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Chapter 12: Sexual Variants, Abuse, and Dysfunctions Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Sexual variants illustrate a theme in abnormal psychology better than any other category of disorder. Which theme? a. The importance of stressors as the cause of disorder b. The impact of disorder on one's occupational and social adjustment c. The difficulty in defining the boundaries of normal and abnormal d. The role of neurotransmitters in controlling thought and behavior Answer: c. The difficulty in defining the boundaries of normal and abnormal 2. What is unique about some of the disorders described as sexual variants? a. They cause discomfort to the individual with the disorder. b. They usually make others uncomfortable. c. They do not cause harm. d. Comorbid diagnoses are rare. Answer: c. They do not cause harm. 3. Research about sexuality is a. one of the earliest areas of research in psychology. b. limited because there are relatively few forms of abnormal sexual behavior. c. surprisingly limited due to taboos and political controversies surrounding sexual topics. d. abundant, although it is plagued by methodological problems. Answer: c. surprisingly limited due to taboos and political controversies surrounding sexual topics. 4. Which of the following is cross-culturally universal? a. Acceptance of homosexuality as an alternative lifestyle b. Attitudes toward premarital sex c. a distaste for extramarital sex between consenting adults d. Males value physical appearance in partners more than females Answer: d. Males value physical appearance in partners more than females 5. Which of the following statements is true? a. Sexual practices and standards are constantly evolving. b. Over time, all cultures develop more liberal attitudes toward sex. c. There is little that is considered "taboo" in modern society. d. Monogamy is a dated concept. Answer: a. Sexual practices and standards are constantly evolving. 6. Which of the following is true? a. People tend to be envious of sexual nonconformists. b. Attitudes about what is sexually "normal" have stayed surprisingly the same over time. c. People tend to believe their current sexual standards are correct and to be intolerant of nonconformists. d. Attitudes about what is sexually "normal" are extremely consistent across cultures. Answer: c. People tend to believe their current sexual standards are correct and to be intolerant of nonconformists. 7. When it comes to cross-cultural similarities and differences concerning sexual behavior, which of the following statements is accurate? a. Taboos on sex between close relatives are found in all known cultures. b. Only in Western societies do men place greater emphasis on a partner's attractiveness. c. In a specific culture, sexual attitudes and practices tend to be quite stable over hundreds of years. d. In most cultures, people are highly tolerant of sexual nonconformity. Answer: a. Taboos on sex between close relatives are found in all known cultures. 8. "Semen is responsible for masculine characteristics such as beard growth and for general physical and sexual vigor. Therefore, wasting semen through masturbation and patronizing prostitutes is damaging to the nervous system" This statement best illustrates the ___________ theory of sexual behavior. a. degeneracy b. psychoanalytic c. abstinence d. disease Answer: a. degeneracy 9. According to abstinence theory, which of the following is necessary for health? a. Healthy food. b. Intellectual stimulation. c. Exercising 7 days a week. d. Sexual intercourse 3 to 5 times per week. Answer: a. Healthy food. 10. According to Dr. Kellogg, what treatment should be used as a last resort when a boy persistently exhibits weakness, signs of consumption, and mock piety? a. A diet of mainly cereal and nuts b. Vigorous exercise c. Circumcision without anesthesia d. Carbolic acid application Answer: c. Circumcision without anesthesia 11. Kellogg's cornflakes were designed to be anti-masturbation food because it was believed that a. eating meat increased sexual desire. b. the amount of time it took to eat them would help distract people from sexual interests. c. the effort it took to eat them would make people too tired to be interested in sex. d. cereals and grains caused impotence. Answer: a. eating meat increased sexual desire. 12. It was once believed that masturbation caused a. infertility. b. insanity. c. narcissism. d. schizophrenia. Answer: b. insanity. 13. Which of the following is a true statement about attitudes in the United States about masturbation? a. Masturbation is a universally accepted way of satisfying sexual desire. b. Masturbation is no longer viewed as a disordered behavior, but public discussion of it may be actively discouraged. c. A discussion of masturbation is a recommended element of all sex education courses. d. Masturbation is openly discussed in most community settings. Answer: b. Masturbation is no longer viewed as a disordered behavior, but public discussion of it may be actively discouraged. 14. Why is ritualized homosexuality practiced in Sambia? a. Women are viewed as dirty. b. Heterosexual intercourse is only acceptable between married partners. c. Few adults are exclusively heterosexual. d. It permits semen conservation. Answer: d. It permits semen conservation. 15. The beliefs about homosexuality among the Sambia tribe illustrate a. that such behavior is considered abnormal in all cultures. b. that cultures in developing nations are more accepting of sexual nonconformists than other cultures. c. that classification of sexual practices as abnormal is strongly influenced by culture. d. that there really is no such thing as abnormal sexual behavior. Answer: c. that classification of sexual practices as abnormal is strongly influenced by culture. 16. Freud a. viewed homosexuality as a disease that could be easily treated. b. was much more accepting of homosexuality than his contemporaries. c. believed that homosexuals were really heterosexuals who were traumatized by their own sexual desires. d. thought homosexuality developed as a result of early sexual trauma. Answer: b. was much more accepting of homosexuality than his contemporaries. 17. Among psychoanalysts in the 1930s and 1940s, homosexuality was first seen as ___________ but later was seen as ________. a. a form of criminal behavior; defense against heterosexual urges b. a severe form of psychological disability; a normal variant of sexual behavior c. a result of highly pathological parent-child relationships; a conscious effort to gain attention d. a variation of sexual function; a pathological escape from heterosexuality Answer: d. a variation of sexual function; a pathological escape from heterosexuality 18. One of the reasons the Kinsey report is noteworthy is that it a. revealed that homosexuality was much more common than expected. b. established that homosexuals were psychologically normal. c. redefined sexuality. d. lead to the immediate removal of homosexuality from the DSM. Answer: a. revealed that homosexuality was much more common than expected. 19. The decision by APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM a. was later challenged and overturned. b. was based on research and science. c. was based on a vote by mental health professionals. d. was based on research about the lack of treatment. Answer: c. was based on a vote by mental health professionals. 20. Which of the following reasons was given for the elevated risk for mental problems in homosexual men and women? a. Homosexuality is used as an escape from heterosexuality. b. Homosexuality occurs as the result of a domineering mother. c. Homosexuality is often accompanied by sociocultural stressors and stigmatization. d. Homosexuality is subject to punishment by law. Answer: c. Homosexuality is often accompanied by sociocultural stressors and stigmatization. 21. What is a paraphilia? a. An abnormal level of sexual desire and behavior, whether homosexual or heterosexual. b. An impairment in either the desire for sexual gratification or a dysfunction in achieving it. c. A recurrent and distressing pattern of excluding all sexual behaviors except for masturbation. d. Persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction. Answer: d. Persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction. 22. To be diagnosed with a paraphilia, a person a. must have acted on the sexual fantasies. b. must cause harm to another person. c. must have distress or impairment. d. may not have to have distress or impairment. Answer: a. must have acted on the sexual fantasies. 23. Julia has a shoe fetish - she is not able to enjoy sex unless her partner is wearing her shoes. She needs to be touching the shoes in order to achieve sexual gratification. She becomes aroused by the sight of her own shoes. What is unique about Julia's case of shoe fetishism? a. Most fetishes involve animate objects. b. Sexual dysfunction usually is seen in the fetishist. c. Partners are usually not involved. d. Female fetishists are rare. Answer: d. Female fetishists are rare. 24. Frotteurism is a. sexual arousal by rubbing one's genital area against a nonconsenting person. b. sexual arousal in a male exclusively through masturbation. c. inability for males to be aroused by anything except inanimate objects. d. sexual arousal in males by the thought of having their sex organs removed. Answer: a. sexual arousal by rubbing one's genital area against a nonconsenting person. 25. People with transvestic fetishism a. include males and females, although more males than females. b. are usually heterosexual. c. frequently cause harm to others. d. wish to be the opposite gender. Answer: b. are usually heterosexual. 26. Gary finds himself sexually aroused by dressing in women's clothing. He sometimes steals the clothes from women and from stores. He has a wife and is happy in his marriage. Gary's most likely diagnosis is a. fetishism. b. gender identity disorder. c. exhibitionism. d. transvestic fetishism. Answer: d. transvestic fetishism. 27. The most common theory about voyeurs is a. they become classically conditioned to respond in a stronger way to the female body than most males. b. they have difficulty relating to women and find peeping satisfies needs in a way that feels safe and powerful. c. they were exposed to excess male hormones during prenatal development. d. with the advent of more sexually explicit movies and magazines, voyeurism is quickly becoming extinct. Answer: b. they have difficulty relating to women and find peeping satisfies needs in a way that feels safe and powerful. 28. What is the most common sexual offense reported to the police? a. exhibitionism b. voyeurism c. frotteurism d. pedophilia Answer: a. exhibitionism 29. The ___________ enjoys inflicting pain, while the ___________ desires pain and degradation. a. masochist; sadist b. voyeur; sadist c. sadist; masochist d. sadist; voyeur Answer: c. sadist; masochist 30. Serial killers tend to be a. pedophiles. b. masochists. c. voyeurs. d. sexual sadists. Answer: d. sexual sadists. 31. Most sadists are a. heterosexual men. b. homosexual men. c. heterosexual women. d. homosexual women. Answer: a. heterosexual men. 32. Which of the following disorders is associated with engaging in autoerotic asphyxia? a. transvestic fetishism b. scatologia c. frotteurism d. masochism Answer: d. masochism 33. Which of the following statements is true about paraphilias? a. Almost all people with paraphilias are women. b. Almost all people with paraphilias wish to change their sexual preferences. c. Paraphilias typically begin around the time of middle adulthood. d. Many people with paraphilias have more than one. Answer: d. Many people with paraphilias have more than one. 34. Money and others have suggested that men are more vulnerable to paraphilias because a. men are more easily aroused than women. b. developing an attachment to an inanimate object is just a reflection of the male tendency to objectify women. c. lasting maternal conflicts leave men unable to develop healthy sexual relationships with women. d. sexual arousal in men is more visually based than the sexual arousal of women. Answer: d. sexual arousal in men is more visually based than the sexual arousal of women. 35. Cross-gender identification is characteristic of a. transvestic fetishism. b. exhibitionism. c. frotteurism. d. gender dysphoria. Answer: d. gender dysphoria. 36. Which of the following is the most common adult outcome of boys with gender dysphoria? a. homosexuality b. transsexualism c. masochism d. transvestism Answer: a. homosexuality 37. Martin has always felt he was really a girl. He dressed in girl's clothing as a child and still wants to be a girl. He is sure a mistake was made and that he is inhabiting the wrong sexed body. Martin's symptoms suggest a diagnosis of a. frotteurism. b. gender dysphoria. c. transvestic fetishism. d. homosexuality. Answer: b. gender dysphoria. 38. In __________, the individual has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, and behaviors involving the use of some inanimate object or a part of the body not typically found erotic. a. transvestism b. gender identity disorder c. homsexuality d. fetishism Answer: d. fetishism 39. Patricia, age 10, refuses to wear dresses and insists on being called Pat. She knows she is a girl, but she says boys have it better. She prefers playing with boys and only plays the games they play. She says she wants to be a football player and a mother when she grows up. Pat has a. transsexualism. b. transvestism. c. gender identity disorder. d. no disorder. Answer: d. no disorder. 40. Most boys with gender dysphoria a. become transvestites in adulthood. b. become transsexual adults. c. are readily accepted by their peers. d. become homosexual adults who no longer wish to change their gender. Answer: d. become homosexual adults who no longer wish to change their gender. 41. Most transsexuals a. are autogynephilic. b. had gender dysphoria as children. c. are exclusively heterosexual. d. derive their sexual gratification from cross-dressing in public. Answer: b. had gender identity dysphoria as children. 42. Sam was a child with gender dysphoria. Now he is 26 and, feeling trapped in a man's body, he wants to become a woman. Adults with gender dysphoria are often referred to as a a. transvestite. b. transsexual. c. lesbian. d. person with autogynephilia. Answer: b. transsexual. 43. Most female transsexuals a. have always felt that they should be male. b. did not have gender dysphroia as children. c. want to be homosexual men. d. have a paraphilia in which they are attracted to themselves as a man. Answer: a. have always felt that they should be male. 44. A man who is aroused by the thought of himself as a woman has the paraphilia known as a. transvestism. b. transsexualism. c. protophilia. d. autogynephilia. Answer: d. autogynephilia. 45. Autogynephilic transsexuals differ from homosexual transsexuals in that a. they are likely to be homosexual. b. they are not especially feminine. c. they are usually female-to-male transsexuals. d. rarely do they have a history of tranvestic fetishism. Answer: b. they are not especially feminine. 46. The only treatment that has been shown to be effective in treating gender dysphoria is a. long-term psychodynamic therapy. b. aversion therapy. c. surgical sex reassignment. d. medication to alter hormone production. Answer: c. surgical sex reassignment. 47. The most recent studies of satisfactory outcome from sex reassignment surgery find a. most individuals are satisfied b. few individuals are satisfied c. satisfaction depends upon whether the operation involves a male-to-female or a female-to-male change. d. satisfaction depends on the length of time that individuals live as the gender they wish to become prior to the surgery. Answer: a. most individuals are satisfied 48. Which of the following is an argument against the use of surgical sex reassignment surgery for gender dysphoria? a. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been found to be effective for most in alleviating gender dysphoria. b. Most of those who have such surgeries are not happy with the outcome. c. Surgery should not be used to treat a psychological disorder. d. Gender identity disorder is not a lifelong disorder and later regret is likely. Answer: c. Surgery should not be used to treat a psychological disorder. 49. Which statement below about the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse is accurate? a. The prevalence of sexual abuse is probably lower than is commonly thought. b. Estimated prevalence rates range from 25 percent to 75 percent. c. Because of increased media attention, the prevalence has dropped dramatically in recent years. d. Because definitions vary widely, estimates of prevalence vary widely, too. Answer: d. Because definitions vary widely, estimates of prevalence vary widely, too. 50. Concern about childhood sexual abuse has increased in the past decade due to a. evidence that it is increasing in frequency. b. changes in laws requiring that any suspicion of abuse must be reported to the authorities. c. the recognition that such abuse may lead to other problems later in life. d. improved techniques for determining the accuracy of recovered memories. Answer: c. the recognition that such abuse may lead to other problems later in life. 51. Which of the following statements about sexual abuse is TRUE? a. About one-third of children show no symptoms. b. It usually does not have lasting consequences. c. Most children dissociate during the actual sex act. d. The most common short-term consequences are aggression and other acting-out behaviors. Answer: a. About one-third of children show no symptoms. 52. Angela is 10 and has been a victim of sexual abuse. The short-term effects a. will include dissociative symptoms. b. will almost certainly produce severe changes in thought, feeling, and behavior. c. generally involve a compensatory sense of control. d. may include fears and sexual inappropriateness, but there is no single response syndrome. Answer: d. may include fears and sexual inappropriateness, but there is no single response syndrome. 53. The McMartin Preschool case demonstrates how a. interviewing style can alter the nature of a child's testimony. b. psychotherapy can reveal repressed memories of abuse. c. the public prefers to deny the reality of childhood sexual abuse. d. children will not misreport experiences of sexual abuse because they are such traumatic events. Answer: a. interviewing style can alter the nature of a child's testimony. 54. One of the most controversial issues in psychology today concerns a. whether there are any serious consequences of childhood sexual abuse. b. whether there are any serious long-term consequences of rape and molestation in adult women. c. the validity of recovered (formerly repressed) memories of abuse. d. the validity of women's reports of rape. Answer: c. the validity of recovered (formerly repressed) memories of abuse. 55. Research on memory finds that a. memory is highly accurate. b. false memories can be experimentally induced. c. false "recovered memories" only develop under hypnosis. d. children are no more likely than adults to provide inaccurate testimony. Answer: b. false memories can be experimentally induced. 56. Research on memories of childhood sexual abuse that arise during therapy indicates that: a. there is yet no consensus on the accuracy of these memories. b. these memories are mainly accurate. c. these memories are mainly inaccurate. d. these memories are induced by therapist pressure. Answer: a. there is yet no consensus on the accuracy of these memories. 57. In DSM-5, pedophilia is defined by a. the age of the preferred partner. b. the behaviors exhibited. c. the bodily maturity of the preferred partner. d. the legal system; pedophilia is not a diagnostic category on the DSM-5. Answer: a. the age of the preferred partner. 58. Pedophilia frequently involves a. adolescents. b. oral contact. c. sadistic acts. d. masochism. Answer: b. oral contact. 59. It is quite rare for pedophilia to a. involve a female pedophile. b. involve sexual penetration or violence. c. occur in children between 8 and 11. d. include manipulation of the child's genitals. Answer: a. involve a female pedophile. 60. Terrance is a pedophile. If his sexual responsiveness is similar to that found in studies of pedophiles, he will respond to erotic pictures of a. female children, but not female adults. b. male and female children, but not female adults. c. children more than erotic pictures of adults. d. male children, but not female adults. Answer: c. children more than erotic pictures of adults. 61. ___________ often desire mastery or dominance over others, will idealize who they are with for their simplicity and innocence, and believe that the other person benefits from sexual contact, a. Masochists b. Pedophiles c. Fetishists d. Voyeurs Answer: b. Pedophiles 62. Which of the following people best illustrates the most common type of pedophile? a. Werner, who is sadistic and enjoys causing pain. b. Frank, who is interpersonally unskilled and feels in control when dominating a child. c. Norman, who is bisexual and but who cannot respond sexually to adult men or women. d. Ben, who has low self-esteem and fantasizes about being dominated by others in sexual relationships. Answer: b. Frank, who is interpersonally unskilled and feels in control when dominating a child. 63. Incest a. is an accepted practice in many cultures. b. commonly occurs in most animal species. c. has only occurred among first cousins. d. was once used to protect the royal blood in Egypt. Answer: d. was once used to protect the royal blood in Egypt. 64. The most common form of incest is between a. brother and sister. b. father and daughter. c. mother and son. d. brother and brother. Answer: a. brother and sister. 65. Which of the following is most likely to be a victim of incest? a. A son b. A stepdaughter c. A daughter d. A stepson Answer: b. A stepdaughter 66. Incest offenders differ from extrafamilial child molesters in that the incest offenders a. don't show arousal to pictures of children. b. typically have more victims. c. typically choose girls as victims. d. are more introverted. Answer: c. typically choose girls as victims. 67. Statutory rape a. describes sexual activity that occurs under actual or threatened forcible coercion. b. is sexual activity with a person who is under the age of 18. c. is sexual activity with a person who is legally defined to be under the age of consent. d. has only occurred when the rape victim has said "no." Answer: c. is sexual activity with a person who is legally defined to be under the age of consent. 68. What do rape and incest have in common? a. Both involve sex with an unwilling partner. b. The accuracy of prevalence estimates is questioned. c. Both are motivated primarily by aggression. d. There is much debate as to how they are defined. Answer: b. The accuracy of prevalence estimates is questioned. 69. Which of the following suggests that rape is motivated by sex, not just aggression? a. The age distribution of rape victims b. Women who are more physically attractive are more likely to be rape victims c. The high incidence of rape within the context of a committed relationship d. Reports of victims. Answer: a. The age distribution of rape victims 70. Studies of sex offenders a. support the feminist view of rape. b. find that few rapists are violent. c. suggest that all rapists have both aggressive and sexual motives. d. find that rapists tend to have personality disorders. Answer: c. suggest that all rapists have both aggressive and sexual motives. 71. The newest classification system for types of rapists (McCabe & Wauchope) varies in terms of a. amount of violence. b. amount of sexual and aggressive motives. c. whether the rapists know their victims. d. whether they target children or adults. Answer: b. amount of sexual and aggressive motives. 72. Most rapes a. involve more than one offender. b. occur during the day. c. occur with younger women. d. occur on impulse. Answer: c. occur with younger women. 73. Post-traumatic stress disorder, when caused by a rape, a. is now called acute stress syndrome. b. only occurs when the rapist is unknown to the victim. c. is often associated with severe sexual symptoms. d. is more severe when a woman knows her attacker. Answer: c. is often associated with severe sexual symptoms. 74. Males who have been raped a. show similar long-term psychological distress as women do. b. show less long-term psychological distress than women. c. show different long-term psychological symptoms than women. d. never report it. Answer: a. show similar long-term psychological distress as women do. 75. "Victim-precipitated rape" a. is what we commonly refer to as "date rape." b. is a concept consistent with the view of rape as a sexually motivated act. c. involves no true victim. d. does not have any lasting psychological impact. Answer: b. is a concept consistent with the view of rape as a sexually motivated act. 76. Rape shield laws a. limit the amount of information about the defendant's past crimes that can be used in court. b. limit the amount of information that can be used in court about the mental health status of the defendant. c. limit the amount of information about a victim's past sexual history that can be used in court. d. are no longer used. Answer: c. limit the amount of information about a victim's past sexual history that can be used in court. 77. “Victim-precipitated rape” is a. more common today than in previous decades. b. less common today than in previous decades. c. a concept often used in the past by defense attorneys. d.an experimentally established phenomenon. Answer: c. a concept often used in the past by defense attorneys. 78. Ted is a rapist. If he is typical of most convicted rapists, he a. has never committed a crime before. b. is under 25 and has a prior criminal record. c. is well-educated, charming, and middle-class. d. was a close friend or lover of the rape victim. Answer: b. is under 25 and has a prior criminal record. 79. The most common personality characteristic of rapists is a. sexual sadism. b. impulsivity. c. empathy. d. extraversion. Answer: b. impulsivity. 80. The recidivism rate for rapists a. suggests that neither incarceration nor treatment is an effective approach to dealing with this type of crime. b. is much higher than is suggested by the media. c. has been declining since the introduction of mandatory chemical castration. d. decreases steadily with age. Answer: d. decreases steadily with age. 81. Which of the following sex offenders is most likely to reoffend? a. A twenty-five-year-old pedophile b. A thirty-year-old rapist c. A twenty-year-old convicted of statutory rape d. An eighty-year-old sadist Answer: a. A twenty-five-year-old pedophile 82. Aversion therapy may involve a. exposure to a foul odor when becoming sexually aroused to a deviant stimulus. b. rewarding appropriate sexual responses. c. continuous masturbation to a paraphilic fantasy. d. repeated expression of aggressive feelings to the point of exhaustion. Answer: a. exposure to a foul odor when becoming sexually aroused to a deviant stimulus. 83. Social-skills training is most likely to be used in the treatment of a. pedophiles. b. rapists. c. sadists. d. exhibitionists. Answer: b. rapists. 84. Both surgical and chemical castration a. lower testosterone levels. b. eliminate inappropriate impulses. c. involve the administration of antiandrogen steroid hormones. d. make recidivism impossible. Answer: a. lower testosterone levels. 85. What do the drugs Lupron and Depo-Provera have in common? a. They are medications used for men with erectile dysfunction. b. They are the only drugs proven to increase sexual desire. c. They are drugs used to modify the feelings and thoughts of transsexuals. d. They are drugs used to chemically castrate sex offenders. Answer: d. They are drugs used to chemically castrate sex offenders. 86. What is the single greatest flaw in the studies designed to find effective treatments for sex offenders? a. The lack of female subjects b. The variability of the offenses committed c. The inability to conduct follow-up assessments d. The lack of randomly assigned controls Answer: d. The lack of randomly assigned controls 87. Sexual dysfunctions a. are only diagnosed when the cause is psychological maladjustment. b. only occur in heterosexual couples. c. rarely affect the enjoyment of sex for the two parties in the relationship. d. involve the impairment of either the desire for sexual gratification or the ability to achieve it. Answer: d. involve the impairment of either the desire for sexual gratification or the ability to achieve it. 88. During which phase of the sexual response is there a characteristic sense of wellbeing and relaxation? a. Desire b. Orgasm c. Excitement d. Resolution Answer: d. resolution 89.The National Health and Social Life Survey, which suggested that sexual dysfunctions are common, has been shown to be a. most likely accurate. b. most likely an underestimate because many people were too embarrassed to admit problems. c. most likely an overestimate because researchers didn't ask about distress or impairment. d. most likely an overestimate because most people exaggerated their problems due to discomfort. Answer: c. most likely an overestimate because researchers didn't ask about distress or impairment. 90. Which of the following statements about male hypoactive sexual desire disorder is true? a. Men with hypoactive sexual desire disorder are impotent. b. Only women develop hypoactive sexual desire disorder. c. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder usually has no identifiable biological basis and appears to be psychological. d. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder has been studied more than most other sexual dysfunctions. Answer: c. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder usually has no identifiable biological basis and appears to be psychological. 91. The first phase of the human sexual response is: a. arousal. b. desire. c. orgasm. d. resolution. Answer: b. desire. 92. The role of anxiety in erectile dysfunction according to Barlow and colleagues a. has been shown not to exist. b. actually enhances performance. c. is not necessarily the problem - it is the cognitions associated with anxiety. d. is the main problem. Answer: c. is not necessarily the problem - it is the cognitions associated with anxiety. 93. Which of the following is a possible cause of female sexual arousal disorder? a. Frigidity b. Sexual experiences late in life c. Excessive early learning experiences about sex as an "evil" d. Higher tactile sensitivity Answer: c. Excessive early learning experiences about sex as an "evil" 94. What is the average duration of time to ejaculate in men who have premature ejaculation? a. 1 hour b. 15 seconds c. 20 minutes d. there is no average time Answer: b. 15 seconds 95. Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder a. is a disorder of inhibited sexual desire. b. is a disorder that involves involuntary spasms of the muscles of the vagina, preventing intercourse. c. is a disorder of inability to achieve orgasm. d. is a disorder involving anxiety before and during intercourse. Answer: d. is a disorder involving anxiety before and during intercourse. Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. The theory developed in the 1750s that centered on the idea that semen is necessary for physical and sexual vigor in men is the __________ theory. Answer: degeneracy 2. The DSM-5 term used to describe a person who has recurrent intense sexual fantasies involving inanimate objects is __________. Answer: fetishism 3. ____________ is the paraphilia in which the person has recurrent urges to observe an unsuspecting person who is naked. Answer: Voyeurism 4. __________ is the paraphilia in which the person has urges involving the real act of inflicting physical suffering on someone for sexual excitement. Answer: Sexual sadism 5. __________ is discomfort with one’s sex-relevant physical characteristics. Answer: Gender Dysphoria 6. The type of rape legally defined as sexual activity with a minor is called __________ rape. Answer: statutory Short Answer Questions 1. How was masturbation viewed during the times when degeneracy theory and abstinence theory were popular? Answer: In degeneracy theory, semen was seen as necessary for physical vigor so masturbation was viewed as a waste of energy and a practice that could exhaust the nervous system. Adherents of abstinence theory, notably Dr. John Harvey Kellogg saw masturbation and all sexual behavior as harmful. He favored brutal punishment of children who masturbated. Many at the time believed masturbation caused insanity. 2. What was unique about Freud's view of homosexuality? Answer: Freud was ahead of his time in believing that homosexuality was not an illness, despite the fact that this was the position taken by many psychoanalysts. While Freud exhibited this accepting view in a letter written in 1935, it was not until the early 1970s that homosexuality was removed from the DSM. 3. Why are almost all people with paraphilias male? Answer: It may be linked to their greater dependence on visual imagery. This makes them more vulnerable to forming sexual associations to nonsexual stimuli through classical and operant conditioning. 4. How are gender dysphoria and transvestic fetishism similar and different? Answer: Both involve cross-dressing, but the transvestite does it for sexual pleasure. The transvestite feels he is male and doesn't want to change genders. People with gender dysphoria believe they are the opposite gender and cross-dress to feel more appropriate. They typically wish to change genders. 5. Why is it difficult to estimate the prevalence of incest? Answer: In our own society, the actual incidence of incest is difficult to estimate because it usually comes to light only when reported to law enforcement or other agencies. It is almost certainly more common than is generally believed, in part because many victims are reluctant to report the incest or do not consider themselves victimized. Brother–sister incest is the most common form of incest even though it is rarely reported (LeVay & Baldwin, 2012). The second most common pattern is father–daughter incest. It seems that girls living with stepfathers are at especially high risk for incest, perhaps because there is less of an incest taboo among non-blood relatives (Finkelhor, 1984; Masters et al., 1992). Mother–son incest is thought to be relatively rare. Frequently, incest offenders do not stop with one child in a family (Wilson, 2004), and some incestuous fathers involve all of their daughters serially as they become pubescent. 6. How do incest offenders differ from extrafamilial offenders? Answer: They tend to offend against girls, while extrafamilial offenders have an equal distribution between the genders. They are more likely to offend with one or a few children in a family and extrafamilial offenders typically have more victims. 7. What are some personality characteristics of rapists? Answer: Impulsivity, quick tempers, and insensitivity to social cues. They also often show a lack of social and communication skills and don't have intimate relationships. They have trouble understanding cues from women, especially negative ones. 8. Charles is a chronic sex offender in treatment. After being given electric shocks whenever he became sexually aroused to deviant stimuli, his arousal to those stimuli diminished. What additional forms of treatment is he likely to need in order to be effectively treated? Answer: He will need to develop sexual arousal to acceptable stimuli. Treatment involves imagining appropriate stimuli when he masturbates. Cognitive restructuring is also useful in challenging the distorted thinking in most sex offenders. Social skill training in reading the women's nonverbal cues is also important, especially in the treatment of rapists. 9. Name and describe the four phases of the human sexual response. Answer: The first phase is the desire phase where one experiences interest in engaging in sexual activity. When sexual activity has begun and both sexual pleasure and physiological changes occur, one is in the excitement phase. During this stage tension builds, which is finally released during the peak of sexual pleasure, the orgasm. Following orgasm, there is the resolution phase in which one experience a sense of calm and well-being. Disorders can occur in any one of the first three phases. 10. What appears to be the most important psychological factor in causing male erectile disorder? Answer: The cognitive distractions that come with anxiety. Men get distracted by negative thoughts about their performance, which inhibits sexual arousal. Essay Questions 1. Describe the Sambian people's beliefs about sex. How does this illustrate the impact of culture on sexual attitudes and practices? Answer: The Sambia believe that semen is important for physical strength and spirituality, and that many inseminations are needed to impregnate a woman. They also believe that semen cannot be replenished by the body. Further, they believe that menstrual fluids are unhealthy to men. To conserve semen, young boys practice oral sex in order to ingest semen. This ritualized homosexuality lasts while they begin having sex with women but stops completely after a first child is born. These beliefs show that, in one culture, homosexual actions are required (heterosexuality in a youth would be abnormal) and that a transition to heterosexuality is normal. 2. Discuss the two main controversies concerning childhood sexual abuse. Answer: 1. Children's testimony. Several high profile cases suggested that children's testimony about abuse is not always accurate. 2. Recovered memories of abuse. Some believe repressed memories are not valid, others believe they typically are. It does seem that some recovered memories are suspect, as are sometimes non-repressed memories. 3. Discuss two ways in which sex offenses are treated. How effective is treatment for these offenses? Answer: One approach is surgical or chemical castration as a means of reducing the urge for sex and making impulses more manageable. Recidivism rates are much lower for those who have been castrated. In addition the extreme approach of castration, there are numerous other approached. Aversion therapy is one key component of cognitive-behavioral treatment. Aversive consequences are linked to deviant sexual arousal. In early forms of the treatment electric shocks were used. Now therapists rely on imagined consequences (covert sensitization) or foul odors paired with the images (assisted covert sensitization). Other aspects of treatment include social skills training and the restructuring of cognitive distortions. Maletzky reports that of nearly 1,500 offenders treated with this form of therapy, at least 79 percent reported no covert or overt deviant sexual behavior or repeat charges at one year follow-up. 4. Is rape motivated by sex or aggression? Explain and provide support for your answer. Answer: The determination of whether rape is motivated by sex or aggression has not been definitively made. While rape is an aggressive act, sexual motivation is also often involved. In fact, several prominent researchers have shown that all rapists have both aggressive and sexual motives but to varying degrees. The fact that rape victims are rarely old and that rapists report sexual motivation as a reason for their actions leads me to conclude that rape is a violent act that is motivated by sex. (sample response -many correct answers possible) Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology: DSM 5 James N. Butcher, Jill M. Hooley, Susan M. Mineka 9780205965090, 9780205944286

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