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Chapter 5
Database Processing
True/False Questions
1) A spreadsheet should be used to store data if the structure of the list is simple.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Spreadsheets are suitable for storing data when the structure is simple, such as a list of items
or basic calculations. They provide a straightforward way to organize and manipulate data
without the complexity of a database.
2) The purpose of a database is to keep track of things that involve a single theme.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The purpose of a database is to store and manage collections of related data. Unlike
spreadsheets, databases are designed to handle complex relationships and interactions
between different types of data.
3) A database is a self-describing collection of integrated records.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A database is indeed a self-describing collection of integrated records. It contains both the
data itself and metadata, which describes the structure of the data and how it is organized.
4) A database is best described as a collection of tables which are not related to each other.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A database is best described as a collection of tables that are related to each other through
common fields or keys. These relationships enable data to be organized and accessed in
meaningful ways.

5) A group of similar rows or records is called a field.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A group of similar rows or records is called a table. A field is a single piece of data within a
record, representing a characteristic or attribute of the entity the record describes.
6) Special data that describes the structure of a database is called metadata.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Metadata refers to the special data that describes the structure of a database, including
information about tables, fields, relationships, and constraints. It is essential for
understanding and managing the database.
7) A key is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A key, such as a primary key, is indeed a column or group of columns that uniquely identifies
each row or record in a table. Keys are essential for maintaining data integrity and
establishing relationships between tables.
8) The rows in a database need to have two or more primary keys.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In a database, each row typically has a single primary key, which uniquely identifies that row
within the table. Having multiple primary keys for a single row would contradict the concept
of a primary key.
9) Metadata refer to entities that users of a database want to process.
Answer: False
Rationale:

Metadata refers to the structural information about the database itself, such as the names and
types of tables, fields, and relationships. It does not directly refer to the entities that users
want to process, although it provides the framework for organizing and accessing those
entities.
10) The format of metadata depends on the software product that is processing the database.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The format of metadata can vary depending on the specific database management system
(DBMS) or software product being used. Different DBMSs may use different formats or
standards for representing metadata, although common elements such as table and field
definitions are typically included.
11) A DBMS is a software that helps to manage the operating system.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A DBMS (Database Management System) is software designed to manage databases, not
operating systems. It provides an interface for users and applications to interact with the
database, manages data storage and retrieval, enforces data integrity, and ensures security.
12) MySQL is an open-source DBMS product which is license-free for most database
applications.
Answer: True
Rationale:
MySQL is indeed an open-source relational database management system (DBMS) that is
widely used for web development and other applications. It is available under the GNU
General Public License (GPL) and is generally free to use for most database applications.
13) To modify an existing table, a developer opens the metadata form for that table and adds
a new row of metadata.
Answer: True
Rationale:

In many DBMSs, modifying an existing table involves accessing the metadata (data about the
data) for that table and making changes to it. This often involves adding, modifying, or
deleting columns or rows in the metadata representation of the table's structure.
14) Most organizations develop their own DBMS software in order to obtain control over
data.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Developing a custom DBMS is typically not practical for most organizations due to the
complexity and resources required. Instead, organizations commonly use commercial or
open-source DBMS products that provide the necessary features and support for managing
data effectively.
15) SQL is an international standard language for processing a database.
Answer: True
Rationale:
SQL (Structured Query Language) is indeed an international standard language for managing
and querying relational databases. It provides commands for creating and modifying database
structures, inserting and updating data, and retrieving information from databases.
16) One of the functions of a DBMS is to provide tools to assist in the administration of the
database.
Answer: True
Rationale:
DBMSs typically include administrative tools and utilities to help database administrators
(DBAs) manage and maintain databases. These tools may include backup and recovery
utilities, performance monitoring tools, security management features, and tools for
optimizing database performance.
17) DBMS is used to set up security systems involving user accounts, passwords,
permissions, and limits for processing the database.
Answer: True

Rationale:
One of the key functions of a DBMS is to enforce security measures to protect the database
from unauthorized access, modification, or misuse. This includes managing user accounts,
assigning permissions, controlling access to data, and implementing authentication
mechanisms.
18) One of the developmental tasks of a database administrator is to create a system to record
and manage the resolution of problems.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Recording and managing the resolution of problems typically falls under the category of
operational tasks for a database administrator (DBA), not developmental tasks.
Developmental tasks may include designing and implementing database structures,
optimizing database performance, and planning for future growth and changes.
19) Managing the impact of database structure changes on applications and users is an
operational task for a database administrator.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Managing the impact of database structure changes on applications and users is typically a
developmental task for a database administrator (DBA). It involves coordinating with
developers and stakeholders to ensure that changes to the database structure are implemented
smoothly and do not disrupt existing applications or workflows.
20) A database application is a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs
that process a database.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A database application is indeed a software application that interacts with a database to
perform various tasks such as data entry, retrieval, manipulation, and reporting. It often
includes forms for data input, reports for presenting information, queries for retrieving
specific data, and application programs for performing specialized functions.

21) A database must have only one application, though the application can have one or more
users.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A database can serve multiple applications simultaneously. Different applications can access
and manipulate the same database, allowing for versatility and scalability in data
management.
22) Data entry forms are used to read, insert, modify, and delete data.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Data entry forms provide a user-friendly interface for interacting with a database. They allow
users to input, view, edit, and delete data stored in the database, facilitating efficient data
management and manipulation.
23) A drawback of DBMS programs is that they do not provide comprehensive and robust
features for querying database data.
Answer: False
Rationale:
DBMS programs typically offer powerful and flexible query capabilities, allowing users to
retrieve, analyze, and manipulate data using a variety of query languages and tools. These
features enhance the usefulness and usability of databases for decision-making and data
analysis.
24) In order to find the data one is looking for in a DBMS, one has to type in the keyword
into a query form.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Querying data in a DBMS often involves specifying search criteria, such as keywords,
conditions, or expressions, in a query form or through a query language. This allows users to
retrieve specific data matching their search criteria from the database.

25) Application programs process logic that is specific to a given business need.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Application programs are designed to perform specific tasks or functions to meet the
requirements of a particular business or organizational need. They implement business logic
and rules to process data and support various operations and workflows.
26) The lost-update problem can be resolved by implementing multi-user database
processing.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The lost-update problem occurs when multiple users simultaneously attempt to update the
same data in a database, leading to conflicts and potential loss of data integrity. Resolving
this problem typically requires implementing concurrency control mechanisms such as
locking or timestamping.
27) Some type of locking must be used to coordinate the activities of users who know nothing
about one another in order to prevent the lost-update problem.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Locking is a common concurrency control technique used in DBMSs to coordinate access to
shared data among multiple users. By acquiring and releasing locks on data objects, the
DBMS ensures that only one user can modify a given data item at a time, thereby preventing
conflicts and maintaining data consistency.
28) Microsoft's SQL Server is an example of a personal DBMS product.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Microsoft SQL Server is an enterprise-level relational database management system
(RDBMS) designed for large-scale database applications in organizations. It is not typically

used as a personal DBMS product but rather for business-critical applications and data
management.
29) Microsoft Access is both a DBMS and an application development product.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Microsoft Access is a database management system (DBMS) that also includes features for
developing database applications. It provides tools for creating and managing databases, as
well as for designing forms, reports, and queries to interact with the data.
30) Developers need to construct a data model before building a database.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Constructing a data model is an essential step in the database development process. A data
model defines the structure, relationships, and constraints of the data to be stored in the
database, serving as a blueprint for designing and implementing the database schema.
31) A data model describes data, whereas a database explains the relationships among the
data that will be stored in the database.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A data model encompasses both the structure of the data (entities, attributes, relationships)
and the relationships among them. It serves as a blueprint for designing databases, including
the organization and interconnections of data elements.
32) In data models, physical objects are represented as entities, whereas logical constructs
and transactions are represented as attributes.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In data models, entities represent real-world objects or concepts, while attributes describe the
properties or characteristics of those entities. Physical objects are not directly represented in

data models; instead, entities and attributes abstractly model the relevant aspects of the real
world.
33) Attributes are used to describe characteristics of entities.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Attributes are properties or characteristics that describe the entities in a data model. They
represent the specific details or qualities associated with each entity, such as name, age, or
address in the case of a person entity.
34) An identifier is an attribute or a group of attributes whose value is associated with one,
and only one, entity instance.
Answer: True
Rationale:
An identifier, also known as a primary key, uniquely identifies each entity instance within a
database table. It ensures that each entity instance is uniquely identifiable and can be
distinguished from other instances. An identifier can consist of a single attribute or a
combination of attributes.
35) In an E-R diagram, an entity is represented by a single triangle and the relationships
between entities are represented by dotted lines.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram, entities are typically represented by rectangles, not
triangles. Relationships between entities are represented by lines connecting the entities, and
the nature of the relationship (such as one-to-many or many-to-many) is indicated by
appropriate symbols or notations.
36) A line in an E-R diagram is used to represent the attributes of the entities.
Answer: False
Rationale:

In an E-R diagram, attributes are typically represented within the rectangles that depict
entities, not by lines. Lines represent relationships between entities, while attributes are listed
within or near the rectangles representing the entities.
37) The crow's-foot notation of an E-R diagram shows the maximum number of entities that
can be involved in a relationship.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Crow's-foot notation in an E-R diagram indicates the maximum cardinality of a relationship,
showing the maximum number of entity instances that can participate in the relationship. This
notation helps to define the constraints on the relationship, such as whether it is one-to-one,
one-to-many, or many-to-many.
38) A crow's foot notation would indicate the minimum cardinality of a relationship.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Crow's foot notation primarily indicates the maximum cardinality of a relationship, showing
the maximum number of entity instances that can participate in the relationship. Minimum
cardinality is usually not represented explicitly in crow's foot notation but is inferred based
on the context and business rules.
39) Minimum cardinalities are a measure of the constraints on the number of entities required
in a relationship.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Minimum cardinality in a relationship specifies the minimum number of entity instances that
must participate in the relationship. It represents the minimum requirements or constraints
imposed on the relationship, such as whether participation is mandatory or optional for
entities.
40) 1:N, N:M, and 1:1 are common examples of minimum cardinalities.
Answer: False

Rationale:
1:N (one-to-many), N:M (many-to-many), and 1:1 (one-to-one) represent different types of
relationships in a data model, indicating how entity instances are related to each other. They
define the cardinality ratios between entities in a relationship but do not specifically represent
minimum cardinalities.
41) The small oval on a line in an E-R diagram means that the entity is optional.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram, a small oval at the end of a relationship line
indicates optional participation, meaning that the entity instance on that end of the
relationship may or may not exist. It represents an optional relationship between entities.
42) Normalization is the process of combining two or more tables into a single table.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to reduce redundancy and
dependency. It involves decomposing tables into smaller, more manageable entities and
establishing relationships between them to improve data integrity and minimize anomalies.
43) The data integrity problem occurs if data are duplicated.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Data integrity refers to the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data stored in a database.
Data duplication can lead to inconsistencies and inaccuracies, which are considered data
integrity problems because they undermine the reliability of the database.
44) The general goal of normalization is to construct tables such that every table has a single
topic or theme.
Answer: True
Rationale:

The primary objective of normalization is to design database tables in such a way that each
table represents a single subject or entity type, and each attribute is functionally dependent on
the primary key. This helps reduce data redundancy and anomalies, leading to a more
efficient and maintainable database schema.
45) Normalized tables are faster to process than denormalized tables.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While normalized tables offer benefits such as improved data integrity and flexibility, they
may require more complex queries and joins to retrieve data compared to denormalized
tables. In some cases, denormalized tables can be faster to process for specific types of
queries, especially those involving aggregations and reporting.
46) A foreign key is essential in relational databases to represent the relationship between two
tables.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In relational databases, a foreign key is a column or set of columns that establishes a link or
relationship between two tables. It enforces referential integrity by ensuring that values in the
foreign key column(s) of one table match values in the primary key column(s) of another
table, thus maintaining the integrity of the relationship.
47) The accuracy of a database design is independent of the corresponding data model.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The accuracy of a database design is closely tied to the underlying data model used to
represent the structure, relationships, and constraints of the database. A well-designed data
model helps ensure that the database accurately captures the requirements of the domain and
facilitates efficient data storage, retrieval, and manipulation.
48) Users are the final judges as to what data the database should contain and how the records
in that database should be related to one another.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Ultimately, the users of a database are the ones who understand the business requirements
and data needs best. They are responsible for determining the data elements to be stored in
the database, defining relationships between entities, and specifying constraints and business
rules to ensure data integrity and usability.
49) The easiest time to change the database structure is immediately before the data modeling
stage.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The data modeling stage is a crucial phase in database development where the database
structure, relationships, and constraints are defined. Making significant changes to the
database structure after this stage can be complex, time-consuming, and costly. It is generally
easier and more efficient to make structural changes during the early stages of database
design.
50) Google developed a nonrelational data store called Dynamo.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Google did not develop Dynamo; it was actually developed by Amazon. Dynamo is a highly
available and scalable distributed data store used by Amazon Web Services (AWS) for
managing key-value and document-oriented data. Google's nonrelational data store is known
as Bigtable, which serves similar purposes but is distinct from Dynamo.
51) Facebook developed a nonrelational data store called Bigtable.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Facebook did not develop Bigtable; it was actually developed by Google. Bigtable is a
distributed storage system for managing structured data and is used internally by Google for
various applications. Facebook's nonrelational data store is known as Apache Cassandra,

which is a highly scalable and distributed database system designed to handle large amounts
of data across multiple commodity servers.
Multiple Choice Questions
1) The purpose of a(n) ________ is to keep track of things.
A) cloud
B) database
C) storage folder
D) application software
Answer: B
Rationale:
A database is specifically designed to store and organize data in a structured manner,
allowing users to easily retrieve, manipulate, and manage information. It serves as a
centralized repository for storing various types of data related to a specific domain or subject.
2) Which of the following is the smallest data element in a database?
A) field
B) record
C) byte
D) file
Answer: C
Rationale:
In a database, a byte is the smallest unit of data storage. It represents a single character, such
as a letter, number, or symbol, and is typically composed of 8 bits.
3) The columns in a database are called ________.
A) records
B) tables

C) files
D) fields
Answer: D
Rationale:
In a database, columns are referred to as fields. Each field represents a specific attribute or
characteristic of the data being stored, such as name, age, or address.
4) The rows in a database are called ________.
A) records
B) tables
C) files
D) fields
Answer: A
Rationale:
Rows in a database are known as records. Each record contains a complete set of related data
fields, representing a single instance or entity within the database.
5) The tables that appear in a database are known as ________.
A) records
B) files
C) fields
D) applications
Answer: B
Rationale:
Tables are the primary structures used to organize and store data in a database. Each table
consists of rows and columns, with each row representing a record and each column
representing a field.

6) Which of the following data elements is placed higher than records in the data hierarchy?
A) file
B) field
C) character
D) byte
Answer: A
Rationale:
In the data hierarchy of a database, a file is placed higher than records. A file typically
represents a collection of related records, organized for efficient storage and retrieval.
7) A primary key used in a database is a ________.
A) group of rows that are formed to identify a unique table or file
B) column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table
C) character or byte that represents fields or columns
D) group of tables or files formed to identify a unique field or row
Answer: B
Rationale:
A primary key is a column or group of columns in a database table that uniquely identifies
each row in that table. It ensures that each row can be uniquely identified and retrieved from
the table.
8) Albert creates a relational database to store employee performance statistics. He stores
each employee's data in independent rows and creates a column named "Employee Number"
to assign unique numbers to each employee. This column is referred to as a(n) ________.
A) primary key
B) identifier
C) foreign key
D) primary record

Answer: A
Rationale:
In this scenario, the "Employee Number" column serves as a primary key because it uniquely
identifies each employee record in the database table. It ensures the integrity and uniqueness
of the employee data.
9) Columns that belong to a different table than the one in which they reside are called
________.
A) attributes
B) foreign keys
C) primary keys
D) internal records
Answer: B
Rationale:
Columns that belong to a different table than the one in which they reside are known as
foreign keys. Foreign keys establish relationships between tables by referencing the primary
key of another table.
10) Relational databases represent relationships using ________.
A) foreign keys
B) file systems
C) metadata
D) unique identifiers
Answer: A
Rationale:
Relational databases represent relationships between tables using foreign keys. Foreign keys
establish connections between tables by referencing the primary key of one table from
another table, enabling data integrity and consistency.

11) Metadata are ________.
A) data stored on the main server
B) error logs of databases
C) data that describe data
D) encrypted data transmissions
Answer: C
Rationale:
Metadata refers to data that describe the characteristics or properties of other data. It provides
information about the structure, organization, and usage of the actual data stored in a
database.
12) A(n) ________ is a program used to create, process, and administer a database.
A) operating system
B) DBMS
C) KMS
D) data mart
Answer: B
Rationale:
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that provides tools and
services for creating, managing, and manipulating databases. It allows users to store, retrieve,
and modify data efficiently while ensuring data integrity and security.
13) Which of the following is an example of a database management system?
A) MS Excel
B) Unix
C) Ubuntu
D) Access

Answer: D
Rationale:
Microsoft Access is a popular example of a database management system (DBMS). It
provides users with tools for creating and managing databases, including features for
designing tables, defining relationships, and creating queries, forms, and reports.
14) From among the following, identify the open source DBMS product.
A) MySQL
B) DB2
C) Access
D) Oracle Database
Answer: A
Rationale:
MySQL is an example of an open-source database management system (DBMS). It is widely
used for various applications and is available for free under an open-source license, making it
accessible to developers and organizations.
15) Which of the following is a valid observation of MySQL?
A) It is offered by Oracle.
B) It is license-free for most applications.
C) It is a closed-source database product.
D) It is yet to be widely adopted.
Answer: B
Rationale:
MySQL is known for being license-free for most applications, making it a cost-effective
choice for developers and organizations. It is open-source software, maintained and supported
by a community of developers worldwide.
16) When you modify or delete data present in a database, you are ________.

A) creating a new database
B) forming a data model
C) simplifying the data structure
D) processing the database
Answer: D
Rationale:
Modifying or deleting data in a database involves processing the database, which includes
operations such as updating existing records, deleting unwanted data, or adding new data to
the database.
17) Which of the following is an international standard language for processing a database?
A) Paradox
B) DB2
C) SQL
D) MS Access
Answer: C
Rationale:
SQL (Structured Query Language) is an international standard language used for managing
and manipulating relational databases. It provides a set of commands for performing various
operations such as querying data, updating records, and managing database structures.
18) Which of the following is a developmental task of database administration?
A) creating and staffing the DBA function
B) monitoring backup procedures
C) conducting training for users
D) managing configuration changes in systems
Answer: A

Rationale:
Creating and staffing the Database Administrator (DBA) function is a developmental task of
database administration. It involves establishing the role of the DBA within an organization,
defining responsibilities, and recruiting qualified personnel to fulfill the role.
19) Identify the type of task that a database administrator is performing when validating the
data model to be used in a database management system.
A) development
B) adaptation
C) recovery
D) operation
Answer: A
Rationale:
Validating the data model to be used in a database management system involves development
tasks. It requires assessing the structure and integrity of the data model, ensuring that it meets
the requirements and objectives of the organization's database implementation.
20) The database administrator of an organization constantly manages the processing rights
and responsibilities of employees. This is an example of a(n) ________ task.
A) development
B) recovery
C) adaptation
D) operational
Answer: D
Rationale:
Managing the processing rights and responsibilities of employees is an operational task for a
database administrator. It involves overseeing user access permissions, security
configurations, and ensuring compliance with organizational policies and procedures.
21) Which of the following database administration tasks is related to adaptation?

A) monitoring backup procedures
B) conducting training for users
C) monitoring database performance
D) managing configuration changes in systems
Answer: D
Rationale:
Managing configuration changes in systems is related to adaptation in database
administration. This task involves making adjustments to the database configuration to
accommodate changes in requirements, technology, or organizational needs.
22) A ________ is a collection of forms, reports, queries, and programs that process a
database.
A) database application
B) database design
C) data field
D) data model
Answer: A
Rationale:
A database application refers to a collection of forms, reports, queries, and programs designed
to process a database. It provides users with interfaces to interact with the database and
perform various operations such as data entry, retrieval, and analysis.
23) ________ forms are used to read, insert, modify, and delete data.
A) Reporting
B) Data entry
C) Query
D) Request
Answer: B

Rationale:
Data entry forms are used to input, modify, and delete data in a database. They provide
interfaces for users to interact with the database by entering or updating information.
24) A ________ is a request for data from a database.
A) data entry
B) report
C) query
D) command
Answer: C
Rationale:
A query is a request for data from a database. It typically involves retrieving specific
information based on specified criteria or conditions.
25) Brenda, the sales manager of a firm, wants to generate a particular report containing sales
analyses of the second and third quarter of the year. After accessing the DBMS, she should
type the keyword into a ________ form to obtain the information that she wants.
A) report
B) reference
C) data entry
D) query
Answer: D
Rationale:
Brenda should use a query form to obtain the specific sales analyses she wants. A query
allows her to specify the criteria for retrieving the desired information from the database.
26) Which of the following refers to the problem that exists in database applications when
two users update the same data item, but only one of those changes is recorded?
A) lost-update problem

B) crow's-foot paradigm
C) bullwhip effect
D) update query problem
Answer: A
Rationale:
The lost-update problem occurs in database applications when two users update the same data
item simultaneously, resulting in one of the changes being lost or overwritten. It can lead to
inconsistencies and data integrity issues.
27) A(n) ________ DBMS is designed to process large organizational and workgroup
databases.
A) operational
B) process
C) personal
D) enterprise
Answer: D
Rationale:
An enterprise DBMS is designed to handle large-scale databases used by organizations or
workgroups. It provides robust features for managing and processing extensive volumes of
data efficiently.
28) An organization buys a proprietary database application to be used by a small workgroup
of five people. This is an example of a(n) ________ DBMS.
A) enterprise
B) interenterprise
C) personal
D) open source
Answer: C

Rationale:
This scenario exemplifies the use of a personal DBMS, which is intended for smaller-scale
database applications typically used by individuals or small workgroups. Personal DBMS
products are often simpler and more user-friendly than enterprise-level systems.
29) Which of the following is an example of an enterprise DBMS?
A) Access
B) SQL Server
C) Paradox
D) FoxPro
Answer: B
Rationale:
SQL Server is an example of an enterprise-level DBMS designed to manage large-scale
databases used by organizations. It offers advanced features for data management, scalability,
and performance optimization.
30) Which of the following types of DBMS products is designed for smaller and simpler
database applications?
A) object-oriented DBMS
B) strategic DBMS
C) personal DBMS
D) enterprise DBMS
Answer: C
Rationale:
Personal DBMS products are specifically designed for smaller and simpler database
applications, often used by individuals or small workgroups. They typically offer basic
functionality and are easier to use compared to enterprise-level systems.
31) ________ is an example of a personal DBMS.

A) SQL Server
B) DB2
C) Oracle Database
D) Access
Answer: D
Rationale:
Access is a personal DBMS developed by Microsoft, designed for smaller-scale database
applications typically used by individuals or small workgroups. It offers user-friendly
interfaces and basic functionality for database management tasks.
32) A ________ describes the data and relationships that will be stored in a database.
A) data aggregator
B) query model
C) data model
D) data application
Answer: C
Rationale:
A data model provides a logical representation of the data and the relationships among the
data that will be stored in a database. It defines the structure, constraints, and rules governing
the organization of data within the database.
33) An administrator should create ________ before developing a database design.
A) data aggregator
B) query model
C) data model
D) data application
Answer: C

Rationale:
Before developing a database design, it is essential to create a data model. The data model
serves as the foundation for designing the database structure, defining entities, attributes, and
relationships that will be implemented in the database.
34) A data model is a ________.
A) logical representation of database data
B) repository of unprocessed data
C) collection of isolated databases
D) set of programs to retrieve data
Answer: A
Rationale:
A data model is a logical representation of the database data and the relationships among the
data entities. It defines the structure and organization of data in the database, including
entities, attributes, relationships, and constraints.
35) In a data model, a(n) ________ is something that a user wants to track.
A) record
B) byte
C) entity
D) primary key
Answer: C
Rationale:
In a data model, an entity represents a real-world object, concept, or event that users want to
track and manage within the database. It typically corresponds to a noun in the problem
domain and serves as a container for related data.
36) Brad, a project manager, wants to build a database to integrate information about
employees and tasks that they handle. Brad wants to track information such as task name,

percentage completed, and employee name. These aspects that Brad wants to track are called
________.
A) identifiers
B) records
C) primary keys
D) entities
Answer: D
Rationale:
In a data model, the aspects that Brad wants to track, such as task name, percentage
completed, and employee name, represent entities. Entities represent real-world objects or
concepts that users want to track and manage within the database.
37) Entities in a data model have ________ that describe the characteristics of the entity.
A) characters
B) primary keys
C) codes
D) attributes
Answer: D
Rationale:
Attributes are properties or characteristics of entities in a data model. They describe the
various aspects or properties of an entity, such as its name, size, type, or color, and provide
detailed information about the entity.
38) Each entity in a database has a unique attribute called a(n) ________.
A) public key
B) identifier
C) foreign key
D) index field

Answer: B
Rationale:
Each entity in a database has a unique attribute called an identifier or primary key. The
primary key uniquely identifies each instance or record of the entity within the database and
ensures data integrity and uniqueness.
39) In an E-R diagram, a line between two entities represents a(n) ________.
A) attribute
B) identifier
C) cardinality
D) relationship
Answer: D
Rationale:
In an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram, a line between two entities represents a relationship
between them. It indicates how the entities are related to each other and the nature of the
association, such as one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many.
40) The forked lines on the right side of a line on an E-R diagram that indicates a 1:N
relationship between two entities is referred to as ________.
A) Kerberos
B) maximum cardinality
C) crow's feet
D) minimum cardinality
Answer: C
Rationale:
The forked lines on the right side of a line on an E-R diagram, indicating a 1:N (one-to-many)
relationship between two entities, are referred to as crow's feet. Crow's feet notation
represents the maximum cardinality of the relationship, indicating that one entity can be
associated with multiple instances of another entity.

41) Which of the following is true of N:M relationships?
A) The number of entities on each side must be equal.
B) They are common examples of minimum cardinalities.
C) They are also called one-to-many relationships.
D) They can have more than one entity on each side of the relationship.
Answer: D
Rationale:
N:M (many-to-many) relationships can have more than one entity on each side of the
relationship. This means that multiple instances of one entity can be related to multiple
instances of another entity, making it a versatile and flexible relationship type.
42) A student management system allows students to have multiple majors and advisers are
assigned to handle multiple students and courses. This is an example of a(n) ________
relationship.
A) 1:N
B) 1:1
C) N:M
D) M:1
Answer: C
Rationale:
The described scenario, where students can have multiple majors and advisers handle
multiple students and courses, represents a many-to-many (N:M) relationship. This is because
multiple students can be associated with multiple majors, and multiple advisers can be
associated with multiple students and courses.
43) Minimum cardinalities in an E-R diagram refer to the minimum number of entities
required in a(n) ________.
A) department
B) database

C) attribute
D) relationship
Answer: D
Rationale:
Minimum cardinalities in an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram specify the minimum number
of entities that must participate in a relationship. It indicates the lowest possible count of
entities required to maintain the relationship's integrity.
44) Constraints on the number of entities in a relationship are called ________ cardinalities.
A) specific
B) minimum
C) primary
D) critical
Answer: B
Rationale:
Constraints on the number of entities in a relationship are referred to as minimum
cardinalities. These constraints specify the minimum number of entities required to
participate in a relationship, ensuring the integrity and validity of the relationship.
45) In an E-R diagram, a(n) ________ on a line means that at least one entity of that type is
required.
A) small oval
B) vertical bar
C) arrow
D) triangular block
Answer: B
Rationale:

In an E-R diagram, a vertical bar on a line connecting entities represents a minimum
cardinality, indicating that at least one entity of that type is required to participate in the
relationship.
46) Which of the following formations on a line in an E-R diagram means that the
relationship need not have an entity of that type?
A) vertical bar
B) arrow
C) double line
D) small oval
Answer: D
Rationale:
In an E-R diagram, a small oval on a line connecting entities indicates an optional
relationship. It means that the relationship need not have an entity of that type, and
participation is optional.
47) ________ is the process of converting a data model into tables, relationships, and data
constraints.
A) Database design
B) Database querying
C) Data mining
D) Database aggregation
Answer: A
Rationale:
Database design is the process of transforming a data model, which represents the logical
structure of the database, into tables, relationships, and data constraints that can be
implemented in a database management system (DBMS).
48) A database design team transforms entities into tables and expresses relationships by
defining ________.

A) cardinalities
B) attributes
C) foreign keys
D) departments
Answer: C
Rationale:
In the database design process, entities are transformed into tables, and relationships between
tables are expressed by defining foreign keys. Foreign keys establish the connections between
tables, representing the associations defined in the data model.
49) ________ is the process of converting a poorly-structured table into two or more wellstructured tables.
A) Optimization
B) Normalization
C) Refactoring
D) Standardization
Answer: B
Rationale:
Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to reduce redundancy and
dependency. It involves splitting a poorly-structured table into two or more well-structured
tables to improve data integrity and eliminate data anomalies.
50) In a database, when data items disagree with one another, this leads to a(n) ________.
A) data integrity problem
B) crow's-foot paradigm
C) adaptation conflict
D) lost-update problem
Answer: A

Rationale:
When data items in a database conflict or contradict each other, it results in a data integrity
problem. Data integrity refers to the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data stored in a
database, and any inconsistencies can lead to data integrity issues.
51) A data integrity problem will occur only if ________.
A) there are multiple administrators
B) data are duplicated
C) the database is very large
D) there are complex relationships
Answer: B
Rationale:
Data integrity problems typically occur when there are inconsistencies or contradictions in
the data stored in the database. Data duplication can lead to discrepancies and conflicts,
resulting in data integrity issues.
52) Every table in a normalized database has ________.
A) duplicated data model
B) single theme
C) maximum cardinality
D) specialized query format
Answer: B
Rationale:
In a normalized database, each table is designed to represent a single theme or subject. This
approach reduces redundancy and improves data integrity by organizing data logically and
efficiently.
53) Identify the first step in transforming a data model into a relational database design.
A) representing the data relationships

B) normalizing the data and files
C) creating foreign keys
D) creating a table for each entity
Answer: D
Rationale:
The first step in transforming a data model into a relational database design is to create a
table for each entity identified in the data model. Each table represents a distinct entity type,
with attributes corresponding to the properties of that entity.
54) When using the relational model to represent data, one must ________.
A) add a foreign key to one of the tables
B) have more than ten tables in the model
C) establish only N:M relationships between tables
D) use metadata instead of foreign keys
Answer: A
Rationale:
In the relational model, relationships between tables are established using foreign keys.
Foreign keys link tables together by referencing the primary key of another table, maintaining
referential integrity and enforcing data consistency.
55) Which of the following is true about the database development process?
A) The database structure cannot be changed during the data modeling stage.
B) Changing a relationship from 1:N to N:M is simply a matter of changing the notations.
C) User review of the data model is avoided as it is not helpful in data modeling.
D) A database is a model of how the developers view their business world.
Answer: B
Rationale:

Changing a relationship from 1:N to N:M in a data model involves more than just changing
notations. It requires a careful analysis of the data and its relationships to ensure that the
model accurately represents the business requirements.
56) ________ are the final judges as to what data the database should contain and how the
records in that database should be related to one another.
A) Administrators
B) Developers
C) Users
D) Designers
Answer: C
Rationale:
Users are the final judges of what data should be stored in the database and how the records
should be related to each other. They provide input based on their operational needs and
domain knowledge, guiding the database development process.
57) Which of the following is a nonrelational data store developed by Amazon?
A) Cassandra
B) Dynamo
C) SharePoint
D) Bigtable
Answer: B
Rationale:
Dynamo is a nonrelational data store developed by Amazon. It is designed to provide scalable
and highly available storage for applications with large volumes of data and high request
rates.
58) Which of the following is a nonrelational data store developed by Google?
A) Cassandra

B) Dynamo
C) SharePoint
D) Bigtable
Answer: D
Rationale:
Bigtable is a nonrelational data store developed by Google. It is designed to store massive
amounts of structured data and is used internally by Google for various applications,
including Google Search and Google Maps.
59) Which of the following is a nonrelational data store developed by Facebook?
A) Cassandra
B) Dynamo
C) Bigtable
D) SharePoint
Answer: A
Rationale:
Cassandra is a nonrelational data store developed by Facebook. It is designed to handle large
amounts of data across multiple commodity servers, providing high availability and
scalability for distributed applications.
Essay Questions
1) What is the purpose of a database?
Answer: The purpose of a database is to keep track of things. Lists of data involving a single
theme can be stored in a spreadsheet; lists that involve data with multiple themes require a
database. Thus, the purpose of a database is to keep track of things that involve more than
one theme.
2) Describe a database and its various elements.
Answer: A database is a self-describing collection of integrated records. A byte is a character
of data. In databases, bytes are grouped into columns. Columns are also called fields.

Columns or fields are grouped into rows, which are also called records. Finally, a group of
similar rows or records is called a table or a file. A database is thus a collection of tables plus
relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data, called metadata, that describes
the structure of the database.
3) Define primary key, foreign key, and metadata.
Answer: A primary key is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a
table. Columns that belong to a different table than the one in which they reside are called
foreign keys. Metadata are data that describe data.
4) Describe a DBMS and its functions. List some of the popular DBMS softwares.
Answer: A database management system (DBMS) is a program used to create, process, and
administer a database. The first function of DBMS is that database developers use the DBMS
to create tables, relationships, and other structures in the database. The second function of the
DBMS is to process the database. Applications use the DBMS for four operations: to read,
insert, modify, or delete data. A third DBMS function is to provide tools to assist in the
administration of the database.
Popular DBMS products are DB2 from IBM, Access and SQL Server from Microsoft, and
Oracle from Oracle Corporation. Another popular DBMS is MySQL, an open source DBMS
product that is license-free for most applications.
5) What are application programs and what are their functions?
Answer: In a database, forms, reports, and queries work well for standard functions.
However, most applications have unique requirements that a simple form, report, or query
cannot meet. This is where application programs come in. Application programs process logic
that is specific to a given business need. Another important use of application programs is to
enable database processing over the Internet. For this use, the application program serves as
an intermediary between the Web server and the database. The application program responds
to events, such as when a user presses a submit button; it also reads, inserts, modifies, and
deletes database data.
6) Explain the different types of DBMS products.
Answer: DBMS products fall into two broad categories: enterprise DBMS and personal
DBMS. Enterprise DBMS products process large organizational and workgroup databases.

These products support many, possibly thousands, of users and many different database
applications. Such DBMS products support 24/7 operations and can manage databases that
span dozens of different magnetic disks with hundreds of gigabytes or more of data.
Personal DBMS products are designed for smaller, simpler database applications. Such
products are used for personal or small workgroup applications that involve fewer than 100
users, and normally fewer than 15. In fact, the great bulk of databases in this category have
only a single user.
7) Describe the elements of a data model. Provide examples.
Answer: An entity is something that the users want to track. Entity names are always singular
and they have attributes that describe characteristics of the entity. Entities have an identifier,
which is an attribute (or group of attributes) whose value is associated with one, and only
one, entity instance.
8) How does normalization resolve the data integrity problem?
Answer: Database design is the process of converting a data model into tables, relationships,
and data constraints. Normalization is the process of converting a poorly-structured table into
two or more well-structured tables. If an attribute is entered correctly in one row and
incorrectly in the next this leads to a problem called a data integrity problem.
The data integrity problem can occur only if data are duplicated. Because of this, one easy
way to eliminate the problem is to eliminate the duplicated data. The general goal of
normalization is to construct tables such that every table has a single topic or theme. Database
practitioners classify tables into various normal forms according to the kinds of problems
they have. Transforming a table into a normal form to remove duplicated data and other
problems is called normalizing the table.
9) What are the steps involved in transforming a data model into a relational database design?
Answer: First, the database designer creates a table for each entity. The identifier of the entity
becomes the key of the table. Each attribute of the entity becomes a column of the table.
Next, the resulting tables are normalized so that each table has a single theme. The next step
is to represent relationships among the tables that are normalized. The next task is to
represent the relationship. This includes adding foreign keys and additional tables for N:M
relationships.

10) Explain the role of users in the database development process.
Answer: A database is a model of how the users view their business world. This means that
the users are the final judges as to what data the database should contain and how the records
in that database should be related to one another. Thus, user review of the data model is
crucial. When a database is developed for your use, you must carefully review the data
model. If you do not understand any aspect of it, you should ask for clarification until you do.
Entities must contain all of the data you and your employees need to do your jobs, and
relationships must accurately reflect your view of the business. If the data model is wrong,
the database will be designed incorrectly, and the applications will be difficult to use, if not
worthless. Do not proceed unless the data model is accurate.

Test Bank for Using MIS
David M. Kroenke, Randall J. Boyle
9780133029673, 9780135191767, 9780134106786, 9780138132484, 9780136100751, 9780134606996

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