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Chapter 2
Collaboration Information Systems
True/False Questions
1) A group of four painters, each painting a different wall in the same room, are not working
cooperatively.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Even though each painter may have a specific task (painting a
different wall), they are still working in the same room towards a common goal (completing
the painting of the room), which involves coordination and cooperation.
2) A group of programmers work separately to create modules and merge the modules later to
build an application. This is an example of collaboration.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. While the programmers may be contributing to the same project, they
are not truly collaborating as they are working separately and not actively engaging with each
other to solve problems or create solutions together.
3) Feedback and iteration enable a group to produce something greater than any single person
could accomplish working independently.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Feedback allows for the improvement of ideas and solutions, while
iteration involves refining and revising work based on that feedback. Through this process, a
group can produce outcomes that are more robust and innovative than what any single person
could achieve alone.
4) Being a skilled and persuasive presenter is extremely important for an effective
collaborator.

Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. While presentation skills can be valuable in certain collaborative
situations, they are not necessarily essential for effective collaboration. Effective
collaboration involves active listening, constructive communication, and the ability to work
together towards a common goal.
5) Being a perceptive listener is more important for a collaborator than being gregarious and
dynamic.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Being a perceptive listener allows collaborators to understand the
perspectives, ideas, and concerns of others, fostering better communication and collaboration.
While being gregarious and dynamic can be helpful traits, they are not as essential as the
ability to listen and empathize with others in a collaborative setting.
6) In order to be an effective collaborator, one should refrain from airing unpopular and
different viewpoints.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Effective collaboration often requires the contribution of diverse
perspectives and viewpoints. Encouraging the expression of different ideas, even if they are
unpopular, can lead to more innovative solutions and better decision-making within a group.
7) Being well organized is one of the most important characteristics of an effective
collaborator.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. While being well-organized can certainly be helpful in facilitating
collaboration, it is not necessarily one of the most important characteristics. Effective

collaboration is more about communication, teamwork, and problem-solving abilities than
strict organization.
8) Richard Hackman's studies revealed that growth team capability is a major criterion for
collaboration.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Richard Hackman, a leading expert in team dynamics, emphasized the
importance of team growth and development in fostering effective collaboration. Teams with
the capability to learn and adapt together are more likely to collaborate successfully and
achieve their goals.
9) Informing is the first and most fundamental collaboration purpose.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Informing involves sharing information, knowledge, and updates with
collaborators, laying the groundwork for effective communication and coordination. Without
proper informing, collaboration efforts may lack direction and clarity.
10) The facility manager of an insurance company makes decisions on the monthly purchase
of office supplies. This is an example of an operational decision.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Operational decisions are routine decisions made by middle-level
managers to support the day-to-day operations of an organization. The facility manager's
decision regarding the purchase of office supplies falls within the realm of operational
decision-making.
11) Operational decisions concern the allocation and utilization of resources.
Answer: False
Rationale:

This statement is false. Operational decisions typically involve day-to-day activities and
processes within an organization, such as scheduling, inventory management, and routine
maintenance. While resource allocation and utilization may be part of operational decisions,
they are not the sole focus.
12) Strategic decisions are typically not collaborative.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Strategic decisions, which involve long-term planning and goalsetting at the highest levels of an organization, often require collaboration among key
stakeholders, including top executives, managers, and experts from various departments.
Collaboration ensures that diverse perspectives are considered and that decisions align with
the organization's overall objectives.
13) Moving a factory from Detroit to Mexico is an example of a strategic decision.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Relocating a factory involves significant long-term planning and has
far-reaching implications for the organization, including its market presence, cost structure,
and supply chain. Such decisions are strategic in nature and require careful consideration of
various factors, including market dynamics, labor costs, and regulatory environments.
14) Finding the best location for building a new plant is an example of a structured decision.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Finding the best location for a new plant typically involves complex
factors such as market demand, transportation infrastructure, labor availability, and regulatory
considerations. Such decisions are often unstructured because there is no predefined method
or algorithm for evaluating all relevant criteria and arriving at a single optimal solution.
15) Need for collaboration increases as the decisions become more structured.
Answer: False

Rationale:
This statement is false. Collaboration is typically more critical for unstructured decisions,
where there is ambiguity, uncertainty, and the need to consider multiple perspectives and
expertise. In contrast, structured decisions, which are routine and repetitive in nature, may
require less collaboration as they can be automated or guided by predefined procedures.
16) An unstructured decision is one for which there is no agreed-on decision-making method.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Unstructured decisions are characterized by ambiguity, complexity,
and a lack of established procedures or guidelines for decision-making. In such cases,
decision-makers often rely on intuition, creativity, and judgment to address novel or poorly
defined problems.
17) Determining the reorder quantity of an item in inventory is an example of an unstructured
decision.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Determining the reorder quantity of an item in inventory is typically a
structured decision that follows predefined rules or algorithms, such as economic order
quantity (EOQ) models or reorder point calculations. While there may be variations in
specific methods, the decision-making process is well-defined and routine.
18) Determining the best mix of products that a company should sell is an example of an
unstructured decision.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Determining the best product mix involves strategic considerations,
market analysis, and forecasting demand, all of which can be complex and open to
interpretation. There is often no single correct answer or predefined method for making such
decisions, making them unstructured in nature.

19) Operational decisions require a high degree of collaboration.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Operational decisions, which focus on day-to-day activities and
processes within an organization, often follow established procedures and guidelines. While
collaboration may occur among operational staff, the level of collaboration required is
typically lower compared to strategic or unstructured decisions.
20) The fundamental purpose of the starting phase of project management is to set the ground
rules for the project and the team.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. The starting phase of project management, often referred to as
initiation or conception, involves defining the project scope, objectives, stakeholders, and
initial plans. Setting ground rules, clarifying roles and responsibilities, and establishing
communication channels are essential tasks during this phase to ensure project success.
21) Project documentation and a progress report are prepared during the starting phase of a
project.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. During the starting phase of a project, the focus is on defining project
objectives, scope, stakeholders, and initial plans. Project documentation and progress reports
are typically prepared during later phases of the project, such as planning, execution, and
monitoring and controlling.
22) Project documentation is performed during the finalizing phase of a project.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. The finalizing phase of a project, also known as the closing phase,
involves completing all project activities, documenting project outcomes, conducting post-

project reviews, and archiving project documents. Project documentation, including lessons
learned and final reports, is an essential part of this phase.
23) Managers assign project tasks to team members during the planning phase.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. The planning phase of project management involves developing
detailed project plans, schedules, and resource allocations. Task assignment to team members
is a crucial aspect of project planning, ensuring that responsibilities are clearly defined and
understood before project execution begins.
24) The purpose of the planning phase of project management is to accomplish project tasks.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. The purpose of the planning phase of project management is to
establish the roadmap for accomplishing project tasks, rather than directly accomplishing the
tasks themselves. During this phase, project managers and teams define project objectives,
scope, deliverables, schedules, budgets, and resource requirements.
25) Project plan and budget are prepared during the finalizing phase of project management.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. The project plan and budget are typically prepared during the
planning phase of project management, not during the finalizing phase. The finalizing phase
focuses on completing project activities, closing out contracts, obtaining client acceptance,
and transitioning deliverables to the operational phase.
26) Project metadata is data that is part of the collaboration's work product.
Answer: False
Rationale:

This statement is false. Project metadata refers to additional information about project data,
such as its source, format, creation date, and authorship. It helps in managing and
understanding project data but is not considered part of the collaboration's work product
itself.
27) A collaboration tool is the program component of a collaboration system.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. A collaboration tool refers to software applications or platforms
designed to facilitate communication, coordination, and collaboration among team members
working on a project or task. Examples include email, chat applications, document sharing
platforms, and project management software.
28) Collaboration tools provide useful capabilities, but they also present some potential
security risks.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. While collaboration tools offer valuable features for enhancing
teamwork and productivity, they also pose security risks such as data breaches, unauthorized
access, and malware threats. It's essential for organizations to implement security measures,
such as encryption, access controls, and user authentication, to mitigate these risks.
29) Susan, the operations manager at Multitech Systems Inc., is having a face-to-face meeting
with her vendors and some of her senior engineers to arrive at the specifications for the
project the company is currently working on. This is an example of synchronous
communication.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Synchronous communication refers to real-time communication where
participants interact simultaneously, such as face-to-face meetings, video conferences, or
phone calls. In this scenario, Susan's meeting with vendors and senior engineers involves
immediate interaction, making it synchronous communication.

30) Margaret finds that calling all her senior supervisors and quality managers for a face-toface meeting is not feasible. She arranges for a multiparty text chatting session involving all
of them. This is an example of asynchronous communication.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Asynchronous communication refers to communication where
participants interact at different times, such as email, discussion forums, or shared
documents. In the scenario described, Margaret arranges a multiparty text chatting session,
which still involves immediate interaction, making it synchronous rather than asynchronous
communication.
31) Webinar is a tool used to facilitate asynchronous communication.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. A webinar is a live, online seminar or presentation that allows
participants to interact with the presenter in real-time. Therefore, webinars are typically used
for synchronous communication rather than asynchronous communication.
32) Email is a form of asynchronous communication.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Email allows users to send and receive messages at different times,
enabling asynchronous communication. Unlike synchronous communication methods such as
phone calls or video conferences, email does not require immediate interaction between
participants.
33) Discussion forums ensure the participation of the entire team.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. While discussion forums provide a platform for team members to
communicate and share ideas, they do not guarantee the participation of the entire team.

Participation in discussion forums depends on individual engagement and motivation, and
some team members may choose not to participate actively.
34) One of the advantages of a team survey is that it is easy to determine who has not yet
responded.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Team surveys allow organizers to track responses and identify team
members who have not yet completed the survey. This makes it easier to follow up with
individuals and ensure comprehensive participation.
35) The choice of information systems used for sharing content depends on the degree of
control required.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. The selection of information systems for sharing content depends on
factors such as the sensitivity of the content, the need for collaboration, and the level of
control desired. For example, more controlled environments may require specialized
document management systems, while less restrictive environments may use cloud-based
file-sharing platforms.
36) A shared file server is best suited for sharing content when there is increased risk of
interference with your work by other team members.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. A shared file server is typically used when there is a need for
centralized storage and management of files within an organization. While it provides access
to shared files for team members, it does not necessarily mitigate the risk of interference with
individual work by other team members.
37) Email is the medium preferred for collaborations in which content control is highly
desired.

Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. While email allows for asynchronous communication and individual
control over messages, it may not provide the level of content control desired for
collaborative projects. Email lacks version control features and may result in scattered
information across multiple messages, making it less suitable for collaborative content
management.
38) Version management applications offer a higher degree of control than the version control
applications.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Version control applications and version management applications are
often used interchangeably to refer to systems that track and manage changes to documents
and files. Both types of applications typically offer similar features for managing document
versions, collaboration, and access control.
39) Google Drive is a thin-client application for sharing documents.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Google Drive is a cloud-based file storage and synchronization service
that allows users to store, share, and collaborate on documents, spreadsheets, presentations,
and other files online. It is considered a thin-client application because most of the processing
and storage occur on remote servers rather than on the user's device.
40) With Google Drive, documents are stored on the user's computer.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. With Google Drive, documents are stored on Google's servers in the
cloud rather than on the user's computer. Users access and work on documents through a web

browser or dedicated applications, with changes automatically synchronized across devices
connected to the user's Google account.
41) Windows Live SkyDrive includes license-free Web application versions of Word, Excel,
PowerPoint, and OneNote.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Windows Live SkyDrive, now known as OneDrive, offers web-based
versions of Microsoft Office applications, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote,
which users can access and use for free through a web browser.
42) Only one user at a time can open SkyDrive documents for editing.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. By default, only one user can edit a document stored on SkyDrive
(OneDrive) at a time. While multiple users can view the document simultaneously, only one
user can make edits, preventing conflicts and ensuring data integrity.
43) Version management systems improve the tracking of shared content and provide version
control.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Version management systems, also known as version control systems,
indeed improve the tracking of shared content and provide version control. They help manage
changes to documents and files over time, allowing users to track revisions, revert to previous
versions, and collaborate effectively. Therefore, the statement is accurate.
44) In version control systems, the shared directories used to store shared documents are
called libraries.
Answer: True
Rationale:

This statement is true. In version control systems, the repositories or directories used to store
shared documents and files are commonly referred to as libraries or repositories. These
libraries organize files, track changes, and facilitate collaboration among users working on
the same documents.
45) Collaboration tools that provide workflow control manage the activities that are
predefined by the group.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Collaboration tools with workflow control capabilities allow
organizations to define, automate, and manage business processes and tasks according to
predefined rules and procedures. These tools streamline collaboration by guiding users
through predetermined workflows, ensuring consistency and efficiency in task execution.
46) Office 365 is a suite of programs that offers the collaboration facilities such as multiparty
text chat.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Office 365 is a cloud-based subscription service offered by Microsoft,
which includes a suite of productivity applications such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and
Outlook. Additionally, Office 365 provides collaboration features such as multiparty text chat
through applications like Microsoft Teams.
47) SharePoint Online is an industrial-strength product for content sharing.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. SharePoint Online is a cloud-based platform provided by Microsoft for
content management and collaboration within organizations. It offers a robust set of features
for document management, sharing, and collaboration, making it suitable for both small
businesses and large enterprises.
48) SharePoint supports discussion forums in which team members can conduct an
asynchronous online discussion.

Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. SharePoint includes discussion forum features that allow team
members to participate in asynchronous online discussions. Users can post messages, reply to
existing threads, and engage in conversations within dedicated discussion forums, facilitating
communication and collaboration across teams.
49) Microsoft Exchange does not provide email services to its customers.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is false. Microsoft Exchange is an email server and calendaring software
developed by Microsoft, widely used by organizations for email communication, calendaring,
and collaboration. It provides email services to its customers, facilitating email
communication within organizations.
50) All text messages that you send via Lync are automatically recorded and stored in your
email folder.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement is true. Lync, now known as Skype for Business, integrates with Microsoft
Exchange and Outlook to store conversation history. By default, Lync (Skype for Business)
automatically saves text messages and conversation transcripts in the user's Outlook mailbox,
allowing users to access their conversation history directly from their email folders.
Multiple Choice Questions
1) Collaboration occurs when a number of people ________.
A) come together to perform tasks that are different
B) work together to achieve a common goal
C) perform independent tasks that are important
D) work without having to critically analyze each other's work

Answer: B
Rationale:
Collaboration involves individuals coming together to work collectively towards a shared
objective or goal. It emphasizes cooperation and coordination among team members to
achieve common aims or outcomes.
2) ________ occurs when a group of people working together to achieve a common goal via
a process of feedback and iteration.
A) Systems thinking
B) Collaboration
C) Groupthink
D) Experimentation
Answer: B
Rationale:
Collaboration involves individuals working together towards a common goal, often involving
feedback and iteration, where ideas and contributions from each member are integrated to
achieve the desired outcome.
3) Which of the following is a key difference between collaboration and cooperation?
A) Unlike cooperation, collaboration occurs when a job has to be accomplished.
B) Cooperation requires people to have a common goal, whereas collaboration occurs even
without a common goal.
C) People should work together to cooperate, whereas they need not work together to
collaborate.
D) Unlike cooperation, collaboration gives importance to iteration and feedback.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Collaboration emphasizes iterative processes and feedback loops, where individuals work
together to achieve a common goal, often refining their efforts based on input from others.

Cooperation involves individuals working together towards a shared objective but may not
involve the same level of iterative refinement.
4) A student team, which is assigned a term project, meets and divides the work into sections
and then team members work independently on their individual pieces. An hour before the
project is due the team members meet again to assemble their independent pieces into a
whole. Which of the following is lacking in this activity?
A) collaboration
B) cooperation
C) systems thinking
D) interdependence
Answer: A
Rationale:
Collaboration involves active participation and coordination among team members
throughout the project, including iterative feedback and integration of individual
contributions. In this scenario, the team members are working independently until the last
minute, lacking the ongoing collaboration needed for effective teamwork.
5) Andrea, the floor supervisor at a call center, calls Bryan, a call attendant, to her office. She
reports observing a few critical omissions in his calls, a finding supported by recent customer
surveys. Bryan feels that Andrea is just throwing her weight around. Which of the following
is a valid observation of this scenario?
A) Andrea failed to express an unpopular viewpoint.
B) Bryan needs to learn to receive feedback.
C) The office lacks a communication system.
D) Bryan is self-managing and requires low supervision.
Answer: B
Rationale:

Bryan's reaction suggests a reluctance to accept feedback, which is essential for personal and
professional growth. Effective collaborators should be open to receiving constructive
criticism and feedback to improve their performance and contribute positively to the team.
6) Being ________ is one of the most important characteristics of an effective collaborator.
A) a well organized and popular person
B) able to give negative feedback
C) experienced in collaborating
D) a dynamic and persuasive presenter
Answer: B
Rationale:
Effective collaborators should be able to provide and receive negative feedback
constructively. This allows for open communication, continuous improvement, and alignment
towards common goals within the team.
7) Which of the following is the most important trait that an effective collaborator should
have?
A) ability to identify and not raise unpopular viewpoints
B) persuasive presentation skills
C) willingness to enter into difficult conversations
D) previous experience as a collaborator
Answer: C
Rationale:
The willingness to engage in difficult conversations is crucial for effective collaboration
because it promotes honest communication, conflict resolution, and problem-solving within
the team. Without this trait, issues may remain unresolved, hindering team effectiveness.
8) Identify the least important characteristic for an effective collaborator.
A) willingness to enter difficult conversations

B) being an experienced businessperson
C) showing ability to receive negative feedback
D) being skillful at giving negative feedback
Answer: B
Rationale:
While being an experienced businessperson may bring valuable insights and expertise to the
collaboration, it is not necessarily the most important characteristic. Traits like open
communication, receptiveness to feedback, and conflict resolution skills are often more
critical for effective collaboration.
9) According to Hackman, which of the following is a primary criterion for judging team
success?
A) growth in team capability
B) experience in collaborating
C) ability to be dynamic
D) availability of external help
Answer: A
Rationale:
Hackman emphasizes the importance of team capability and growth as a primary criterion for
judging team success. Effective collaboration should lead to the development and
enhancement of the team's collective skills, knowledge, and performance over time.
10) Which of the following is a primary purpose of collaboration?
A) combining pieces of work
B) becoming informed
C) evaluating coworkers
D) performing routine tasks
Answer: B

Rationale:
One of the primary purposes of collaboration is to become informed, where individuals share
knowledge, insights, and expertise to enhance understanding and decision-making.
Collaboration enables team members to leverage diverse perspectives and information
sources to achieve common goals.
11) ________ decisions are decisions that support day-to-day activities.
A) Operational
B) Tactical
C) Strategic
D) Managerial
Answer: A
Rationale:
Operational decisions are those decisions that are routine and repetitive, aimed at supporting
the day-to-day activities of an organization. They are often made by lower-level management
and involve the execution of tasks and processes to ensure the smooth functioning of
operations.
12) Kyra, a plant supervisor, orders 500 units of Type-2 steel beams for the coming month. In
doing so, she has made a(n) ________ decision.
A) managerial
B) tactical
C) strategic
D) operational
Answer: D
Rationale:
Kyra's decision to order steel beams for the coming month's production aligns with
operational decision-making, as it pertains to the day-to-day activities of managing inventory
and resources needed for routine operations.

13) A decision is called an operational decision if it ________.
A) is made by an individual rather than a group
B) is made by managers
C) involves allocation of resources
D) concerns day-to-day activities
Answer: D
Rationale:
An operational decision is characterized by its focus on day-to-day activities and routine
tasks essential for the ongoing operations of an organization. It involves decisions related to
the immediate and short-term needs of the organization's processes.
14) Project leaders have to take decisions on the allocation and utilization of materials and
labor. Such decisions are called ________ decisions.
A) operational
B) top-level
C) managerial
D) strategic
Answer: C
Rationale:
Decisions made by project leaders regarding the allocation and utilization of materials and
labor fall under the category of managerial decisions. These decisions involve resource
management within the context of specific projects or initiatives.
15) Departmental heads should determine the computer hardware and programs that are
needed for their department. This is an example of a(n) ________ decision.
A) operational
B) strategic
C) procedural

D) managerial
Answer: D
Rationale:
Determining the computer hardware and programs needed for a department involves resource
allocation and management within the department, making it a managerial decision. It
pertains to the efficient utilization of resources to support departmental objectives.
16) Managerial decisions in an organization concern ________.
A) the utilization of resources
B) broad organizational issues
C) the day-to-day activities
D) strategic decision making
Answer: A
Rationale:
Managerial decisions focus on the utilization of resources, including human, financial, and
physical resources, to achieve organizational objectives. They involve planning, organizing,
directing, and controlling activities to ensure effective resource allocation and management.
17) ________ decisions are those that support broad-scope, organizational issues.
A) Operational
B) Strategic
C) Mid-level
D) Managerial
Answer: B
Rationale:
Strategic decisions are concerned with defining the overall direction and objectives of an
organization. They address broad-scope issues and long-term goals, such as market
expansion, product diversification, and competitive positioning.

18) The directors of a company meet to decide if they should start a new product line or not.
This is an example of a(n) ________ decision.
A) operational
B) strategic
C) managerial
D) procedural
Answer: B
Rationale:
Decisions regarding the introduction of a new product line involve long-term planning and
have significant implications for the organization's future direction and competitive strategy.
Therefore, they fall under the category of strategic decisions.
19) Which of the following is an example of a strategic decision?
A) deciding to increase the salaries of a group of employees
B) deciding to open a centralized distribution system
C) deciding to increase the reorder quantity of raw materials
D) deciding to give an employee certain tasks and responsibilities
Answer: B
Rationale:
Deciding to open a centralized distribution system involves strategic planning and has farreaching implications for the organization's logistics, supply chain management, and overall
operational efficiency. It addresses broad organizational issues and long-term goals.
20) Which of the following is a key difference between strategic decisions and managerial
decisions?
A) Strategic decisions deal with the allocation and utilization of resources, whereas
managerial decisions deal with day-to-day activities.
B) Managerial decisions concern organizational issues, whereas strategic decisions concern
external issues.

C) Managerial decisions concern allocation and utilization of resources, whereas strategic
decisions concern organizational issues.
D) Strategic decisions involve financial issues, whereas managerial decisions do not involve
financial issues.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The key difference between strategic and managerial decisions lies in their scope and focus.
Managerial decisions primarily address internal resource management and operational
activities, while strategic decisions focus on defining the organization's long-term goals,
direction, and competitive strategy.
21) Identify a key difference between managerial decisions and operational decisions.
A) Managerial decisions concern the allocation of resources, whereas operational decisions
concern day-to-day activities.
B) Managerial decisions are corporate decisions, whereas operational decisions concern the
utilization of resources.
C) Managerial decisions deal with the allocation of resources, whereas operational decisions
deal with the utilization of resources.
D) Operational decisions have broad scope, whereas the scope of managerial decisions is
limited to day-to-day activities.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Managerial decisions typically involve strategic planning and resource allocation to achieve
organizational goals, while operational decisions focus on the execution of day-to-day tasks
to support these goals. Therefore, the key difference lies in the focus of decision-making:
resource allocation for managerial decisions and daily activities for operational decisions.
22) Using a standardized procedure to calculate the incentives of employees is an example of
a(n) ________ decision.
A) sequential

B) structured
C) unstructured
D) parallel
Answer: B
Rationale:
Structured decisions are those for which a well-defined method or procedure exists to guide
decision-making. Using a standardized procedure to calculate employee incentives fits this
description, as it follows a predefined process to determine compensation based on
established criteria.
23) An organization uses a formula to compute the reorder quantity of an item in inventory.
This is an example of a(n) ________ decision process.
A) structured
B) organizational
C) corporate
D) strategic
Answer: A
Rationale:
A structured decision process involves using established methods, rules, or formulas to make
decisions. In this case, using a formula to compute the reorder quantity of inventory
demonstrates a structured approach to decision-making, as it follows a predefined method
based on inventory management principles.
24) A company's top managers meet to decide on a potential merger with one of its
competitors. They discuss various aspects of the merger, such as business valuations and
conducting due diligence. This is an example of ________ decision making.
A) asynchronous
B) unstructured
C) programmed

D) operational
Answer: B
Rationale:
Unstructured decision making involves complex, non-routine decisions for which there is no
established decision-making process. The decision to pursue a merger with a competitor
requires extensive analysis, evaluation, and discussion of various factors, making it an
example of unstructured decision making.
25) Which of the following questions is best answered through unstructured decision
making?
A) How many overtime hours should be used to fill this order?
B) Should we continue to outsource our bookkeeping processes?
C) What is the acceptable defect ratio for this product?
D) When should the next batch be scheduled to reduce idle time?
Answer: B
Rationale:
Unstructured decision making is most suitable for complex, non-routine questions that lack
predefined solutions or methods. Deciding whether to continue outsourcing bookkeeping
processes involves evaluating various factors, such as cost, quality, and organizational needs,
making it a prime example of unstructured decision making.
26) Which of the following decisions is least likely to involve collaboration?
A) How much of product A should be ordered from vendor B?
B) What products should we include in the new product line?
C) Should our company acquire company A?
D) What type of relationship should the company maintain with company A?
Answer: A
Rationale:

Decision-making regarding the quantity of a product to order from a vendor typically relies
on factors such as demand forecasts, inventory levels, and supply agreements. While input
from multiple stakeholders may be considered, it often does not require extensive
collaboration compared to strategic decisions involving acquisitions or product line
expansions.
27) Which of the following observations about the relationship between decision type and
decision process is true?
A) Managerial decisions tend to be highly structured, whereas operational decisions are
unstructured.
B) The higher levels of decision making are associated with unstructured decision processes.
C) Higher-level organizational decisions should be highly structured.
D) Need for collaboration is highly significant for lower-level, structured decisions.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Higher-level decisions, such as strategic decisions, often involve greater complexity and
uncertainty, leading to unstructured decision processes. These decisions require extensive
analysis, evaluation of alternatives, and collaboration among key stakeholders to address the
broader implications for the organization's direction and objectives.
28) The need for collaboration is greatest for ________ decisions.
A) operational
B) procedural
C) strategic
D) managerial
Answer: C
Rationale:
Strategic decisions typically involve long-term planning, goal-setting, and significant
organizational impact, necessitating collaboration among diverse stakeholders to ensure

alignment with organizational objectives and collective decision-making based on
comprehensive analysis and evaluation.
29) ________ decisions are the most structured and have very little need for collaboration.
A) Operational
B) Tactical
C) Managerial
D) Strategic
Answer: A
Rationale:
Operational decisions are routine, repetitive decisions aimed at supporting day-to-day
activities and processes within an organization. They often follow established procedures or
guidelines, requiring minimal collaboration compared to higher-level strategic decisions.
30) The fundamental purpose of the starting phase of a project is ________.
A) accomplishing the project tasks effectively
B) outlining the tasks to be accomplished
C) managing tasks and budgets
D) setting the ground rules for the collaboration
Answer: D
Rationale:
The starting phase of a project involves establishing the foundation for collaboration,
defining project objectives, clarifying roles and responsibilities, setting expectations, and
establishing communication protocols. Therefore, setting the ground rules for collaboration is
the fundamental purpose of this phase, ensuring alignment and clarity among team members
for effective project execution.
31) An organization defines the rules that govern a project that it needs to undertake and the
people who should perform the tasks. The project is in the ________ phase of project
management.

A) starting
B) finalizing
C) doing
D) planning
Answer: A
Rationale:
The starting phase of project management involves initiating the project by defining its scope,
objectives, and stakeholders. This phase includes activities such as establishing project rules,
identifying team members, and setting up initial guidelines for project execution.
32) The decision about team members' roles and authorities is made during the ________
phase of a project.
A) starting
B) planning
C) doing
D) evaluating
Answer: A
Rationale:
During the starting phase of a project, key decisions regarding team composition, roles,
responsibilities, and authorities are established. This phase sets the foundation for effective
collaboration and project execution by defining the structure and accountability within the
project team.
33) The main purpose of the planning phase in a project is to ________.
A) set up the project scope and initial budget
B) accomplish the project tasks effectively
C) determine who will do what and by when
D) decide if the task status reporting process is needed or not

Answer: C
Rationale:
The planning phase focuses on defining project objectives, identifying tasks, allocating
resources, and establishing timelines. Its primary purpose is to determine the specific
activities required to achieve project goals, including assigning responsibilities to team
members and setting deadlines for task completion.
34) Which of the following tasks should be performed during the planning phase of project
management?
A) reporting project progress
B) determining schedule
C) performing project tasks
D) preparing archival documents
Answer: B
Rationale:
During the planning phase, tasks such as defining project scope, creating a schedule,
identifying resources, and establishing budgets are performed. Determining the schedule is a
crucial aspect of project planning, ensuring that tasks are sequenced and completed within the
desired timeframe.
35) A project manager defines the tasks that her team members have to perform and
determines the schedule for carrying out each of the tasks. This project is in the ________
phase of project management.
A) planning
B) starting
C) doing
D) finalizing
Answer: A
Rationale:

Defining tasks and schedules are key activities performed during the planning phase of
project management. This phase involves detailed planning and preparation to ensure that
project objectives are met efficiently and effectively.
36) A project manager has to manage tasks and budgets and solve problems during the
________ phase of project management.
A) planning
B) starting
C) doing
D) finalizing
Answer: C
Rationale:
The doing phase of project management, also known as the execution phase, involves the
actual implementation of project plans and the execution of defined tasks. Project managers
oversee task execution, manage budgets, address issues, and ensure that project activities are
completed according to the established schedule.
37) One of the procedures of a collaboration project is task status reporting. This is performed
in the ________ phase of the project.
A) starting
B) planning
C) doing
D) following
Answer: C
Rationale:
Task status reporting, which involves providing updates on the progress of project tasks,
typically occurs during the doing phase of a project. This phase focuses on executing project
activities, monitoring progress, and ensuring that tasks are completed as planned.
38) Identify the project management phase in which the tasks of a project are performed.

A) finalizing
B) doing
C) planning
D) starting
Answer: B
Rationale:
The doing phase of project management, also known as the execution phase, is where project
tasks are performed. This phase involves implementing project plans, executing defined
activities, and working towards achieving project objectives.
39) Project teams should document project results and learnings. Which of the following is
the project management phase in which the teams perform this function?
A) doing
B) planning
C) starting
D) finalizing
Answer: D
Rationale:
The finalizing phase of project management involves closing out the project and documenting
project results, lessons learned, and final deliverables. This phase ensures that project
outcomes are captured, evaluated, and shared for future reference and improvement.
40) Project data is data that is ________.
A) part of the collaboration's work product
B) used to manage a project
C) used as a pointer to task data
D) part of documents such as schedules and budgets
Answer: A

Rationale:
Project data refers to information that is generated or utilized during the course of a project,
including documents, reports, deliverables, and other artifacts produced by the project team
as part of their collaborative work efforts. This data contributes to the project's work product
and supports project management activities.
41) Project metadata is data that is ________.
A) part of the collaboration's work product
B) utilized to manage the project
C) developed to design new offerings
D) used in documents to describe recommended solutions
Answer: B
Rationale:
Project metadata refers to the information used to manage and organize project data
effectively. It includes details such as file names, creation dates, authorship, file size, and
other attributes that provide context and structure to project-related information, aiding in its
retrieval, organization, and analysis.
42) Which of the following is an example of project data?
A) list of project tasks
B) schedule
C) budget
D) design document
Answer: D
Rationale:
Project data encompasses all the information generated, collected, or utilized during the
project lifecycle. While options A, B, and C represent essential project management
components, a design document (option D) is an example of project data as it contains
detailed information about the project's design, specifications, and requirements.

43) Which of the following collaboration activities is mainly concerned with content sharing
rather than communication?
A) promoting team growth
B) feedback
C) iteration
D) increasing team satisfaction
Answer: C
Rationale:
Iteration refers to the process of refining and improving work products through successive
cycles of review, revision, and enhancement. Unlike activities focused on communication or
interpersonal dynamics (such as promoting team growth or increasing team satisfaction),
iteration primarily involves the sharing and refinement of content, such as documents,
designs, or prototypes.
44) Which of the following information system requirements falls into the content sharing
category?
A) providing for team and member recognition
B) tracking versions of many documents
C) presenting intrateam learning
D) offering easy-to-use multiparty communication
Answer: B
Rationale:
Tracking versions of many documents is an essential aspect of content sharing within a
collaborative environment. It ensures that team members have access to the latest revisions of
documents, facilitates version control, and enables effective collaboration on shared content.
45) ________ communication occurs within a team when all team members meet at the same
time.
A) Synchronous

B) Sequential
C) Virtual
D) Unidirectional
Answer: A
Rationale:
Synchronous communication involves real-time interaction where all participants engage
simultaneously. In the context of team collaboration, synchronous communication methods
include face-to-face meetings, conference calls, videoconferencing, and instant messaging,
allowing team members to communicate and collaborate in a coordinated manner.
46) Asynchronous communication occurs when team members ________.
A) cannot arrive at a common consensus after discussions
B) engage in conflicting discussions
C) do not meet at the same time
D) communicate in a sequential manner
Answer: C
Rationale:
Asynchronous communication refers to communication methods where participants do not
need to be present or engage in real-time interaction simultaneously. Instead, messages,
documents, or contributions are exchanged at different times, allowing participants to
communicate and collaborate flexibly, regardless of their availability or time zone
differences.
47) The use of a conference call is an example of ________ communication.
A) sequential
B) synchronous
C) indirect
D) unidirectional

Answer: B
Rationale:
A conference call involves real-time communication where multiple participants engage in
conversation simultaneously, making it an example of synchronous communication. During a
conference call, participants can interact, exchange information, and collaborate in real time,
regardless of their physical locations.
48) Who is most likely to use asynchronous communication?
A) members of a team who work in different time zones
B) managers who work in the same office
C) employees who work in an assembly line
D) a group of directors who periodically meet for board meetings
Answer: A
Rationale:
Members of a team who work in different time zones are most likely to use asynchronous
communication methods due to the challenges of coordinating schedules and availability.
Asynchronous communication allows team members in different locations or time zones to
collaborate effectively without the need for real-time interaction.
49) Which of the following tools facilitates asynchronous communication?
A) videoconferencing
B) webinar
C) discussion forum
D) screen-sharing application
Answer: C
Rationale:
A discussion forum is a communication tool that facilitates asynchronous collaboration by
allowing participants to post messages, comments, or questions at different times.

Participants can engage in discussions, share ideas, and exchange information
asynchronously, enabling flexible communication and collaboration.
50) ________ is a popular commercial webinar product used in virtual sales presentations.
A) Microsoft SharePoint
B) MS Office Web
C) WebEx
D) Google Drive
Answer: C
Rationale:
WebEx is a widely used commercial webinar platform that offers features for hosting virtual
meetings, webinars, and online presentations. It enables users to conduct interactive sessions,
share content, and collaborate remotely, making it suitable for various purposes, including
virtual sales presentations.
51) Which of the following is a reason why discussion forums are better than emails in
asynchronous communication?
A) They are best suited to transmit personalized information.
B) They facilitate real-time communication between participants.
C) They keep the discussion from getting off track.
D) They ensure that all team members are involved in the discussion.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Discussion forums provide a structured platform for asynchronous communication where
topics and threads are organized, making it easier to maintain focus and prevent discussions
from veering off track. Unlike emails, which can become fragmented or disjointed,
discussion forums enable participants to follow threads and maintain context, fostering more
coherent and productive discussions.

52) The term ________ refers to a collaboration tool where team members can easily respond
and the management can easily identify the people who have not responded to a request.
A) discussion forums
B) wikis
C) webinars
D) team surveys
Answer: D
Rationale:
Team surveys are a collaboration tool specifically designed to gather feedback or responses
from team members in a structured and organized manner. They allow management to pose
questions or requests to team members, who can then easily respond, and provide a
mechanism for tracking and identifying participants who have not yet responded.
53) Which of the following alternatives for sharing content provides version control?
A) Windows Live SkyDrive
B) Wikis
C) Google Drive
D) Microsoft SharePoint
Answer: D
Rationale:
Microsoft SharePoint is a collaboration platform that offers version control capabilities for
shared documents and content. It allows users to track and manage different versions of
documents, enabling teams to collaborate effectively while ensuring document integrity and
revision history.
54) Version-management systems ________.
A) provide version control of documents
B) track changes to shared documents

C) allow checkout of documents before they are edited
D) provide workflow control to manage the activities that are predefined by the group
Answer: B
Rationale:
Version-management systems track changes made to shared documents over time, recording
edits, additions, and deletions made by users. This helps to maintain document integrity,
facilitate collaboration, and provide a clear audit trail of document revisions.
55) Which of the following statements is true about working with Google Drive?
A) Google accounts are not necessarily required to edit documents.
B) Documents are stored on the user's computer.
C) Users are not allowed to simultaneously see and edit documents.
D) Google tracks document revisions, with brief summaries of changes made.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Google Drive automatically tracks document revisions, providing users with a detailed
revision history that includes brief summaries of changes made, timestamps, and user
attribution. This allows collaborators to review, compare, and revert to previous versions of
documents, ensuring document integrity and facilitating collaborative editing.
56) ________ is a process that occurs when the collaboration tool limits, and sometimes even
directs, user activity.
A) Document monitoring
B) Version control
C) Document tracking
D) Version management
Answer: B
Rationale:

Version control is a process implemented by collaboration tools to manage and regulate user
activity related to document editing and revision. It involves controlling access to documents,
tracking changes made by users, and managing multiple versions of documents to ensure
consistency, integrity, and accountability.
57) With version-control systems, shared documents are placed into shared directories called
________.
A) caches
B) data cubes
C) libraries
D) data mines
Answer: C
Rationale:
In version-control systems, shared documents are organized and stored in shared directories
called libraries. Libraries serve as centralized repositories for document storage, enabling
users to access, edit, and manage shared documents collaboratively while maintaining version
control and document integrity.
58) Which of the following tools does not allow a document to be changed by other users
while it is being worked on?
A) Windows Live SkyDrive
B) Wikis
C) Microsoft SharePoint
D) Google Drive
Answer: C
Rationale:
Microsoft SharePoint does not allow simultaneous editing of documents by multiple users, as
it employs a check-out/check-in system to prevent conflicts and ensure document integrity.

When a user checks out a document for editing, it becomes locked, preventing other users
from making changes until it is checked back in.
59) Which of the following is a comprehensive tool for content sharing?
A) Skype
B) SharePoint
C) Google Drive
D) Microsoft Lync
Answer: B
Rationale:
SharePoint is a comprehensive collaboration platform that offers a wide range of features for
content sharing, document management, team collaboration, and workflow automation. It
provides centralized document repositories, version control, access control, and collaboration
tools, making it suitable for diverse content-sharing needs within organizations.
60) Which of the following is a feature of Microsoft Lync?
A) multi-party text chat
B) content management and control
C) concurrent editing
D) discussion forums
Answer: A
Rationale:
Microsoft Lync offers features such as multi-party text chat, audio and video conferencing,
screen sharing, and presence information. It facilitates real-time communication and
collaboration among users, allowing them to engage in text-based conversations with
multiple participants simultaneously, making it suitable for team discussions, meetings, and
collaboration sessions.
Essay Questions
1) Distinguish between cooperation and collaboration.

Answer: Cooperation is a group of people working together, all doing essentially the same
type of work, to accomplish a job. A group of four painters, each painting a different wall in
the same room, are working cooperatively.
Collaboration occurs when a group of people work together to achieve a common goal via a
process of feedback and iteration. Using feedback and iteration, one person will produce
something, say the draft of a document, and a second person will review that draft and
provide critical feedback. Given the feedback, the original author or someone else will then
revise the first draft to produce a second. The work proceeds in a series of stages, or
iterations.
2) According to Hackman, what are the three primary criteria for judging team success?
Answer: According to Hackman, there are three primary criteria for judging team success: (1)
successful outcome, (2) growth in team capability, and (3) meaningful and satisfying
experience.
3) What is the difference between structured and unstructured decisions? Give an example of
each.
Answer: Structured decisions are those where there exists an understood and accepted
method for making the decision. The process through which financial institutions avail credit
is an example of structured decision making. Unstructured decisions are those where there is
no agreed-on decision-making method. Examples can include facility location, product mix,
and capital budgeting.
4) Explain why structured decisions seldom require collaboration.
Answer: A structured decision process is one where there is an understood and accepted
method for making the decision. Since the decision process is already understood, there is no
reason for collaboration to determine how to make the decision.
5) Are most strategic decisions unstructured? Give an example of an unstructured strategic
decision.
Answer: Yes. Since they are made less frequently and generally have a long-term time
horizon, most strategic decisions are relatively unstructured. Predicting the direction of the
economy or long-term labor planning might be considered unstructured strategic decisions.

Operational decisions may also be unstructured like the example of deciding the number of
cab drivers needed the night before the homecoming game.
6) Describe project data and project metadata.
Answer: Project data is data that is part of the collaboration's work product. For example, for
a team that is designing a new product, design documents are examples of project data. A
document that describes a recommended solution is project data for a problem-solving
project.
Project metadata is data that is used to manage the project. Schedules, tasks, budgets, and
other managerial data are examples of project metadata. Both types of data, by the way, are
subject to iteration and feedback.
7) What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous communications? Provide
examples for each.
Answer: Synchronous communications are collaborations where all the team members meet
at the same time. Examples include face-to-face meetings, videoconferencing, conference
calls, and multiparty chats.
Asynchronous communications occur when team members do not meet at the same time.
Emails, discussion forums, and team surveys are examples of asynchronous communication.
8) What are team surveys? What are their benefits?
Answer: Team surveys are a form of communication technology. With these, one team
member creates a list of questions and other team members respond.
Surveys are an effective way to obtain team opinions. They are generally easy to complete, so
most team members will participate. Also, it is easy to determine who has not yet responded.
9) Why is version control important for shared content?
Answer: Version control involves one or more of the following capabilities: (1) user activity
limited by permissions, (2) document checkout, (3) version histories, and (4) workflow. This
gives managers better control over shared content.
10) What is SharePoint Online?
Answer: SharePoint Online is an industrial-strength product for content sharing. It has deep
and rich features, and it can handle massive amounts of data and hundreds of users. Users can
use libraries and lists to manage and/or control content, gather team opinions with surveys
and wikis, and share team members' opinions with blogs.

Test Bank for Using MIS
David M. Kroenke, Randall J. Boyle
9780133029673, 9780135191767, 9780134106786, 9780138132484, 9780136100751, 9780134606996

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