Preview (9 of 30 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 15: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Historically, why has little attention been paid to childhood psychopathology? a. Mental illness was not recognized in children. b. Childhood disorders were viewed as childhood versions of adult disorders. c. All signs of mental illness in children were assumed to reflect some developmental stage that would be outgrown. d. Society viewed children as inherently good and accepted all behavior unconditionally. Answer: b. Childhood disorders were viewed as childhood versions of adult disorders. 2. Suppose you were the director of a mental health center that provided treatment for children. Based on research, you would expect that a. more girls would be diagnosed with disorders than boys. b. the most common disorders diagnosed would be eating disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. c. the average age of your child clients would be around 5 or 6. d. more boys would be diagnosed with maladjustment disorders than girls. Answer: d. more boys would be diagnosed with maladjustment disorders than girls. 3. Among children, the most commonly diagnosed disorders are a. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and separation anxiety disorders. b. psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. c. depression and phobic conditions. d. obsessive-compulsive disorder and conduct disorder. Answer: a. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and separation anxiety disorders. 4. What complicates the diagnosis of maladaptive behavior in childhood? a. Behavior that is problematic for a child of one age is normal behavior for a child of a different age. b. The dividing line between childhood and adolescence has been arbitrarily drawn. c. Most psychological disorders in the young have an identifiable environmental cause. d. Drugs are not effective in treating the disorders that are most commonly seen in children. Answer: a. Behavior that is problematic for a child of one age is normal behavior for a child of a different age. 5. A crucial aspect of developmental psychopathology is understanding individual maladaptation a. as a phenomenon no different in children than in adults. b. as a disease process. c. in the context of normal developmental changes. d. in a cultural context that determines what is acceptable behavior. Answer: c. in the context of normal developmental changes. 6. Which of the following protects children from environmental influences, but also makes them more vulnerable? a. A lack of self-understanding b. Dependence on adults c. Unrealistic expectations d. A limited understanding of death Answer: b. Dependence on adults 7. A young child who tries to kill him/herself a. is doing it to try to manipulate adults, not because he/she really wants to die. b. is depressed and really wants to die. c. may have unrealistic beliefs about death and not really understand what it means to die. d. is probably more mature and aware than most children their age. Answer: c. may have unrealistic beliefs about death and not really understand what it means to die. 8. What was the greatest problem that emerged as a classification system for childhood disorders was being developed? a. The same classification system that had been developed for adults was used for children. b. Few childhood disorders had been identified. c. The role of parents in the development of disordered behavior was overemphasized. d. There was a hesitancy to identify childhood disorders as parents were likely to be blamed for any diagnosis given. Answer: a. The same classification system that had been developed for adults was used for children. 9. Children with ADHD that have symptoms of hyperactivity a. are usually well liked by their peers because they are always active. b. are usually well liked by their peers because they become "class clowns." c. are usually viewed negatively by their peers because of their behaviors. d. are usually viewed negatively by their peers because they are socially withdrawn. Answer: c. are usually viewed negatively by their peers because of their behaviors. 10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a. is commonly diagnosed after age of 15. b. is the most frequent psychological referral to mental health facilities. c. is seen equally in boys and girls. d. is thought to occur in about 10 percent of school-aged children. Answer: b. is the most frequent psychological referral to mental health facilities. 11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a. an increasing frequency from age 6 to age 16. b. a greater frequency in girls than in boys. c. mild to moderate intellectual disability. d. difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behavior. Answer: d. difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behavior. 12. George is in second grade and is having trouble. He frequently is out of his seat, looking at the work of other students and annoying them by making comments. He interrupts the teacher, blurts out answers before she finishes the question, and usually needs directions repeated multiple times. At home, his mother says he is always "on the go." The most likely diagnosis for George is a. conduct disorder. b. oppositional defiant disorder. c. separation anxiety disorder. d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Answer: d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. 13. Which of the following is not a symptom of ADHD? a. anxiety b. restlessness c. distractability d. overactivity Answer: a. anxiety 14. Currently, the cause of ADHD is believed to be a. a combination of family pathology and poor peer modeling. b. excessive sugar in the diet. c. an allergic reaction to certain foods and food additives. d. both biological and psychological factors. Answer: d. both biological and psychological factors. 15. Treatment of ADHD with drugs such as Ritalin is thought to be effective as it a. quiets the voices. b. increases the ability to concentrate. c. interferes with glutamate activity. d. acts as a sedative. Answer: b. increases the ability to concentrate. 16. What is the advantage of using Pemoline to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder instead of Ritalin? a. Pemoline increases the child's intelligence. b. Pemoline works faster. c. Pemoline has fewer side effects. d. Pemoline reduces anxiety attacks. Answer: c. Pemoline has fewer side effects. 17. The evidence suggests that medications for ADHD a. work well for the short-term but show little long-term effect. b. work well for both the short- and long-term. c. really don't work at all - what is seen is due to the placebo effect. d. only work for children who have had the diagnosis at least two years. Answer: a. work well for the short-term but show little long-term effect. 18. In studies looking at the effectiveness of treatment for ADHD, what was found? a. While good results are achieved when medication is combined with therapy, behavioral methods have been quite successful short-term. b. While good results are achieved when medication is combined with therapy, the therapy appears to be the more effective element of the treatment. c. The use of medications interferes with the effectiveness of behavioral approaches. d. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than behavioral modification. Answer: a. While good results are achieved when medication is combined with therapy, behavioral methods have been quite successful short-term. 19. As children with ADHD become adolescents and adults, a. they outgrow their ADHD symptoms. b. many continue to experience symptoms. c. most get worse. d. those with hyperactivity tend to get worse, the rest get better. Answer: b. many continue to experience symptoms. 20. What two childhood disorders are characterized by aggressive or antisocial behavior? a. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder b. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder c. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood depression d. Conduct disorder and childhood depression Answer: a. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder 21. The term "juvenile delinquent" is a. used when a diagnosis of early-onset antisocial personality disorder has been made. b. defined by the legal system. c. inconsistent with the diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder. d. rarely used in modern times. Answer: b. defined by the legal system. 22. Brad has been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The disorder began around age 12 and is characterized by disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. What aspect of this case is unusual? a. It is unusual for children with ODD to be boys. b. It is unusual for the onset of ODD to occur at age 12. c. It is unusual for children with ODD to be hostile toward authority figures. d. Nothing about this case is unusual. Answer: b. It is unusual for the onset of ODD to occur at age 12. 23. In order of diagnosis, ___________ occurs before antisocial personality disorder just as ___________ occurs before conduct disorder. a. ODD; conduct disorder b. conduct disorder; ODD c. ADHD; conduct disorder d. conduct disorder; ADHD Answer: b. conduct disorder; ODD 24. What is the relationship between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder? a. Children who develop conduct disorder often have oppositional defiant disorder first. b. Almost every case of oppositional defiant disorder develops into conduct disorder. c. Before children develop oppositional defiant disorder, they have conduct disorder. d. Children who develop conduct disorder almost never had oppositional defiant disorder. Answer: a. Children who develop conduct disorder often have oppositional defiant disorder first. 25. Which behavior pattern is extremely unlikely to be found in a child with conduct disorder? a. Fire setting and vandalism b. Substance abuse c. Constant worry about minor issues d. Depression Answer: c. Constant worry about minor issues 26. Girls with conduct disorder a. seek security from a father figure. b. are at risk for teen pregnancy. c. usually have a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD and/or a mood disorder. d. do not show the same social deficits seen in boys. Answer: b. are at risk for teen pregnancy. 27. What is the self-perpetuating cycle in conduct disorder? a. A genetic predisposition leads to a low IQ and difficult temperament, which leads to poor parenting and an insecure attachment, which leads to conduct disorder. b. A genetic predisposition leads to a difficult temperament, which leads to behavior problems, which lead to parental overindulgence and lack of discipline, which leads to conduct disorder. c. A genetic predisposition leads to an easy temperament but because of abusive parents, this leads to depression which in turn leads to conduct disorder. d. A genetic predisposition leads to an easy temperament, which leads to parental neglect, which leads to anxiety, which leads to conduct disorder. Answer: a. A genetic predisposition leads to a low IQ and difficult temperament, which leads to poor parenting and an insecure attachment, which leads to conduct disorder. 28. Which of the following is a risk factor for ODD and conduct disorder? a. Parental psychopathology. b. Methamphetamine abuse. c. Middle socioeconomic status. d. Childhood obesity. Answer: a. Parental psychopathology. 29. The development of conduct disorder in adolescence a. predicts the development of other psychopathology in adulthood. b. rarely occurs. c. commonly occurs in teens who suffer from ADHD. d. is not associated with lasting behavioral problems as much as early-onset conduct disorder Answer: d. is not associated with lasting behavioral problems as much as early-onset conduct disorder 30. Which of the following statements about early-onset conduct disorder is true? a. Later problems are not likely. b. Most will develop antisocial personality disorder. c. The majority will continue to have, at minimum, social dysfunction as adults. d. Environmental factors predict whether or not the disorder persists. Answer: c. The majority will continue to have, at minimum, social dysfunction as adults. 31. Artiss developed conduct disorder early. Bertram developed conduct disorder late. This suggests that a. Artiss will have a higher level of intelligence. b. Artiss will have a higher likelihood of adult antisocial personality disorder. c. Bertram will have a higher likelihood of social dysfunctions. d. Bertram will show more severe neuropsychological deficits and attentional problems. Answer: b. Artiss will have a higher likelihood of adult antisocial personality disorder. 32. Research on the families of children with conduct disorder suggests that a. antisocial behavioral patterns may be learned. b. environmental factors are rarely involved in disorders of childhood onset. c. genetics do not play a role in the development of antisocial tendencies. d. parental substance abuse is the greatest risk factor for early-onset conduct disorder. Answer: a. antisocial behavioral patterns may be learned. 33. The parenting in families of children with conduct disorders typically involves a. accepting the child's behavior as "normal." b. providing the child with harsh but consistent discipline. c. rejection and neglect. d. overprotecting the child. Answer: c. rejection and neglect. 34. Divorce, hostility, and lack of monitoring are family characteristics most closely associated with a. separation anxiety disorder. b. conduct disorder. c. autism. d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Answer: b. conduct disorder. 35. Punitive approaches to antisocial youth are a. likely to make problems worse. b. effective when intervention occurs before adolescence. c. not the norm. d. effective at "teaching the child a lesson." Answer: a. likely to make problems worse. 36. The cohesive family model is a treatment strategy for the child with conduct disorder that a. focuses on how the child's behavior elicits negative responses from other family members. b. proposes that dysfunctional interactions have served to maintain the child's problematic behavior. c. teaches the child basic moral lessons. d. combines punitive and therapeutic interventions. Answer: b. proposes that dysfunctional interactions have served to maintain the child's problematic behavior. 37. Effective treatments for conduct disorder usually involve a. removing the child from the environment that has fostered the maladaptive behavior. b. legal intervention. c. teaching the child basic moral lessons. d. parental participation. Answer: d. parental participation. 38. Separation anxiety disorder is best illustrated by which of the following people? a. Thomas, who is fiercely independent of other children and his parents. b. Harriet, who refuses to talk to her teachers or adults other than her parents. c. Isabella, who worries that her father will die if she is not near him. d. Chuck, who is afraid he will be beaten by bullies at school. Answer: c. Isabella, who worries that her father will die if she is not near him. 39. The most common childhood anxiety disorder is ________. a. selective mutism b. depression c. generalized anxiety disorder d. separation anxiety disorder Answer: d. separation anxiety disorder 40. Which statement about separation anxiety disorder is accurate? a. Children who have the disorder commonly develop antisocial personality disorder as adults. b. The child with separation anxiety is likely to be immature and lack self-confidence. c. The disorder is equally common in boys and girls. d. It is a severe but extremely rare form of childhood anxiety disorder. Answer: b. The child with separation anxiety is likely to be immature and lack self-confidence. 41. Children with separation anxiety disorder a. have a school phobia. b. fear impending separation but are fine once it actually happens. c. fear separation from major attachment figures and worry they will die once separation occurs. d. frequently develop conduct disorder as a result. Answer: c. fear separation from major attachment figures and worry they will die once separation occurs. 42. Childhood anxiety disorders are associated with which of the following factors? a. A deficit in condition ability to aversive stimuli. b. Maladaptive learning from an under protective parent. c. Refusing to go to school. d. Parental substance abuse. Answer: c. Refusing to go to school. 43. Evidence that culture plays a role in the development of childhood anxiety disorders comes from the fact that a. African American children rarely show symptoms of PTSD. b. children from cultures that favor inhibition and compliance report more fears. c. children from cultures that favor independence report more fears. d. overanxious children rarely have overanxious parents. Answer: b. children from cultures that favor inhibition and compliance report more fears. 44. Anxiety disorders of childhood a. tend to persist into adulthood. b. show few cross-cultural differences. c. are usually effectively treated with drugs. d. typically do not lead to problems later in life. Answer: d. typically do not lead to problems later in life. 45. What type of behavioral therapy is most likely to be used in the treatment of child with an anxiety disorder? a. Behavior therapy that includes assertiveness training and desensitization using graded real-life situations. b. Behavior therapy that includes a generalized desensitization to fearful situations using Ruthanne's imagination to picture these situations. c. A combination of Ritalin and family therapy. d. A group therapy in which anxious children are taught to ignore their anxious feelings. Answer: a. Behavior therapy that includes assertiveness training and desensitization using graded real-life situations. 46. Childhood and adult depression differ in what way? a. Irritability is often seen as a major symptom in childhood depression. b. Altered eating habits are not seen in childhood depression. c. Adult depression does not remit without pharmacological intervention. d. Altered hormone levels are not seen in children. Answer: a. Irritability is often seen as a major symptom in childhood depression. 47. Research on the effects of parental depression a. confirms that genes play a role in the etiology of childhood depression. b. suggests that parental psychopathology leads to changes in parenting behavior that has lasting effects on children. c. does not indicate that environmental factors play a role in the development of childhood depression. d. indicates that the influence of peers is greater than that of parents. Answer: b. suggests that parental psychopathology leads to changes in parenting behavior that has lasting effects on children. 48. It is believed that depressed mothers negatively affect their infants because they a. are overly intrusive with their children, depending upon the child rather than allowing the child to depend upon them. b. respond less sensitively to their children and show more irritable behavior. c. tend to blame themselves when, in fact, the children have made mistakes. d. engage in impulsive, antisocial behaviors which the children mimic. Answer: b. respond less sensitively to their children and show more irritable behavior. 49. Childhood depression is likely to persist because a. lasting changes occur in the brain. b. positive events are unlikely to occur. c. most treatments are not effective. d. an attributional style is adopted that maintains a negative mood state. Answer: d. an attributional style is adopted that maintains a negative mood state. 50. Juliet is a depressed child. When she wins a prize at school for her art project, how is she likely to explain it? a. I was the best. b. My teacher likes me. c. I got lucky. d. I worked hard. Answer: c. I got lucky. 51. Research on the effectiveness of antidepressants for the treatment of childhood depression a. demonstrates that drugs are just as effective as therapy. b. suggests that children experience more side effects from these medications than adults. c. indicates that there is not a biological basis for childhood depression. d. has been inconclusive. Answer: d. has been inconclusive. 52. Studies of the effectiveness of antidepressant medication with children have a. shown that Prozac is extremely effective in producing long-term symptom relief. b. produced inconsistent results. c. indicated that while these drugs have few side effects, neither do they have any benefits. d. a major drawback: children develop tolerance to the drugs and become psychologically dependent on them. Answer: b. produced inconsistent results. 53. Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents a. is extremely rare. b. should be ignored as manipulative behavior. c. is usually not related to depression. d. may be increased by taking SSRIs. Answer: d. may be increased by taking SSRIs. 54. After her parents’ divorce, Julia began wetting the bed. She wets the bed almost nightly and is embarrassed about it in the morning. What disorder would this 7-year-old be diagnosed with? a. Primary functional enuresis b. Secondary functional enuresis c. Primary functional encopresis d. Secondary organic enuresis Answer: b. Secondary functional enuresis 55. Throughout his young life, Quincy, age 7, rarely wakes up in the morning to a dry bed. Quincy would be diagnosed as having a. primary functional encopresis. b. secondary functional encopresis. c. primary functional enuresis. d. secondary functional enuresis. Answer: c. primary functional enuresis. 56. Functional enuresis a. always has an organic cause. b. usually develops following some traumatic event. c. is seen in boys more commonly than girls. d. exists in primary, secondary, and tertiary forms. Answer: c. is seen in boys more commonly than girls. 57. Drugs used to treat enuresis are thought to a. alleviate the anxiety that is leading to poor bladder control. b. increase water retention. c. inhibit reflexive bladder emptying. d. decrease the deepest stage of sleep. Answer: d. decrease the deepest stage of sleep. 58. What has been found to be the most effective approach to the treatment of enuresis? a. Cognitive-behavioral therapy b. Conditioning procedures c. Behavioral modification d. Family therapy Answer: b. Conditioning procedures 59. As a camp counselor, you are surprised when you hear that one of your young campers takes a hormone replacement drug intranasally to treat a psychological disorder. The disorder is most likely a. enuresis. b. autism. c. somnambulism. d. encopresis. Answer: a. enuresis. 60. Compared to enuresis, encopresis is a. diagnosed at an earlier age. b. more common. c. less likely to be treated with drugs. d. more likely be effectively treated with conditioning procedures. Answer: a. diagnosed at an earlier age. 61. Which child below best illustrates the typical child with functional encopresis? a. A 12-year-old girl who soils herself at school. b. A 14-year-old boy who suffers from chronic diarrhea. c. A 7-year-old boy who soils himself when under stress. d. A 10-year-old girl who also has attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Answer: c. A 7-year-old boy who soils himself when under stress. 62. It is important to do a thorough physical examination, to rule out medical problems, before diagnosing encopresis because these children often a. have sleep and metabolic disorders, as well. b. engage in hypochondriacal behaviors. c. suffer from diabetes and other serious, chronic conditions. d. suffer from constipation. Answer: d. suffer from constipation. 63. Which of the following is not listed in the DSM-5 under elimination disorders? a. Primary Functional Enuresis b. Encopresis c. Secondary Functional Enuresis d. Sleepwalking disorder Answer: d. Sleepwalking disorder 64. Which of the following is TRUE concerning sleepwalking disorder? a. If a child has one episode of sleepwalking, he or she is likely to have repeated episodes. b. Takes place during non-REM sleep. c. Awakening an individual who is sleepwalking will result in severe physiological stress for the person. d. While moving about, sleepwalkers' eyes are closed so they are in constant danger of injuring themselves. Answer: b. Takes place during non-REM sleep. 65. Tics a. are usually not noticed by the individual performing the act. b. are often related to enuresis. c. occur most frequently in adults, but occasionally they also occur in children. d. almost always have an organic basis. Answer: a. are usually not noticed by the individual performing the act. 66. Cross-cultural studies of tics find that a. the types of tics seen most commonly vary with culture. b. the average age of tic onset appears to be universal. c. tics occur less frequently in cultures that are less expressive. d. tics are always seen more frequently in females. Answer: b. the average age of tic onset appears to be universal. 67. Coprolalia a. is a vocal tic involving yelling obscenities. b. frequently accompanies encopresis. c. is a common side effect of medications used in the treatment of childhood depression. d. is a rare pervasive developmental disorder. Answer: a. is a vocal tic involving yelling obscenities. 68. Which of the following is a symptom of Tourette's syndrome? a. Coprolalia. b. Enuresis. c. Encopresis. d. Pica. Answer: a. Coprolalia. 69. Orlando, 14, frequently twists his head uncontrollably and yelps or grunts. If he has not done this for several hours, he has a sensation that can only be relieved by engaging in these movements and sounds. Orlando has had this problem since he was 8. The most likely diagnosis is a. obsessive-compulsive disorder. b. tic disorder. c. coprolalia. d. Tourette's syndrome. Answer: d. Tourette's syndrome. 70. Moat tics a. are only seen in Tourette's syndrome. b. usually have an organic basis. c. are usually associated with severe behavioral problems. d. rarely are effectively controlled with medication. Answer: c. are usually associated with severe behavioral problems. 71. The most effective medical treatment for Tourette's syndrome is a. biofeedback training. b. central nervous stimulants such as Ritalin. c. neuroleptics such as haloperidol. d. the hormone replacement drug DDVAP. Answer: c. neuroleptics such as haloperidol. 72. ___________ are a group of severely disabling conditions in children that are considered to be the result of structural differences in the brain and usually apparent at birth or as the child begins to develop. a. Neurodevelopmental disorders b. Symptom disorders c. Conduct disorders d. Tic disorders Answer: a. Neurodevelopmental disorders 73. Autism is a. a severe and puzzling disorder. b. diagnosed based on socioeconomic status. c. a severe form of conduct disorder. d. an extreme tic disorder. Answer: a. a severe and puzzling disorder. 74. The hallmark symptom of autism is a. lack of language. b. lack of interest in other people. c. intellectual disability. d. strange behaviors. Answer: b. lack of interest in other people. 75. Autism is similar to schizophrenia in its a. age of onset. b. cause being due in part to genetic vulnerability. c. symptoms of delusions. d. responsiveness to treatment. Answer: b. cause being due in part to genetic vulnerability. 76. We are likely to find that many of the children with autistic disorder a. are girls. b. also suffer from depression, tic disorders, and other forms of psychopathology. c. come from poverty-stricken environments. d. were identified as having the disorder before they were 3 years old. Answer: d. were identified as having the disorder before they were 3 years old. 77. William is an autistic child. He is probably a. very talkative. b. unable to utter any meaningful sounding words. c. relatively withdrawn and uncommunicative. d. aggressive and frequently attacks others. Answer: c. relatively withdrawn and uncommunicative. 78. Children with ___________ are believed to be "mind blind," that is, they cannot take the attitude of or "see" things as others do. They are also deficient at locating and orienting to sounds in their environment. a. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder b. Childhood disorder c. Separation anxiety disorder d. Autistic disorder Answer: d. Autistic disorder 79. Which of the following is a possible explanation for the seeming lack of emotion in autistic children? a. They have no emotions. b. They lack social understanding. c. Neurological impairment - they can feel but not show emotions. d. Immaturity - they will show more as they get older. Answer: b. They lack social understanding. 80. Children with autism often have additional problems such as a. encopresis and sleep problems. b. obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette's syndrome. c. conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. d. social anxiety disorder and elective mutism. Answer: a. encopresis and sleep problems. 81. In autistic children, head banging, spinning in circles, and rocking are behaviors that a. are exceedingly rare. b. are common forms of self-stimulation. c. are believed to be ways of communicating without language. d. are used because these children find repetitive routines very aversive. Answer: b. are common forms of self-stimulation. 82. Despite what is shown in movies like Rain Man, most autistic children would not cope well being brought to a Las Vegas casino for the first time, because a. they are afraid of large groups of people. b. they would want to touch things they weren't allowed to touch. c. they would be so excited by all the sights and sounds they would become over-agitated. d. they often show aversion to auditory stimulation and prefer a limited and solitary routine. Answer: d. they often show aversion to auditory stimulation and prefer a limited and solitary routine. 83. Which of the following would be most distressing to a child with autism? a. Soft, monotonous sounds b. An everyday routine that stays the same c. Altering a familiar environment d. Not having a normal sleep pattern Answer: c. Altering a familiar environment 84. Autism a. is due to environmental factors like family environment. b. is minimally related to genetics. c. is caused by exposure to chemical toxins during early development. d. is one of the most strongly genetic disorders in the DSM-5. Answer: d. is one of the most strongly genetic disorders in the DSM-5. 85. It has been suggested that the symptoms seen in autism might reflect a problem with the function of the a. glutamate neurotransmitter system. b. hippocampus. c. hypothalamus. d. cerebellum. Answer: a. glutamate neurotransmitter system. 86. Which of the following has been associated with autism? a. Down syndrome b. Mutations of chromosome 23 c. Defective genes or radiation damage d. Huntington's disease Answer: c. Defective genes or radiation damage 87. Drug treatment for autistic disorder has been found to be a. of some value in reducing aggressive behaviors. b. extremely beneficial when neuroleptics like haloperidol are used. c. contraindicated since they tend to make the children withdraw even further. d. extremely beneficial when a hormone replacement drug is used. Answer: a. of some value in reducing aggressive behaviors. 88. The extremely intensive experimental behavior program designed by Ivar Lovaas for children with autism a. has not proven successful. b. has shown promise, but not as much as medications. c. helped almost half of the children in the treatment program achieve normal intellectual functioning. d. helped most of the parents of autistic children learn to cope better with their children. Answer: c. helped almost half of the children in the treatment program achieve normal intellectual functioning. 89. Despite studies such as by Ivar Lovaas, the overall prognosis for children with autism is a. extremely positive. b. poor. c. most will be able to live on their own and work at low-level jobs. d. most will steadily improve as they age and become independent. Answer: b. poor. 90. Jenny has an IQ in the average range. However, at school she is doing very poorly. She has consistently scored at two or more grade levels below the grade she is actually in. From this, a diagnostician would hypothesize that Jenny a. most likely has an anxiety disorder. b. most likely does not have a learning disability because her IQ is only average. c. most likely has a learning disability. d. most likely has intellectual disability. Answer: c. most likely has a learning disability. 91. By definition, learning disorders a. are not due to a physical defect. b. reflect a developmental delay. c. are present before the age of 5. d. cannot be treated medically. Answer: a. are not due to a physical defect. 92. The most widely known and studied learning disorder is a. intellectual disability. b. autism. c. conduct disorder. d. dyslexia. Answer: d. dyslexia. 93. A learning disability usually is identified a. because teachers and school administrators are on the watch for the signs. b. because a child shows a disparity between his or her actual academic achievement and expected academic achievement. c. because a child begins to show significant emotional problems, fails, and begins to hate school. d. because the child has been doing very well in school for several years and then suddenly starts failing. Answer: b. because a child shows a disparity between his or her actual academic achievement and expected academic achievement. 94. An asymmetry in brain development has been hypothesized to be a cause of a. ADHD. b. autism. c. learning disabilities. d. selective mutism. Answer: c. learning disabilities. 95. When symptoms of intellectual disability are not apparent until after age 17, a. the treatment for retardation is more successful. b. the level of retardation is typically mild. c. the retardation is almost always at least moderate and often severe. d. the diagnosis would be dementia, not intellectual disability. Answer: d. the diagnosis would be dementia, not intellectual disability. 96. The intellectual level of adults with mild intellectual disability are most comparable to: a. an intelligent 10-year-old. b. an adolescent. c. an average 5-year-old. d. an average 11-year-old. Answer: d. an average 11-year-old. 97. Ron works as a custodian's helper at a school, under supervision of the custodian. Ron can read and write his name, and can read first-grade books. He moves slowly and sometimes with difficulty. Ron most likely has a. mild intellectual disability. b. moderate intellectual disability. c. severe intellectual disability. d. profound intellectual disability. Answer: b. moderate intellectual disability. 98. Genetic factors a. are very common in all levels of retardation. b. are clearly involved in the more severe forms of retardation. c. are involved only in cases of profound retardation. d. are involved only in Down syndrome. Answer: b. are clearly involved in the more severe forms of retardation. 99. Individuals with Down syndrome typically show which of the following characteristics? a. They have extremely small heads and brains. b. Their eyes, skin, and hair are very pale. c. They have large tongues and short fingers. d. Their cranium fills with an abnormal amount of cerebrospinal fluid. Answer: c. They have large tongues and short fingers. 100. The long held belief that children with Down syndrome are especially placid and loving a. has been supported by research. b. is only true for those with higher IQs. c. is only true for those with lower IQs. d. has been shown to be invalid by research. Answer: d. has been shown to be invalid by research. 101. The incidence of Down syndrome increases a. when the mother drinks heavily during pregnancy. b. if the father is extremely young. c. as the age of the parents increases. d. when the mother is exposed to lead during pregnancy. Answer: c. as the age of the parents increases. 102. Children born with phenylketonuria, a. are destined to develop severe or profound retardation. b. appear normal at first. c. exhibit abnormal movements and vocalizations. d. have characteristic facial features. Answer: b. appear normal at first. 103. Phenylketonuria can be used to illustrate a. the dramatic effects of prenatal malnutrition. b. the importance of early detection of chromosomal anomalies. c. why women should give birth at an early age. d. how nature and nurture interact. Answer: d. how nature and nurture interact. 104. Urine testing allows for the early detection of ___________ and its treatment, which consists of ________. a. Down syndrome; behavior therapy b. phenylketonuria; a low-phenylalanine diet c. macrocephaly; surgery to remove excess fluid d. Down syndrome; the drug tacrine Answer: b. phenylketonuria; a low-phenylalanine diet 105. Microcephaly and macrocephaly have what in common? a. They involve alterations in head size and shape. b. They are due to recessive genes. c. They are caused by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranium. d. They are associated with older parental age. Answer: a. They involve alterations in head size and shape. 106. Shortly after birth, Darren's head began to grow. At age 5, a shunt was placed in his skull to drain fluid. He has seizures, trouble seeing, and is mildly mentally retarded. Darren's most likely diagnosis is a. microcephaly. b. phenylketonuria. c. Turner's syndrome. d. hydrocephaly. Answer: d. hydrocephaly. 107. The current trend for treatment of the intellectually disabled is a. to place them in institutions. b. to place all but the mildly intellectually disabled in institutions. c. to place all but the mildly and moderately retarded in institutions. d. to keep even the most severely retarded in the community rather than institutions. Answer: d. to keep even the most severely disabled in the community rather than institutions. 108. One of the most important factors in the treatment of children and adolescents is a. the type of disorder they have. b. their intellectual level. c. parental willingness to be involved in treatment. d. their response to medications. Answer: c. parental willingness to be involved in treatment. 109. Which of the following statements about factors associated with treatment of children and adolescents is correct? a. Psychotherapy is more effective with children and adolescents compared to adults. b. Behavior therapy is more effective with children and adolescents compared to adults. c. Psychotherapy and behavior therapy are both less effective in children and adolescents compared to adults. d. Psychotherapy and behavior therapy are equally effective in children and adolescents and with adults. Answer: d. Psychotherapy and behavior therapy are equally effective in children and adolescents and with adults. 110. Which of the following is a legal term used to describe individuals between the ages of 8 and 18 who commit illegal acts? a. Conduct Disorder b. Oppositional Defiant Disorder c. Juvenile Delinquency d. Psychopathy Answer: c. Juvenile Delinquency Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. __________ are the most common types of medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Answer: Stimulants 2. __________ is the most common of the childhood anxiety disorders. Answer: Separation anxiety disorder 3. The diagnoses of Depression and Bipolar Disorder in children and adolescents have __________ in number of the past few years, although diagnosing them has become controversial. Answer: increased 4. The parrot-like repetition of speech seen in some children with autism is also called __________. Answer: echolalia 5. Many children with ______ become preoccupied with and form strong attachments to unusual objects such as rocks. Answer: autism 6. The most common chromosomal abnormality seen in Down syndrome is the __________ of chromosome 21. Answer: trisomy Short Answer Questions 1. How do early views of child psychopathology differ from those of today? Answer: Childhood disorders were once given little attention as they were viewed as simply being manifestations of adult disorders in children. It was not recognized that there are disorders that are only seen in childhood and that definitions of what is viewed as normal behavior change with age. 2. What is the clinical picture of oppositional defiant disorder? How is this disorder related to conduct disorder? Answer: The key characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder are persistent negativism, disobedience, and hostile behavior toward authority figures. This pattern must last at least six months and usually begins by age 8. Conduct disorder involves many of the same behaviors but usually has its onset in middle childhood or later. While some children who have oppositional defiant disorder go on to develop conduct disorder, virtually every child with conduct disorder had oppositional defiant disorder earlier in life. 3. What relationship is there between conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder? Answer: Early-onset conduct disorder is associated with later development of antisocial personality disorder or other social dysfunction. It appears that the earlier that antisocial behavior becomes apparent, the more likely that it will continue and become a lifelong behavioral pattern. 4. How does depression in a mother impact her child? Answer: Depressed mothers tend not to respond effectively to children and to be less attuned to them. They also tend to respond in a more negative manner. The mothers' behavior and modeling of affect may produce similar responses in infants. 5. What types of treatments are most effective for treating enuresis? Answer: While medications may be used to decrease bedwetting, these medications do not fix the problem. Learning-based procedures are clearly more effective, for example, the bell and pad method. 6. What is coprolalia? Answer: Coprolalia is a vocal tic that involves the uttering of obscenities. It is seen in about one-third of those with Tourette's syndrome. 7. What are the major symptoms of autism? Answer: Lack of interest in social relationships, social deficits, absence of speech, self-stimulation, lowered IQ, and maintaining sameness. 8. What are three factors that can cause intellectual disability? Answer: Three of: Genetic-chromosomal factors, infections and toxic agents, trauma and physical injury, ionizing radiation and malnutrition. 9. What is unique about the intellectual disability caused by PKU? Answer: While many conditions inevitably result in brain damage and intellectual disability, early detection of PKU can prevent any adverse consequences. Children with PKU are unable to metabolize phenylalanine. If they ingest food with this amino acid, it accumulates and causes brain damage that leads to retardation. The intellectual disability seen in PKU only occurs if foods with phenylalanine are ingested, therefore it is preventable. 10. What are three of the special factors associated with treatment for children and adolescents? Answer: Three of: child's inability to seek assistance on his or her own, child's unique vulnerabilities that put him or her at risk, the need to treat parents as well as children, the problems of placing children outside of the family, and the value of intervening before problems become acute. Essay Questions 1. What are the special vulnerabilities in young children that contribute to the development of psychological problems? Answer: Children have a more simplistic view of life than adults. They have less self-understanding and cannot grasp as adults can what situations require of them nor what resources they have to cope with those situations. Therefore, immediate threats are more likely to seem overwhelming to children. Given this limited perspective, children use unrealistic ideas to explain events. Children are also more dependent on other people than adults, and while this may provide support, it also makes them vulnerable to rejection and inadequate or inappropriate modeling of behavior. 2. Discuss the relationship between oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, juvenile delinquency, and antisocial personality disorder. Answer: While oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and antisocial personality disorder (APD) are all psychological disorders found in the DSM-5, juvenile delinquency is a legal term used to identify law breaking by minors. Thus, many children with ODD and CD are juvenile delinquents. The behavioral features of ODD, CD, and APD are all similar. In essence, ODD and CD involve age-appropriate antisocial acts. ODD is usually apparent by age 8 and is characterized by negativity, defiance, and hostility that persists for at least 6 months. The child with ODD does not respect authority. Not all children with ODD develop CD, but virtually all children with CD had ODD. CD tends to be seen by middle childhood. While the child with ODD is hostile to authority, the child with CD violates the rights of others and repeatedly violates rules. In CD we see an escalation of the antisocial behaviors evident in the child with ODD. Just as not all children with ODD develop CD, those children who develop CD are not destined to develop APD. Those who develop CD at a young age, however, are more likely to develop APD. Thus, it appears that early and persistent antisocial behavior in childhood is a precursor for APD. 3. Describe the ways parents can cause anxiety disorders in their children. Answer: 1. Modeling by overanxious and protective parents can sensitize children to the dangers of the outside world, communicates to them a lack of confidence in the child's ability to cope and reinforces the child's feelings of inadequacy. 2. Indifferent or detached parents or rejecting parents cause the child to not feel adequately supported in mastering essential competencies and gaining a positive self-concept. Either repeated failures from poor learning skills leads to anxiety or withdrawal in the face of a threat or the child performs adequately but is overly self-critical and feels anxious and devalued because of self-perception of failure and loss of parental love. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology: DSM 5 James N. Butcher, Jill M. Hooley, Susan M. Mineka 9780205965090, 9780205944286

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Elijah Adams View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right