAN) to facilitate communication. WANs enable data
transmission over long distances, connecting LANs and individual devices across different
regions or even countries.
4) A private internet that is used exclusively within an organization is called a(n) ________.
A) Ethernet
B) intranet
C) cloud
D) server

Answer: B
Rationale:
An intranet is indeed a private internet that is confined within an organization's network
infrastructure. It is used exclusively by the organization's employees or members and is not
accessible to the general public or external users.
5) A ________ is a set of rules that programs on two communicating devices follow.
A) codec
B) URL
C) packet
D) protocol
Answer: D
Rationale:
A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communication between two or more devices in a
network. Protocols define the format, timing, sequencing, and error handling procedures for
data exchange, ensuring that devices can effectively communicate and understand each
other's transmissions.
6) To enable the seamless flow of data across the networks that comprise an internet, an
elaborate scheme called a ________ is used.
A) layered protocol
B) virtual private network
C) three-tier system
D) remote access system
Answer: A
Rationale:
A layered protocol, such as the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
suite, is indeed used to facilitate the seamless flow of data across the networks that comprise
the internet. Layered protocols organize communication into distinct layers, each responsible

for specific functions, such as data encapsulation, routing, and error correction, ensuring
efficient and reliable data transmission.
7) A ________ is a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits wired traffic on the
LAN.
A) codec
B) modem
C) switch
D) port
Answer: C
Rationale:
A switch is indeed a special-purpose networking device used in LANs to receive, process,
and forward data packets between devices within the network. Unlike hubs, which broadcast
data to all connected devices, switches intelligently forward data only to the intended
recipient device, enhancing network efficiency and performance.
8) Which of the following is the device that connects a computer's or printer's circuitry to
network wires?
A) port
B) switch
C) router
D) NIC
Answer: D
Rationale:
A NIC (Network Interface Card) is indeed the device that connects a computer's or printer's
circuitry to network wires or cables, enabling the device to communicate with other devices
on the network. NICs are commonly integrated into devices or installed as expansion cards,
providing the necessary hardware interface for network connectivity.
9) Most LAN connections are made using ________.

A) Sc/TP cable
B) UTP cable
C) STP cable
D) F/TP cable
Answer: B
Rationale:
Most LAN connections are indeed made using UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable. UTP
cable is a common and cost-effective medium for transmitting data signals within LAN
environments. It consists of pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together to reduce
electromagnetic interference and improve signal quality.
10) For a printer or laptop to connect to a wireless LAN, it must have a ________.
A) hyperlink
B) UTP cable
C) WNIC
D) DSL
Answer: C
Rationale:
For a printer or laptop to connect to a wireless LAN (Local Area Network), it must have a
WNIC (Wireless Network Interface Card) or Wi-Fi adapter. A WNIC enables the device to
communicate wirelessly with the LAN, allowing it to send and receive data over Wi-Fi
frequencies without the need for physical cables or connections.
11) Which of the following is a component of a LAN device that processes wireless traffic
and communicates with the wired switch?
A) access point
B) packet
C) server

D) router
Answer: A
Rationale:
An access point is indeed a component of a LAN device that processes wireless traffic and
communicates with the wired switch. Access points serve as wireless communication hubs
within a LAN, enabling wireless devices to connect to the network and communicate with
other devices, such as servers and routers, via wired connections.
12) The IEEE 802.3 protocol standard is also known as ________.
A) Bluetooth
B) Ethernet
C) Intranet
D) Internet
Answer: B
Rationale:
The IEEE 802.3 protocol standard is indeed known as Ethernet. Ethernet is a widely used
protocol standard for wired LAN connections, defining the rules for data transmission over
Ethernet networks. It specifies various aspects of network communication, including data
framing, addressing, and error detection.
13) Which of the following statements is true about IEEE 802.3?
A) It is the protocol for wireless LAN connections.
B) It is the protocol for Bluetooth.
C) It is the protocol for wired LAN connections.
D) It is the universal standard protocol for WNICs.
Answer: C
Rationale:

The statement "It is the protocol for wired LAN connections" is true about IEEE 802.3. IEEE
802.3, also known as Ethernet, defines the protocol standard for wired LAN connections,
specifying the rules and procedures for data transmission over Ethernet networks using wired
transmission media, such as Ethernet cables.
14) Communications speeds are expressed in ________.
A) bits
B) bytes
C) hertz
D) packets
Answer: A
Rationale:
Communication speeds are indeed expressed in bits. The speed of data transmission in
networks is typically measured in bits per second (bps) or its multiples, such as kilobits per
second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per second (Gbps).
15) Which of the following statements is true about the IEEE 802.11 protocol?
A) It is also known as Ethernet.
B) It is used for wired LAN connections.
C) It cannot be processed by access points.
D) It allows speeds of up to 600 Mbps.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The statement "It allows speeds of up to 600 Mbps" is true about the IEEE 802.11 protocol.
IEEE 802.11, commonly known as Wi-Fi, is a wireless protocol used for wireless LAN
connections. Depending on the specific standard (e.g., 802.11n, 802.11ac), IEEE 802.11 can
support data transmission speeds of up to several hundred Mbps or even higher.
16) ________ is a wireless protocol designed for transmitting data over short distances,
replacing cables.

A) IPv6
B) PaaS
C) Bluetooth
D) Silverlight
Answer: C
Rationale:
Bluetooth is indeed a wireless protocol designed for transmitting data over short distances,
typically within a range of a few meters to tens of meters. It enables wireless communication
between devices, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, printers, and audio devices, without
the need for physical cables, making it suitable for scenarios where cable connections are
impractical or inconvenient.
17) Which of the following is a function of an ISP?
A) It transmits data over short distances, replacing cables.
B) It serves as a gateway to the Internet.
C) It describes how messages must be processed for wired transmission.
D) It connects computers within a LAN.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The function "It serves as a gateway to the Internet" is indeed a role of an ISP (Internet
Service Provider). ISPs provide users and organizations with access to the Internet by
connecting them to the global network infrastructure. ISPs offer various services, including
internet connectivity, email hosting, web hosting, domain registration, and technical support.
18) Which of the following transmission lines is used for Local Area Networks?
A) DSL Telephone
B) Cable TV Lines
C) UTP

D) Wireless connection
Answer: C
Rationale:
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) is indeed the transmission line commonly used for Local
Area Networks (LANs). UTP cables consist of pairs of insulated copper wires twisted
together, providing a cost-effective and reliable means of transmitting data signals within
LAN environments.
19) Which of the following is true of DSL modems?
A) DSL modem signals do not interfere with telephone signals.
B) DSL modems use the same protocols as cable modems for data transmission.
C) DSL modem signals replace phone signals and are sent to the ISP.
D) DSL data transmission and telephone conversations cannot occur simultaneously.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The statement "DSL modem signals do not interfere with telephone signals" is true of DSL
(Digital Subscriber Line) modems. DSL technology allows for simultaneous transmission of
data signals and telephone conversations over the same telephone line, without interference
between the two. DSL modems utilize different frequency bands for data and voice signals,
ensuring compatibility and coexistence.
20) ________ modems modulate in such a way that they do not interfere with TV signals,
even though they use the same lines.
A) DSL
B) Dial-up
C) Cable
D) ADSL
Answer: C
Rationale:

Cable modems indeed modulate signals in such a way that they do not interfere with TV
signals, despite using the same cable TV lines for data transmission. Cable modems utilize
different frequency bands for internet data and television signals, allowing both services to
coexist without disruption or degradation in performance.
21) Which of the following is true about cable modems?
A) They provide high-speed data transmission using telephone cables.
B) They offer consistent performance, irrespective of the number of users sending and
receiving data.
C) They rely on high-capacity optical fiber cables and use their own protocols for data
transmission.
D) They provide faster download speeds than DSL modems.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Cable modems utilize high-capacity optical fiber cables for data transmission rather than
telephone cables. Additionally, they employ their own protocols for data transmission,
distinguishing them from DSL modems.
22) ________ typically have transmission speeds less than 56 Kbps.
A) Narrowband lines
B) Digital subscriber lines
C) Cable modems
D) WAN wireless connections
Answer: A
Rationale:
Narrowband lines typically refer to traditional dial-up connections, which have transmission
speeds less than 56 Kbps.
23) The protocols used on the Internet are arranged according to a structure known as the
________ protocol architecture.

A) FTP
B) VOIP
C) ICANN
D) TCP/IP
Answer: D
Rationale:
The TCP/IP protocol architecture organizes the protocols used on the Internet, providing a
structured framework for communication.
24) The top layer of TCP/IP Protocol architecture is related to ________.
A) internets
B) transport
C) applications
D) data links
Answer: C
Rationale:
The top layer of the TCP/IP Protocol architecture is the application layer, which deals with
network applications and end-user processes.
25) Which of the following protocols is concerned with the application layer of TCP/IP
Protocol architecture?
A) HTTP
B) IEEE 802.3
C) IEEE 802.11
D) IP
Answer: A
Rationale:

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) operates at the application layer of the TCP/IP Protocol
architecture, facilitating communication between web browsers and servers.
26) Which of the following protocols guarantees secure data transmission?
A) HTTP
B) FTP
C) HTTPS
D) SMTP
Answer: C
Rationale:
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) ensures secure data transmission over a
network, typically using encryption protocols like SSL/TLS.
27) Which of the following TCP/IP application-layer protocols is used for email
transmission?
A) FTP
B) HTTPS
C) SMTP
D) IP
Answer: C
Rationale:
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is specifically designed for email transmission,
operating at the application layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
28) Which of the following TCP/IP application-layer protocols is used to move files over the
Internet and to maintain Web sites?
A) FTP
B) IP
C) HTTPS

D) HTTP
Answer: A
Rationale:
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) facilitates the transfer of files over a network and is commonly
used for maintaining websites and transferring files.
29) The primary protocol of the Internet layer of the TCP/IP protocol architecture is called
________.
A) IP
B) SMTP
C) HTTP
D) TCP
Answer: A
Rationale:
IP (Internet Protocol) is the primary protocol of the Internet layer, responsible for addressing
and routing packets across networks.
30) A(n) ________ is a piece of a message that is handled by programs that implement IP.
A) email
B) packet
C) tag
D) attribute
Answer: B
Rationale:
In networking, a packet is a unit of data that is transmitted between devices over a network. It
contains both the data being transmitted and control information for routing and delivery.
31) A(n) ________ is a special-purpose computer that moves packet traffic according to the
rules of the IP protocol.

A) router
B) modem
C) narrowband
D) access point
Answer: A
Rationale:
A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks. It operates based
on the rules defined by the IP protocol to determine the best path for forwarding packets to
their destination.
32) A(n) ________ is a number that identifies a particular device.
A) domain
B) IP address
C) hyperlink
D) href
Answer: B
Rationale:
An IP address is a unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer
network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It serves as an identifier for that
device on the network.
33) The organization responsible for assigning public IP addresses is called ________.
A) CERN
B) IEEE
C) ICANN
D) ISO
Answer: C

Rationale:
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is responsible for
coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces
and numerical spaces of the Internet, including the allocation of IP addresses.
34) Which of the following is the most common format for IP addresses?
A) IPv4
B) TCP
C) IPv6
D) HTTP
Answer: A
Rationale:
IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) is the most common format for IP addresses. It uses a 32bit address scheme allowing for a total of 2^32 addresses.
35) A ________ is a worldwide-unique name that is affiliated with a public IP address.
A) URL
B) domain name
C) tag
D) trademark
Answer: B
Rationale:
A domain name is a human-readable label that corresponds to a unique IP address. It serves
as a user-friendly way to access websites and other resources on the Internet.
36) When you visit the Web page of the luxury brand Bang & Olufsen, the address bar in
your browser reads "http://www.bang-olufsen.com/", which is the ________ of the Web page.
A) URL
B) IP address

C) protocol
D) email ID
Answer: A
Rationale:
In a URL (Uniform Resource Locator), "http://www.bang-olufsen.com/" represents the
address of the web page. It specifies the protocol (HTTP), the domain name (www.bangolufsen.com), and possibly additional path information.
37) A(n) ________ uses the Internet to create the appearance of private point-to-point
connections.
A) VPN
B) ISP
C) router
D) DSL
Answer: A
Rationale:
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) establishes encrypted connections over the Internet,
allowing users to access resources securely as if they were directly connected to a private
network.
38) The connection between a VPN client and a VPN server is called a(n) ________.
A) data highway
B) hyperlink
C) tunnel
D) access point
Answer: C
Rationale:

In the context of a VPN, the connection between a VPN client and a VPN server is referred to
as a tunnel. This tunnel encrypts data traffic between the client and server, ensuring secure
communication.
39) Which of the following is true about a VPN?
A) It encrypts messages to ensure secure transmissions.
B) It does not provide users with remote access.
C) It utilizes private networks instead of the public network.
D) It appears as a secure connection, though it is not.
Answer: A
Rationale:
A VPN encrypts messages transmitted over the Internet, ensuring secure transmissions even
over public networks, thereby protecting data privacy.
40) What are the three tiers in three-tier architecture?
A) TCP, IP, and HTTP
B) HTML, XML, and SGML
C) user, server, and database
D) router, switch, and access point
Answer: C
Rationale:
In three-tier architecture, the system is divided into three layers: the presentation layer (user
interface), the application layer (server-side logic), and the data layer (database). These tiers
handle user interaction, business logic, and data storage, respectively.
41) The ________ tier of three-tier architecture consists of computers, phones, and other
devices that have browsers that request and process Web pages.
A) user
B) server

C) database
D) data link
Answer: A
Rationale:
The user tier in three-tier architecture represents the interface through which users interact
with the application. This tier consists of devices such as computers, phones, and tablets
equipped with browsers that request and process web pages.
42) ________ are programs that run on a server-tier computer and that manage HTTP traffic
by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients.
A) Web servers
B) Web browsers
C) Web sites
D) Web farms
Answer: A
Rationale:
Web servers are software applications that run on server-tier computers. They manage HTTP
traffic by sending and receiving web pages to and from clients, fulfilling requests made by
web browsers.
43) ________ is the most common language for defining the structure and layout of Web
pages.
A) HTML
B) XML
C) URL
D) DSL
Answer: A
Rationale:

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the most common language used for defining the
structure and layout of web pages. It provides the basic framework for creating content on the
World Wide Web.
44) A(n) ________ is a notation used to define a data element, for display or other purposes,
in Web pages.
A) HTML tag
B) IP address
C) domain
D) hyperlink
Answer: A
Rationale:
HTML tag is a notation used to define various elements within a web page, such as text,
images, links, and formatting. Tags provide instructions on how web browsers should render
and display content.
45) An HTML document has a(n) ________ that provides metadata about the page.
A) href
B) attribute
C) tag
D) heading
Answer: D
Rationale:
An HTML document typically contains a heading tag, which provides metadata about the
page, such as its title, author, and other descriptive information.
46) A(n) ________ contains the URL of the Web page to find when a user clicks on it.
A) access point
B) IP address

C) Web server
D) hyperlink
Answer: D
Rationale:
A hyperlink is an element on a web page that, when clicked, directs the user to another web
page or resource. It contains the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of the destination page.
47) An ________ and its value indicate which Web page is to be displayed when a user clicks
on a link.
A) href
B) IPv4
C) IaaS
D) IPv6
Answer: A
Rationale:
The "href" attribute in HTML specifies the URL of the destination page or resource when a
user clicks on a hyperlink.
48) A(n) ________ is a variable used to provide properties about a tag.
A) HTML Tag
B) attribute
C) URL
D) code
Answer: B
Rationale:
An attribute is a variable used to provide additional properties or information about an HTML
tag. Attributes modify the behavior or appearance of HTML elements.

49) The attribute for hyperlink is called ________.
A) href
B) reference
C) tag
D) pointer
Answer: A
Rationale:
The attribute for a hyperlink in HTML is called "href," which stands for Hypertext Reference.
It specifies the URL of the destination page or resource when the hyperlink is clicked.
50) Which of the following is defined as the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources
over the Internet?
A) broadband
B) wiki
C) the cloud
D) Bluetooth
Answer: C
Rationale:
The term "the cloud" refers to the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources, such as
storage, processing power, and applications, over the Internet. It allows users to access and
utilize these resources on-demand without the need for significant upfront investment or
infrastructure management.
51) In cloud computing, resources are said to be "pooled" because ________.
A) organizations use the public Internet to create the appearance of a private connection
B) organizations use open source standards which enable users to modify a program's source
code

C) organizations offer their services to each other free of charge, in a give-and-take
arrangement
D) organizations share the same physical hardware through virtualization
Answer: D
Rationale:
Resources in cloud computing are "pooled" because multiple organizations share the same
physical hardware infrastructure through virtualization. This allows for efficient utilization of
resources and scalability.
52) Compared to in-house hosting, cloud-based hosting ________.
A) provides better disaster preparedness capabilities
B) minimizes the risk of investing in technology that will soon become obsolete
C) provides greater control over the location of data
D) requires a significant amount of capital
Answer: B
Rationale:
Cloud-based hosting minimizes the risk of investing in technology that will soon become
obsolete because cloud providers regularly update and upgrade their infrastructure and
services, ensuring that users have access to the latest technologies without needing to invest
in hardware or software upgrades.
53) Which of the following is a benefit of in-house hosting?
A) superior flexibility and adaptability to growing or fluctuating demand
B) lower capital requirements
C) in-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness
D) fewer training requirements
Answer: C
Rationale:

In-house hosting offers the benefit of in-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness
because organizations have direct control over their infrastructure and can implement
customized security measures and disaster recovery plans tailored to their specific needs.
54) In-house hosting, delivered via Web service standards that can be configured
dynamically, is referred to as ________.
A) the private cloud
B) a virtual private network
C) a wide area network
D) the tunnel
Answer: A
Rationale:
In-house hosting delivered via Web service standards that can be configured dynamically is
referred to as the private cloud. It allows organizations to leverage cloud-like capabilities
while retaining full control over their infrastructure.
55) Which of the following is the most basic cloud offering?
A) SaaS
B) PaaS
C) IaaS
D) VPN
Answer: C
Rationale:
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is the most basic cloud offering, providing users with
virtualized computing resources such as virtual machines, storage, and networking
capabilities.
56) A cloud vendor who provides hosted computers, an operating system, and a DBMS is
offering which of the following services?
A) SaaS

B) PaaS
C) IaaS
D) VPN
Answer: B
Rationale:
Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides users with hosted computing platforms, including
hardware, operating systems, and development tools. Users can deploy their applications on
these platforms without worrying about managing underlying infrastructure.
57) Which of the following is an example of a PaaS?
A) Apple iCloud
B) Amazon EC2
C) Oracle on Demand
D) Office 365
Answer: C
Rationale:
Oracle on Demand is an example of Platform as a Service (PaaS) where users can develop,
run, and manage their applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the
underlying infrastructure.
58) Which of the following is an example of IaaS?
A) Apple iCloud
B) Microsoft Azure
C) Office 365
D) Amazon EC2
Answer: D
Rationale:

Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) is an example of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
where users can rent virtual machines and other computing resources on-demand from
Amazon's cloud infrastructure.
59) Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is an example of ________.
A) SaaS
B) PaaS
C) IaaS
D) VPN
Answer: C
Rationale:
Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is an example of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
where users can store and retrieve data from scalable cloud storage infrastructure provided by
Amazon Web Services (AWS).
60) Which of the following would be a consequence of teleaction?
A) The need for local support staff would decrease.
B) The value of robotics would increase.
C) The requirement for high-skill employees would decrease.
D) Only high-value industries would be able to properly utilize it.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Teleaction, which involves remote action or control of devices or systems over a distance,
would likely increase the value of robotics as it enables remote operation and control of
robotic systems, leading to increased efficiency and productivity in various industries.
Essay Questions
1) What is a computer network? What are the various types of networks?

Answer: A computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another
over transmission lines or wireless. A local area network (LAN) connects computers that
reside in a single geographic location on the premises of the company that operates the LAN.
The number of connected computers can range from two to several hundred. The
distinguishing characteristic of a LAN is a single location. Wide area networks (WANs)
connect computers at different geographic locations. The computers in two separated
company sites must be connected using a WAN. An internet is a network of networks.
Internets connect LANs, WANs, and other internets. The most famous internet is "the
Internet." In addition to the Internet, private networks of networks, called internets, also exist.
A private internet that is used exclusively within an organization is sometimes called an
intranet.
2) Describe the purpose of each component of a wired LAN.
Answer: A LAN is a group of computers connected together on a single company site.
Usually the computers are located within a half mile or so of each other. The computers and
other devices are connected via a switch, which is a special-purpose computer that receives
and transmits messages on the LAN.
Each device on a LAN (computer, printer, etc.) has a hardware component called a network
interface card (NIC) that connects the device's circuitry to network wires. The NIC works
with programs in each device to implement the protocols necessary for communication. Most
computers today ship from the factory with an onboard NIC, which is an NIC built into the
computer's circuitry.
The computers, printers, switches, and other devices on a LAN are connected using one of
two media. Most connections are made using unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. This cable
contains sets of wires that are twisted together to improve signal quality. However, if the
connection carries a lot of traffic, the UTP cable may be replaced by optical fiber cables. The
signals on such cables are light rays, and they are reflected inside the glass core of the optical
fiber cable.
3) What is an access point?
Answer: Wireless computers and printers have a wireless NIC (WNIC) instead of an NIC.
The WNIC devices connect to an access point, which is the component of the LAN device
that processes wireless traffic and communicates with the wired switch. Thus, with this

design every device on the LAN, whether wired or wireless, can communicate with every
other device. Wireless devices communicate to each other via the access point.
4) Describe the major LAN protocols.
Answer: For a LAN to work, all devices on the LAN must use the same protocol. The world's
most popular protocol for LANs is the IEEE 802.3 protocol. This protocol standard, also
called Ethernet, specifies hardware characteristics.
Most personal computers today are equipped with an onboard NIC that supports what is
called 10/100/1000 Ethernet. These products conform to the 802.3 specification and allow for
transmission at a rate of 10, 100, or 1,000 Mbps.
As wireless connections have become popular for LANs, the NIC has been replaced by a
wireless NIC (WNIC). The technology that enables wireless connections is the IEEE 802.11
protocol. Several versions of 802.11 exist. Bluetooth is another common wireless protocol. It
is designed for transmitting data over short distances, replacing cables.
5) List the functions of an ISP.
Answer: An ISP has three important functions. First, it provides you with a legitimate Internet
address. Second, it serves as your gateway to the Internet. The ISP receives the
communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives
communications from the Internet and passes them on to you. Finally, ISPs pay for the
Internet. They collect money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on
your behalf.
6) What is a DSL?
Answer: A digital subscriber line (DSL) operates on the same lines as voice telephones, but
they operate so that their signals do not interfere with voice telephone service. Because DSL
signals do not interfere with telephone signals, DSL data transmission and telephone
conversations can occur simultaneously. A device at the telephone company separates the
phone signals from the computer signals and sends the latter signal to the ISP. Digital
subscriber lines use their own protocols for data transmission.
7) Describe the TCP/IP protocol architecture.
Answer: The protocols used on the Internet are arranged according to a structure known as
the TCP/IP Protocol (TCP/IP) architecture, which is a scheme of five protocol types arranged

in layers. The top layer concerns protocols for applications like browsers and Web servers.
This layer is known as the application layer. Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) is the
protocol used between browsers and Web servers. There is a secure version of HTTP called
HTTPS. Two additional TCP/IP application-layer protocols are SMTP, or Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol, which is used for email transmissions, and FTP, or File Transfer Protocol,
which is used to move files over the Internet.
The next two layers concern protocols about data communications across any internet,
including the Internet. These protocols manage traffic as it passes across an internet
(including the Internet) from one network to another. The most important protocol in the
transport layer is TCP, or the Transmission Control Protocol. The TCP layer is said to provide
reliable internet transport. The primary protocol of the Internet layer is called IP (Internet
Protocol), which is a protocol that specifies the routing of the pieces of a message through the
networks that comprise any internet (including the Internet). The bottom two layers involve
protocols that concern data transmission within a network. For example, the IEEE 802.3 and
802.11 LAN protocols operate at the bottom two layers.
8) What are packets and routers?
Answer: A packet is a piece of a message that is handled by programs that implement IP. A
router is a special-purpose computer that moves packet traffic according to the rules of the IP
protocol. Your message is broken into packets and each packet is sent out onto the Internet.
The packet contains the address of where it is supposed to go. Routers along the way receive
the packet, examine the destination IP address, and send it either to the desired destination, or
to another router that is closer to the desired destination.
9) What is an IP address? Describe the advantages of private and public IP addresses.
Answer: An IP address is a number that identifies a particular device. Public IP addresses
identify a particular device on the public Internet. Because public IP addresses must be
unique, worldwide, their assignment is controlled by a public agency known as ICANN
(Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). Private IP addresses identify a
particular device on a private network, usually on a LAN. Their assignment is controlled
within the LAN.
This private/public IP address scheme has two major benefits. First, public IP addresses are
conserved. All of the computers on the LAN use only one public IP address. Second, by using

private IP addresses, you need not register a public IP address for your computer with
ICANN-approved agencies. Furthermore, if you had a public IP address for your computer,
every time you moved it the Internet would have to update its addressing mechanisms to
route traffic to your new location.
10) List the functions of a LAN device.
Answer: The functions of a LAN device include the following:
- Switch processing IEEE 802.3 wired LAN traffic
- Access-point processing IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN traffic
- Translation between IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11
- Server that assigns private IP addresses
- Private/public IP address translation converting between private and public IP addresses
- Internet router routing packets
11) What is a VPN? Explain how VPNs ensure the security of transmissions.
Answer: A virtual private network (VPN) uses the Internet to create the appearance of private
point-to-point connections. The remote user, who is the VPN client, connects to the Internet
after which the VPN software on the remote user's computer establishes a connection with the
VPN server. The VPN client and VPN server then have a point-to-point connection. That
connection, called a tunnel, is a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from
the VPN client to the VPN server.
VPN communications are secure, even though they are transmitted over the public Internet.
To ensure security, VPN client software encrypts, or codes the original message so that its
contents are protected. Then the VPN client appends the Internet address of the VPN server to
the message and sends that package over the Internet to the VPN server. When the VPN
server receives the message, it strips its address off the front of the message, decrypts the
coded message, and sends the plain text message to the original address on the LAN. In this
way, secure private messages are delivered over the public Internet.
12) Describe the three-tier architecture for Web applications like e-commerce.
Answer: The three-tier architecture is an arrangement of user computers and servers into
three categories, or tiers. The user tier consists of computers, phones, and other devices that

have browsers that request and process Web pages. The server tier consists of computers that
run Web servers and process application programs. The database tier consists of computers
that run a DBMS that processes SQL requests to retrieve and store data. Web servers are
programs that run on a server-tier computer and that manage HTTP traffic by sending and
receiving Web pages to and from clients. A commerce server is an application program that
runs on a server-tier computer. A commerce server receives requests from users via the Web
server, takes some action, and returns a response to the users via the Web server. Typical
commerce server functions are to obtain product data from a database, manage the items in a
shopping cart, and coordinate the checkout process.
13) What are Web servers and commerce servers?
Answer: Web servers are programs that run on a server-tier computer and that manage HTTP
traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients. A commerce server is an
application program that runs on a server-tier computer. A commerce server receives requests
from users via the Web server, takes some action, and returns a response to the users via the
Web server. Typical commerce server functions are to obtain product data from a database,
manage the items in a shopping cart, and coordinate the checkout process.
14) Define HTML, attribute, and href.
Answer: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the most common language for defining
the structure and layout of Web pages. An HTML tag is a notation used to define a data
element for display or other purposes. An attribute is a variable used to provide properties
about a tag. Each attribute has a standard name. The attribute for a hyperlink is href, and its
value indicates which Web page is to be displayed when the user clicks the link.
15) Define cloud and explain the three key terms in the definition.
Answer: We define the cloud as the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the
Internet. The term elastic means that the amount of resources leased can be increased or
decreased dynamically, programmatically, and in a short span of time and that organizations
usually pay for just the resources that they use. The resources are pooled, because many
different organizations use the same physical hardware; they share that hardware through
virtualization. Cloud vendors dynamically allocate virtual machines to physical hardware as
customer needs increase or decrease. Finally, the resources are accessed via Internet protocols

and standards, which are additions to TCP/IP that enable cloud-hosting vendors to provide
processing capabilities in flexible, yet standardized, ways.
16) List the advantages and disadvantages of cloud-based hosting and in-house hosting.
Answer: Advantages of cloud-based hosting:
- Small capital requirements
- Speedy development
- Superior flexibility and adaptability to growing or fluctuating demand
- Known cost structure
- Possibly best-of-breed security/disaster preparedness
- No obsolescence
- Industry-wide economies of scale, hence cheaper
Disadvantages of cloud-based hosting:
- Dependency on vendor
- Loss of control over data location
- Little visibility into true security and disaster preparedness capabilities
Advantages of in-house hosting:
- Control of data location
- In-depth visibility of security and disaster preparedness
Disadvantages of in-house hosting:
- Significant capital required
- Significant development effort
- Annual maintenance costs
- Ongoing support costs
- Staff and train personnel
- Increased management requirements

- Difficult to accommodate fluctuating demand
- Cost uncertainties
- Obsolescence
17) Explain the three factors that have made cloud computing possible today.
Answer: Three factors have made cloud-based hosting advantageous today:
1. Processors, data communication, and data storage are so cheap as to be nearly free.
Because data communication is so cheap, getting the data to and from that processor is also
nearly free.
2. Virtualization technology enables the near instantaneous creation of a new virtual machine.
The customer provides (or creates in the cloud) a disk image of the data and programs of the
machine it wants to provision. Virtualization software takes it from there.
3. New Internet-based protocols and standards have enabled cloud-hosting vendors to provide
processing capabilities in flexible, yet standardized, ways. Chief among them are the Web
service standards that sit on top of HTTP and are used to specify how computers interoperate.
The provider of a Web service, such as a cloud-hosting organization, uses these standards to
specify the work that it will perform and how it will provide it. Consumers of that service use
those standards to request and receive service.
18) When does it not make sense to use cloud-based infrastructure?
Answer: Cloud-based hosting makes sense for most organizations. The only organizations for
which it may not make sense are those that are required by law or by industry standard
practice to have physical control over their data. Such organizations might be forced to create
and maintain their own hosting infrastructure. A financial institution, for example, might be
legally required to maintain physical control over its data. Even where physical control is a
requirement, it is possible for organizations to obtain some of the benefits of cloud computing
in what is termed the private cloud, which is in-house hosting, delivered via Web service
standards, that can be configured dynamically.
19) Define SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS. Provide an example of each.
Answer: An organization that provides software as a service (SaaS) provides not only
hardware infrastructure, but also operating systems and application programs on top of that

hardware. For example, Salesforce.com provides programs for customer and sales tracking as
a service. The second category of cloud hosting is platform as a service (Paas), whereby
vendors provide hosted computers, an operating system, and possibly a DBMS. Microsoft
Windows Azure, for example, provides servers installed with Windows Server. Customers of
Windows Azure then add their own applications on top of the hosted platform. The third
category of cloud hosting is infrastructure as a service (IaaS), which is the cloud hosting of a
bare server computer or disk drive. The Amazon EC2 provides bare servers, and its Simple
Storage Server provides, in essence, an unlimited, reliable disk drive in the cloud.
20) What are remote access systems? Elucidate with the help of three examples.
Answer: Remote access systems provide a computer-based activity or action at a distance. By
enabling action at a distance, remote access systems save time and travel expense and make
the skills and abilities of an expert available in places where he or she is not physically
located. They also enable experts to scale their expertise.
Remote access systems include telediagnosis, which health care professionals can use to
provide expertise in rural or remote areas. Telesurgery uses telecommunications to link
surgeons to robotic equipment at distant locations. Telelaw enforcement, such as the RedFlex
system, uses cameras and motion-sensing equipment to issue tickets for red-light and
speeding violations.

Test Bank for Using MIS
David M. Kroenke
9780133029673, 9780135191767, 9780134106786, 9780138132484, 9780136100751, 9780134606996

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