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Chapter 5: Stress and Physical and Mental Health Multiple-Choice Questions 1. According to the text, the term "stress" will be used to refer to a. only those external events in our lives that challenge us. b. any positive demand made on an organism. c. the effects of external stressors within the organism. d. anything that makes us unhappy. Answer: c. the effects of external stressors within the organism. 2. Selye a. recognized that both happy and sad life events can be sources of stress. b. conducted extensive research on the effects of stress on the immune system. c. failed to acknowledge the role of the environment in adapting to stress. d. focused on the cognitive component of the stress response. Answer: a. recognized that both happy and sad life events can be sources of stress. 3. Distress is a. seen when a situation is ambiguous. b. a response to a happy life event. c. the same thing as eustress. d. a response to a negative event. Answer: d. a response to a negative event. 4. Which of the following terms refers to efforts to deal with stress? a. coping strategies b. compensatory strategies c. sublimation d. projection Answer: a. Coping strategies 5. What do positive and negative stressors have in common? a. They usually last indefinitely. b. Both occur without warning. c. They have an equivalent potential for causing lasting damage. d. Both tax one's resources and coping skills. Answer: d. Both tax one's resources and coping skills. 6. In DSM-5, a new category has been added. What is this new category? a. stress not specified b. positive stressor disorders c. stress and psychopathology d. trauma- and stressor-related disorders Answer: d. trauma- and stressor-related disorders 7. Which of the following psychological disturbances does not occur in response to an identifiable experience? a. adjustment disorder b. acute stress disorder c. depression d. post-traumatic stress disorder Answer: c. depression 8. According to your textbook, which of the following is most stressful to people and animals? a. constant stressors b. predictable stressors c. uncontrollable stressors d. physical stressors Answer: c. Uncontrollable stressors 9. Coping strategies are a. efforts to deal with stress. b. efforts to avoid conflict. c. the same thing as eustress. d. the dynamic interaction between the types of stressors and the person. Answer: a. efforts to deal with stress. 10. Which of the following factors is linked to a person's ability to cope better? a. intelligence b. social support c. absence of the 5HT-TLPR gene d. early life stress Answer: b. social support 11. Stress tolerance is a. a biological attribute b. a pressure c. a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired d. a crisis for most people Answer: c. a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired 12. Crisis is a. a double avoidance conflict. b. when the individual cannot make a decision. c. an internal pressure. d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual. Answer: d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual. 13. Which of the following is not considered a life change? a. being promoted b. being diabetic c. getting pregnant d. a death in the family Answer: b. being diabetic 14. What is not a key factor in making a stressor more serious? a. how long it lasts b. how severe it is c. its type or category d. how expected it is Answer: c. its type or category 15. According to the text, a factor that does not make one stressor more serious than another includes: a. severity b. chronicity c. geographic region d. how expected it is. Answer: c. geographic region 16. The term "crisis" refers to a. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's ability to cope. b. encountering a number of stressors simultaneously. c. a period of especially acute stress. d. any encounter that requires a readjustment of self-concept. Answer: a. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's ability to cope. 17. Who is likely to have the most severe stress? a. Anne, who is planning her wedding b. Bill, who has a deadline the next day for an important project c. Lauren, who sees the aftermath of an accident d. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news Answer: d. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news. 18. What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis? a. There is no difference, these are just two words for the same thing. b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises. c. There is a biological response to stress, but not to crisis. d. A stressor is an unexpected crisis. Answer: b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises. 19. The development of new methods of coping a. may be an outcome of a crisis. b. always occurs when adaptive capabilities are exceeded. c. increases the expectation of future failures. d. is continuously needed as we face new stressors on a daily basis. Answer: a. may be an outcome of a crisis. 20. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale a. examines the role that coping plays in dealing with life changes. b. did not acknowledge that happy events create life changes and, as a consequence, stress. c. is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time. d. has been used to demonstrate that life events and health are not related. Answer: c. is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time. 21. A client is administered the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Which of the following would be measured? a. severe crises b. major life transitions c. availability of coping resources d. common, stressful life experiences Answer: d. common, stressful life experiences 22. The Life Events and Difficulty Schedule a. is another name for the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. b. allows the rater to consider the person's unique circumstances. c. was developed prior to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. d. does not provide any more information than the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Answer: b. allows the rater to consider the person's unique circumstances. 23. Which of the following is a criticism of the life event, interview-based scales? a. They do not recognize that joyful events can be stressful. b. They limit the kind of events that can be reported. c. They do not recognize that multiple life changes will produce greater stress. d. They are more expensive to administer. Answer: b. They are more expensive to administer. 24. The Life Event and Difficulty Schedule a. provides a quick way to assess stress responses and coping skills. b. allows raters to consider different circumstances around the same stressor. c. focuses on how difficult life events are handled. d. provides a timeline for describing the stress response. Answer: b. allows raters to consider different circumstances around the same stressor. 25. Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation? a. holding unrealistic expectations about the stressor b. minimizing the use of social support c. preparing for the stressor d. being uncertain as to how long the stressor will persist Answer: c. preparing for the stressor 26. An individual with a high stress tolerance a. can function well in the face of a high level of stress. b. is likely to be particularly vulnerable to slight frustration. c. may feel threatened more readily than those with low stress tolerance. d. is particularly vulnerable to acute stress disorder. Answer: a. can function well in the face of a high level of stress. 27. Healthy psychological and physical functioning after a potentially traumatic event is called: a. coping b. resilience c. compensation d. adaptation Answer: b. resilience 28. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor that increases resilience? a. being female b. being older c. being African American d. being Latino Answer: b. being older 29. Which of the following parts has not been linked to the stress response? a. the hypothalamus b. the cerebellum c. the adrenal medulla d. the pituitary Answer: b. the cerebellum 30. The stress glucocorticoid that is produced in humans is called a. adrenalin b. estrogen c. cortisol d. repression Answer: c. cortisol 31. Cortisol a. is always stable in humans. b. does not respond to stress. c. prepares the body for fight or flight. d. prepares the body for sleep. Answer: c. prepares the body for fight or flight. 32. Which of the following statements about stress is correct? a. the response an individual will have to a stressor can be readily predicted. b. cognitive factors do not play a role in determining the severity of stress. c. some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands. d. changes in the level of external supports one has are unrelated to stress reactions. Answer: c. some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands. 33. What is the name of the system that is designed to mobilize resources and prepare a fight-or-flight response? a. the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system b. the cortex-thalamus cortisol system c. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system d. the parasympathetic prefrontal cortex system Answer: c. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system 34. What is the term for the biological cost of adapting to stress? a. allostatic load b. homeostatic load c. sympathetic load d. parasympathetic load Answer: a. allostatic load 35. I often find that when I am ill, I am not able to cope effectively with the normal hassles of life. I find myself becoming irritated by things that I would usually be able to ignore. Which of the following would explain this phenomenon? a. When using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised. b. Major life changes may impair the ability to cope effectively with daily hassles. c. During the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome illness becomes likely. d. Allostatic load leads to psychological and biological vulnerability. Answer: a. When using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised. 36. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interaction between the __________. a. nervous system and the immune system b. psychological system and the nervous system c. psychological system and the immune system d. nervous system and the hypothalamic system Answer: a. nervous system and the immune system 37. Which of the following can cause stress-induced immunosuppression? a. serotonin b. adrenaline c. GABA d. glucocorticoids Answer: d. glucocorticoids 38. Which of the following is the biological cascade that is activated with prolonged stress? a. the adrenal-hypothalamic-prefrontal axis b. the cortical-thalamic-neural axis c. the psycho-neuro-biological axis d. the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Answer: d. the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis 39. B-cells are a. cells that engulf antigens. b. cells that produce antibodies. c. cells that harm the immune system. d. cells that are antigens. Answer: b. cells that produce antibodies. 40. Which type of cells release interleukin? a. B-cells b. macrophages c. red blood cells d. neurons Answer: b. macrophages 41. Which is not a stressor linked to immunosuppression, according to the text? a. vacation b. sleep deprivation c. spaceflight d. death of a spouse Answer: a. vacation 42. Which cytokine has been associated with depression and caring for family members with Alzheimer's disease? a. HIV b. adrenaline c. GABA d. interleukin-6 Answer: d. interleukin-6 43. What is considered the “front line” of immune system defense? a. antigens b. cortisol c. leukocytes d. hypothalamus Answer: c. leukocytes 44. The pituitary gland a. controls the release of hormones by the hypothalamus. b. is part of the immune system. c. produces adrenalin. d. is important to the release of stress hormones. Answer: d. is important to the release of stress hormones 45. The field of psychoneuroimmunology a. focuses on the relationship between stress and mental illness. b. explores the neurological basis of autoimmune conditions. c. seeks to establish a link between psychological functioning and vulnerability to illness. d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system. Answer: d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system. 46. Prolonged stress leads to suppression of the immune system. What might explain the evolution of such a seemingly flawed reaction? a. There is no reasonable explanation for this. b. Susceptibility to disease would increase the likelihood of an early death. c. Immune suppression has no lasting effects on overall health. d. Such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune illnesses. Answer: d. Such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune illnesses. 47. Stress slows the healing of wounds by as much as ___ to ___ percent. a. 5; 10. b. 12; 15. c. 24; 40. d. 55; 70. Answer: c. 24; 40. 48. Which of the following represents normal-range blood pressure? a. 140/100 b. 140/80 c. 120/80 d. 120/100 Answer: c. 120/80 49. What is a symptom of hypertension? a. A person is always light-headed. b. A person may show no symptoms of it. c. A person's skin feels unusually warm. d. A person has persistent indigestion. Answer: b. A person may show no symptoms of it. 50. Work-related stress can elevate risk of coronary heart disease by which key factors? a. a highly demanding job and little opportunity for advancement b. a highly demanding job and little decision-making control c. a highly demanding job and Type B personality d. a highly demanding job and introversion Answer: b. a highly demanding job and little decision-making control 51. What is Type D personality type? a. The "depressed" type b. The "dysfunctional" type c. The "distressed" type d. The "detached" type Answer: c. The "distressed" type 52. What seems to be the most important component for coronary heart disease in the Type A behavior pattern? a. hostility b. time urgency c. competitiveness d. work commitment Answer: a. hostility 53. Clyde is unmarried and has few friends. Why is he at greater risk for developing coronary heart disease than the general population? a. He is unlikely to seek help if he notices problems. b. Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease. c. He has no knowledge of his problems. d. He is socially awkward and thus has increased risks for disease. Answer: b. Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease. 54. What is risk factor? a. a variable that can occur within 6 months of a stressor b. a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome c. a biological factor that increases resistance to disease d. a reaction to a normal event Answer: b. a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome 55. In regards to stress research, a risk factor is a. something about the nature of a stressor that makes it worse for most people. b. something in a person's history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress. c. something in a person's learning experiences that makes that person a thrill seeker. d. something in a person's genetic makeup that makes that person respond well to stress. Answer: b. something in a person's history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress. 56. People with heart disease are __________ times more likely than healthy people to be depressed. a. two b. three c. four d. five Answer: b. three 57. Sudden cardiac death is __________ times higher in men with high levels of anxiety. a. two b. four c. six d. eight Answer: c. six 58. Which was not an effective treatment for stress-related disorders, according to your text? a. psychoanalysis b. emotional disclosure c. meditation d. biofeedback Answer: a. psychoanalysis 59. What is the term for the procedure that aims to make a patient more aware of such things as their heart rate, level of muscle tension, or blood pressure? a. relaxation b. meditation c. hypnosis d. biofeedback Answer: d. biofeedback 60. For an adjustment disorder, the symptoms must appear within __________ months of the stressor? a. two b. nine c. three d. six Answer: c. three 61. Although divorce is now far more acceptable than it was in previous years, why do those going through a divorce still find it extremely stressful? a. Few friends find it easy to accept. b. The person is likely to make more money than previously. c. Religious leaders support it. d. Economic uncertainties are difficult to predict. Answer: d. Economic uncertainties are difficult to predict. 62. Estimates of the prevalence of PTSD a. have not been made. b. indicate that most people who experience a traumatic event develop PTSD. c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women. d. find that it rarely exists as a comorbid condition. Answer: c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women. 63. According to the text, PTSD: a. is a diagnosis that entered the DSM in 1990 b. has little preexisting vulnerabilities c. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people d. is viewed as an abnormal response to a normal stressor Answer: c. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people 64. A main symptom of PTSD in DSM-5 is a. development of stress-related diseases. b. reexperiencing of the traumatic event. c. panic attacks when remembering the trauma. d. depression. Answer: b. re-experiencing of the traumatic event. 65. In the DSM-5, PTSD will become a part of a new diagnostic category called __________. a. Anxiety Disorders b. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders c. Depressive Disorders d. Transient- and Chronic Distress Disorders Answer: b. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders 66. According to DSM-5, Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when a. the trauma is an event out of the realm of normal life experience. b. the symptoms last for more than 2 weeks. c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks. d. the symptoms begin within 6 months of the trauma. Answer: c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks. 67. Approximately ____ percent of women develop PTSD over the course of their lives. a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20 Answer: b. 10 68. According to your textbook, what percentage of Army soldiers and Marines in Iraq report that they have been attacked or ambushed? a. 56% b. 63% c. 77% d. 92% Answer: d. 92% 69. What was not a result of the psychological stress following being a prisoner of war? a. higher death rate b. more diabetes c. overwhelming anger at minor events d. frequent alcohol or drug dependence Answer: d. frequent alcohol or drug dependence 70. During WWII, the descriptors of the traumatic reactions seen to combat conditions a. emphasized that these were a product of organic processes. b. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion. c. did not differentiate these reactions from other psychological problems, such as drug abuse. d. were comparable to what is now called acute stress disorder. Answer: b. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion. 71. It is believed that the incidence of combat exhaustion during WWII has been underestimated because a. there was a debate as to how to differentiate between combat exhaustion and PTSD. b. many men were treated in the field and never formally diagnosed. c. those who were discharged for medical reasons were not counted when estimates were made. d. many men who were diagnosed with the brain disorder "shell shock" were probably suffering from combat exhaustion. Answer: b. many men were treated in the field and never formally diagnosed. 72. "Combat exhaustion" is known as ___________ today. a. acute stress disorder b. shell shock c. PTSD d. war neurosis Answer: c. PTSD 73. Why should we study the causal factors in PTSD, since we already know traumatic events cause it? a. Because if we do not study it, we will not diagnose it. b. Political lobbying requires the study of it. c. Victims often feel guilt about their reaction to the trauma. d. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD. Answer: d. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD. 74. Why is there such a high likelihood of long-lasting psychological problems resulting from active combat experiences? a. Research has revealed that those who enlist are more likely to be emotionally unstable. b. When task-oriented coping strategies are ineffective, emotional breakdown is inevitable. c. Combat situations present highly stressful situations for which there may be no truly effective coping mechanisms. d. Basic training is ineffective at preparing new recruits for any of the challenges they will likely face. Answer: c. Combat situations present highly stressful situations for which there may be no truly effective coping mechanisms. 75. Feelings of control over stressors a. do not make a difference when it comes to extremely severe stressors like torture. b. can make a difference even for victims of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term. c. can make people feel worse because they believe they should have been able to change what happened. d. can make a difference even for victims of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be more affected by the stressor over the long term. Answer: b. can make a difference even for victims of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term. 76. When POWs first return, a. their PTSD symptoms are at their worst. b. their PTSD symptoms are mild and gradually get worse over time. c. their relief and joy at being released often masks the trauma's effects. d. they show little symptoms from stress, then or later. Answer: c. their relief and joy at being released often masks the trauma's effects. 77. Which is an individual risk factor for developing PTSD? a. higher levels of social support b. having no family history of depression c. believing that their symptoms are a sign of personal strength d. being neurotic Answer: d. being neurotic 78. The impact of torture a. is always a severe level of PTSD. b. can vary depending on the type of torture used. c. can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not. d. depends on whether the person previously had another psychological disorder. Answer: c. can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not. 79. Having a history of psychological problems before going into combat a. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD. b. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD only if the combat situation is extreme. c. sometimes increases risk of PTSD, but may lower it because the person is used to anxiety and copes automatically with it. d. doesn't have an impact on developing PTSD. Answer: a. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD. 80. Which of the following will lower a soldier’s risk of developing PTSD? a. no prior experience in combat b. believing strongly in the goals of the combat c. whether he or she is in combat in a familiar country or not d. whether he or she talks about experiences Answer: b. believing strongly in the goals of the combat 81. Stress-inoculation training a. involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat and then applying these techniques to several different types of threats. b. prepares one to deal with a stressor by considering solutions to the problems that are likely to arise. c. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of any life challenge. d. can be used to prepare for almost any disaster. Answer: a. involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat, including what a person says to themselves 82. For which of the following would the use of stress-inoculation training be most effective? a. Preparing for chemotherapy b. Dealing with the aftermath of a rape c. Coping with the loss of a loved one d. Minimizing the impact of losing one's home, after it is lost Answer: a. Preparing for chemotherapy 83. Stress-inoculation training a. has been employed in the military and been found to be ineffective. b. prepares one to deal with a stressor by considering solutions to the problems that are likely. c. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of an anticipated threat. d. can be used to prepare for most any disaster. Answer: c. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of an anticipated threat. 84. Based on occupation, which of the following would have the lowest rates of PTSD following rescue work during a major disaster? a. waitresses comforting the injured at the medical tent b. construction workers trying to clear rubble c. teachers asked to hold bandages in place d. police officers removing the seriously injured from the site Answer: d. police officers removing the seriously injured from the site 85. Short-term crisis therapy a. typically consists of six to ten sessions. b. rarely involves family members or other medical personnel. c. begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis. d. is usually provided by a trained lay person. Answer: c. begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis. 86. Arielle was in a terrible car accident in which several people were killed. A few weeks later, she began to talk about what happened. She told the story to anyone who would listen. This seems to be a. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience. b. a maladaptive coping response that will heighten her distress. c. a sign that she is beginning to develop PTSD. d. a sign that she is in the shock stage of disaster syndrome. Answer: a. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience. 87. Following a disaster, debriefing sessions a. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns. b. are not necessary for experienced disaster workers. c. tend to increase the anxiety felt by many victims. d. should be conducted by professionals. Answer: a. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns. 88. Which of the following would be an example of prolonged exposure? a. Mandy visited the accident site. b. Carol considered ways in which she could make her apartment safer. c. John planned a new route to work. d. Chris learned judo. Answer: a. Mandy visited the accident site. 89. The psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD a. are used to alter the stressful situation. b. act to minimize the cognitive response to the stressor. c. provide the client with a temporary escape from the trauma. d. treat the symptoms the client is experiencing. Answer: d. treat the symptoms the client is experiencing. 90. Despite the many barriers to effectively researching the effectiveness of disaster responses, it has been found that a. treatment benefits everyone. b. a single debriefing session is always an effective "quick fix." c. cognitive therapy reduces the PTSD symptoms of the majority of those who are treated. d. more study in this area is not needed as it is too expensive, too time consuming, and too subjective. Answer: c. cognitive therapy reduces the PTSD symptoms of the majority of those who are treated. 91. A significant drawback of the use of medication for PTSD is a. it can work well during the day; however, the person often continues to have nightmares and sleep disturbances. b. there is still some doubt about the extent of its effectiveness. c. it can make people overly sensitized to the "warning signs" of distress. d. there are no significant drawbacks. Answer: b. there is still some doubt about the extent of its effectiveness. Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. The biological cost of adapting to stress is called the __________. Answer: allostatic load 2. ____________ is having a persisting systolic blood pressure of 140 or more and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or more. Answer: Hypertension 3. A recent development in looking at personality in cardiovascular disease is the __________ personality, which includes insecurity and anxiety. Answer: Type D 4. The DSM-5 disorder that has symptoms of post-traumatic stress but lasts less than 4 weeks is __________. Answer: acute stress disorder 5. The outdated term "shell shock" is renamed __________ today. Answer: post-traumatic stress disorder 6. The treatment that arranges for survivors to discuss their experiences with others is known as __________. Answer: psychological debriefing Short Answer Questions 1. What are two factors that predispose a person to have difficulty with stress? Answer: Factors predisposing a person to have difficulty dealing with stress include coping skills and the possession or lack of particular resources. Also including family members with depression, lower levels of optimism and psychological control, and the 5HT-TLPR gene, as well as early stress in life. 2. How is the severity of stress measured? Answer: The severity of stress is measured by the degree to which it disrupts functioning. 3. Discuss two of the aspects of the nature of stressors that can cause them to be highly stressful. Answer: Two of: If they involve important aspects of one's life. The length of time a stressor exists, the longer, the worse the effects. The cumulative effect of multiple small stressors. Multiple stressors at one time. How closely involved someone is to a traumatic situation. 4. What are two factors that can lessen the impact of a stressful situation? Answer: Many possible choices - understanding the nature of the situation, preparing for the stressful situation, perceiving that there may be some benefit, perceiving that one has control, feeling able to handle the event, having adequate social support, etc. 5. What is a risk factor? Answer: Anything that increases the likelihood of a specific and usually negative outcome occurring at a later point in time. 6. What is the allostatic load? Answer: The biological cost of adapting to stress. 7. List four symptoms of PTSD. Answer: The symptoms of PTSD are numerous and varied. They include nightmares, intrusive thoughts, irritability, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. 8. What are some of the reasons why political activists who were tortured were less affected by PTSD long term? Answer: Prior knowledge of, and preparedness for, torture, strong commitment to a cause, immunization against traumatic stress as a result of repeated exposure, and strong social supports have protective value against PTSD in survivors of torture. 9. Why are uncontrollable stressors especially difficult to deal with? Answer: If a stressor is not controllable, there is no way to minimize its impact. 10. What is stress-inoculation training? Answer: This is a means of preparing one to deal with an anticipated event. It involved learning and practicing new ways of coping with the event. It might be used, for example, prior to some form of painful medical treatment. 11. What is the goal of post-disaster debriefing? Answer: Debriefing provides those who are affected by a traumatic situation with a chance to share their experiences, feelings, and concerns. Essay Questions 1. Define the terms stress and stressor. Discuss three factors that influence stress and complicate its study. Answer: Stress is the response to any demand placed on an organism. Those events that create stress are called stressors. An individual's response to a given stressor is influenced by both internal and external factors, making it such that no two people will respond in the same way to the same event and a given person's response may not always be the same. The impact of a stressor is largely determined by coping skills, an individual’s perception of the stressor, the number of other stressors the individual is facing, and any existing predisposition to stress vulnerability. 2. Discuss the immune system’s response to an attack. Answer: The front line of defense is the white blood cells or leukocytes. Two types—B-cells and T-cells. They respond to attack, multiplying rapidly to form a counterattack. B-cells respond to specific antigens, while T-cells (or microphages) engulf the antigens. This is an intricate process which involves multiple systems. 3. Describe two personality patterns associated with coronary heart disease. Answer: Type A behavior pattern, characterized by excessive competitiveness, extreme commitment to work, impatience or time urgency, and hostility. Appears that hostility is most critical factor. Type D personality, characterized by distress. People with Type D experience negative emotions and feel insecure or anxious. 4. Describe four factors that can worsen a soldier’s response to the trauma of combat. Answer: Four of: constant fear, unpredictability, many uncontrollable circumstances, the necessity of killing, and prolonged harsh conditions. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology: DSM 5 James N. Butcher, Jill M. Hooley, Susan M. Mineka 9780205965090, 9780205944286

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