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Chapter 5 Everyday Power 1. Which one of the following statements about Zapotec women is true? a. All Zapotec women have access to the same sources of power. b. Formal weaving cooperatives prevent women from participating in public politics. c. Classes of weaver and merchant women employ different strategies for achieving power. d. Until the recent development of cooperatives, Zapotec women had no economic power or influence in their society. Answer: C Rationale: In Zapotec society, different classes of women, such as weavers and merchants, employ distinct strategies for attaining power. This reflects the diversity of roles and opportunities available to Zapotec women, contradicting the notion that all women have equal access to power. 2. A strict theory of the public-private dichotomy _________. a. fails to recognize women’s power outside of the domestic realm b. accurately portrays the way power is divided along gender lines, with men’s influence in the private realm and women’s power in the domestic sphere c. proposes that women’s power is found in the public and private spheres d. does not address gendered access to formal political office Answer: A Rationale: A strict public-private dichotomy overlooks the power that women hold outside the domestic sphere. Women can exert influence and power in various public domains beyond the confines of the home, such as in community organizations, informal networks, and even formal political arenas. 3. What is the difference between authority and influence? a. Authority is the informal ability to convince people to act in a certain manner, whereas influence is the formally recognized ability to direct people’s actions. b. Authority is the formally recognized ability to direct people’s actions whereas influence is the informal ability to persuade people to act in a certain manner. c. Influence is always backed by formal sanctions such as policing and law. d. Elder men in a society hold authority whereas people of any age or gender can hold influence. Answer: B Rationale: Authority refers to the formal recognition of power to direct actions, often stemming from positions of leadership or governance. Influence, on the other hand, is the informal capacity to persuade or shape others' behavior, regardless of formal recognition or position of authority. 4. Elite Minangkabau women control sumptuary privileges reflecting rank, such as __________. a. having the final say in dispute resolutions over land management b. organizing labor for ceremonial events c. naming first daughters after the holy water buffalo d. wearing ornate headdresses at weddings Answer: D Rationale: Sumptuary privileges are often symbolic markers of social status and are reflected in attire or adornments. In the case of elite Minangkabau women, controlling sumptuary privileges may manifest in the ability to wear ornate headdresses at significant events, indicating their status and rank within the community. 5. Minangkabau elite women derive power from a. sumptuary privileges b. the kinship system c. land management and home ownership d. all of the above Answer: D Rationale: Elite Minangkabau women derive power from various sources, including sumptuary privileges, which reflect their social status; the kinship system, which may afford them networks of support and influence; as well as involvement in land management and home ownership, granting them economic and social leverage within their community. 6. Which of the following are informal sanctions? a. imprisonment b. gossip and ostracism c. monetary fines d. all of the above Answer: B Rationale: Informal sanctions are non-legal means of enforcing social norms or punishing deviant behavior. Gossip and ostracism are examples of informal sanctions, as they involve social exclusion or negative social commentary rather than official legal penalties. 7. Traditionally, in Zapotec society, respet could be achieved through a. hosting religious celebrations b. machismo c. economic success d. political office Answer: A Rationale: Respet in Zapotec society can be achieved through various means, including hosting religious celebrations. This demonstrates the cultural significance of religious practices in fostering social cohesion and respect within the community. 8. The concept of ______ is intricately tied to Japanese views of femininity. a. uchi b. kabuki c. soto d. unagi Answer: A Rationale: The concept of "uchi" in Japanese culture refers to the inner or private sphere, including the family or home. It is closely associated with traditional gender roles and notions of femininity, emphasizing domestic duties and nurturing roles within the household. 9. A Japanese woman concerned about becoming “stewed and thickened,” is worried that ____________. a. she has gained weight and no longer conforms to her culture’s ideal of beauty b. she has ruined dinner, which will displease her husband c. she cannot get time away from home and will become emotionally unstable d. she has gotten pregnant out of wedlock Answer: C Rationale: The phrase "stewed and thickened" reflects a metaphorical concern about becoming emotionally burdened or overwhelmed, rather than a literal reference to physical appearance or culinary mishaps. In Japanese culture, there may be societal pressure on women to maintain emotional stability and balance, particularly within the domestic sphere. 10. Development projects in Jordan incorporated women’s opinions __________. a. because women were primarily the one’s at home to respond to surveys b. derived from women's domestic roles and identities as wives and mothers c. in response to women arguing their causes at the public development offices d. all of the above Answer: D Rationale: Development projects in Jordan incorporated women's opinions through various means, including surveys administered to those primarily at home, recognition of women's roles and identities within the domestic sphere, as well as through active participation and advocacy by women in public development forums. This multifaceted approach demonstrates efforts to ensure women's voices and perspectives are included in decision-making processes. 11. Why have young women from the Kerala region of India pursued careers in nursing? a. They wanted to get away from their families. b. They wished to supplement their family’s income. c. They did not want to get married. d. They were members of a low-ranking caste and had no other options. Answer: B Rationale: Kerala, known for its high literacy rates and progressive social indicators, has seen many young women opting for nursing careers to contribute to family income due to financial constraints and to gain financial independence. This choice is often driven by economic factors rather than solely personal desires or societal pressures. 12. Which type of Keralite immigrant household is the most egalitarian in terms of economic decision making? a. the forced participation household b. the traditional household c. the partnership household d. the female-led household Answer: C Rationale: Partnership households among Keralite immigrants are characterized by shared decisionmaking regarding finances, indicating a more egalitarian approach compared to other household types. This equality suggests a collaborative effort between spouses in managing economic matters. 13. According to Peggy Sanday, matriarchy is best defined as _________. a. the mirror image of patriarchy b. an archaic political form that vanished with the Neolithic Revolution c. tracing descent through the maternal line d. a system of rule based on maternal symbols and women’s forms of power Answer: D Rationale: Peggy Sanday defines matriarchy as a system of governance where power is based on maternal symbols and women's forms of authority, rather than simply being a reversal of patriarchy. This definition emphasizes the presence of distinct structures and symbols associated with female leadership. 14. The centrality of women and women’s power among the Minangkabau is reflected in _________. a. contemporary laws of land ownership b. the election of an Indonesian, female president c. the matrihouse d. the geometric shape of rice fields Answer: C Rationale: The concept of the "matrihouse" among the Minangkabau, where property and land are passed down matrilineally, reflects the central role of women and their power within the society. This institution underscores the importance of female lineage and inheritance rights. 15. Which of the following statements about Asante market queens is true? a. Asante market queens are primarily responsible for establishing exchange prices. b. Asante market queens are primarily responsible for dispute resolutions. c. Asante market queens are elected by local ballot. d. Asante market queens inherit their positions as members of the royal lineage. Answer: B Rationale: Asante market queens play a significant role in resolving disputes within the marketplace, acting as mediators and maintaining order. Their authority stems from their position within the market rather than hereditary ties or electoral processes. 16. What message is conveyed when Sri Lankan women living in the Free Trade Zone hang their clean underwear on the laundry line? a. They are modest. b. They are prostitutes. c. They have no care for authority. d. They are earning a good salary. Answer: A Rationale: In the context of Sri Lankan culture, hanging clean underwear on the laundry line signifies modesty and adherence to social norms regarding cleanliness and propriety. It reflects cultural values rather than assumptions about occupation or income. 17. Japanese corporate wives have a difficult time forming social networks with other corporate wives due to: a. competition among women. b. their husband’s interference. c. strict rules governing obligation, gift giving, and expressions of seniority such as bowing. d. all of the above Answer: C Rationale: Japanese corporate wives face challenges in forming social networks due to strict social protocols governing interactions, including gift-giving etiquette, obligations, and expressions of respect. These rules can hinder informal socialization among corporate spouses. 18. Which of the following best defines the concept of agency? a. having the power to control other people’s behavior b. representation by a professional who negotiates contracts c. an organization aimed at economic development d. the ability to make and implement choices in one’s own life Answer: D Rationale: Agency refers to the capacity of individuals to make independent choices and to act upon them, exerting control over their own lives and decisions. It emphasizes autonomy and selfdetermination rather than control over others or representation by a third party. 19. Women’s everyday power emerges in which of the following? a. ceremonial, economic, and political realms b. ceremonial and economic realms only c. everywhere except economic activities d. the domestic sphere alone Answer: A Rationale: Women's everyday power is evident across various spheres of life, including ceremonial, economic, and political domains. This power manifests in different forms, ranging from decision-making within the household to participation in community ceremonies and economic activities. 20. While religious and government institutions may constrict women’s rights, _________ promotes women’s rights in many Middle Eastern societies. a. the World Bank b. kinship networks c. civil society d. Christianity Answer: C Rationale: Civil society organizations play a significant role in advocating for women's rights and empowerment in many Middle Eastern societies, offering avenues for activism, support networks, and initiatives aimed at challenging discriminatory practices and promoting gender equality. ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Explain the controversy over the term “matriarchy.” Argue whether or not the Minangkabau should be considered a matriarchy and why. Answer: The term "matriarchy" is contentious because it implies a societal structure where women hold primary power and dominance over men. However, many scholars argue that true matriarchies, in this sense, are rare or nonexistent. Instead, societies often exhibit matrilineal or matrifocal characteristics, where descent, inheritance, or social organization is traced through the female line, but power dynamics are more complex and nuanced. Regarding the Minangkabau, they are often cited as an example of a matrilineal society. Women hold significant influence in familial and community matters, with property and land passed down through the female line. However, this doesn't necessarily equate to a matriarchal system where women have unilateral power. Men still hold positions of authority in various domains, and decision-making often involves both genders. Therefore, while the Minangkabau exhibit matrilineal traits, labeling their society as a matriarchy oversimplifies their power dynamics. 2. Discuss some of the ways women’s economic influence extends into other aspects of power. Illustrate with examples from the Asante and Zapotec. Answer: Women's economic influence can extend into various realms of power beyond purely economic domains. In Asante society, for example, women's control over market activities and trade networks not only provides them with economic autonomy but also positions them as central figures in social and political spheres. Their wealth and entrepreneurial skills afford them respect and influence in decision-making processes within the community. Similarly, among the Zapotec, women's involvement in economic activities such as weaving and selling goods enables them to wield influence beyond economic transactions. Their economic contributions translate into social capital, granting them a voice in community affairs and rituals. Furthermore, in both Asante and Zapotec cultures, women's economic roles often intersect with ceremonial and political realms, reinforcing their multifaceted power within society. 3. Why is ceremonial power important? What roles do women play in ceremonies and rites of passage? Illustrate with examples from the Minangkabau and Zapotec. Answer: Ceremonial power holds significance in reinforcing cultural norms, values, and social cohesion within communities. Women play pivotal roles in ceremonies and rites of passage, contributing to the preservation of traditions and the transmission of cultural heritage to future generations. In Minangkabau society, women participate actively in ceremonial events, such as adat rituals and clan gatherings. They often lead and organize ceremonies related to childbirth, marriage, and death, embodying cultural symbols of continuity and lineage. Through their involvement in rituals, Minangkabau women maintain social networks and uphold customary practices essential for community cohesion. Similarly, among the Zapotec, women play integral roles in ceremonial activities that mark important life transitions and communal events. Whether it's participating in religious ceremonies, overseeing community celebrations, or performing sacred rituals, Zapotec women contribute to the spiritual and social fabric of their society. Ceremonial engagements allow Zapotec women to assert their cultural identity and reinforce their interconnectedness with the broader community. 4. How do concepts such as the domestic-public dichotomy and informal-formal spectrum help us recognize and understand women’s power? What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of these theories? Support your arguments with culturally specific examples. Answer: The domestic-public dichotomy and informal-formal spectrum offer frameworks for analyzing the various dimensions of women's power within different cultural contexts. The domestic-public divide delineates the separation between private, household-related activities (domestic) and public, external engagements (public), highlighting how women's influence may shift across these realms. In cultures like the Asante, where women hold significant authority within domestic spheres, the domestic-public dichotomy helps elucidate how their power extends beyond household management to influence community dynamics and decision-making processes. Conversely, in societies like the Zapotec, where men often dominate public affairs, this framework highlights disparities in gendered power dynamics between domestic and public spheres. Similarly, the informal-formal spectrum distinguishes between overt, institutionalized forms of power (formal) and subtle, interpersonal dynamics (informal). By applying this spectrum, we can recognize how women exert influence through both formal channels, such as political leadership roles, and informal avenues, like social networks and kinship ties. However, these theories also have limitations. They may overlook the complexities of power dynamics within specific cultural contexts and oversimplify women's agency and influence. Additionally, they risk reinforcing binary understandings of gender roles, disregarding the diverse ways in which power operates and is negotiated within societies. 5. Analyze three examples of women’s power. Consider the following questions in your analysis: What type of power is it? Economic? Political? Ceremonial? Other? How does it relate to other aspects of culture? To men’s power? Be culturally specific in your response. Answer: a. Among the Asante of Ghana, women wield economic power through their control of market activities. Engaging in trade and commerce allows Asante women to accumulate wealth and establish networks of influence within their communities. This economic power intertwines with political authority, as affluent women often hold sway over decision-making processes and hold leadership roles in lineage groups and councils. b. In Zapotec society in Mexico, women exercise ceremonial power through their roles in religious rituals and community celebrations. As caretakers of cultural traditions, Zapotec women oversee ceremonial practices that reinforce social cohesion and spiritual beliefs. This ceremonial authority intersects with familial responsibilities, as women transmit cultural knowledge and values to future generations, thereby perpetuating their influence within Zapotec society. c. Within the Minangkabau of Indonesia, women possess familial power stemming from their central roles in matrilineal kinship systems. Through matrilineal inheritance and lineage ties, Minangkabau women exert authority over household affairs and inheritance matters. This familial power extends into broader social contexts, as women's leadership within family structures shapes community dynamics and decision-making processes, complementing men's roles in public spheres of governance and administration. 6. Discuss the influence of either colonial experiences or migration on the development of systems of power in two cultures. Can you make any generalizations about these processes in terms of their effects on power? Answer: Answer: Colonial experiences have had a profound impact on the development of systems of power in various cultures. One example is the influence of British colonialism in India and its impact on the Indian caste system. British colonization introduced new power structures that reinforced existing hierarchies, particularly through policies that favored certain castes over others. The British Raj implemented administrative systems that often marginalized lower castes, consolidating power among the upper castes who collaborated with colonial authorities. This perpetuated social inequalities and entrenched power imbalances within Indian society. In contrast, migration has influenced the development of power systems in cultures such as the United States. The waves of migration to the US, particularly in the 19th and early 20th centuries, contributed to the shaping of power dynamics within American society. Immigrant communities brought diverse cultural, economic, and social backgrounds, leading to the emergence of new power structures. Over time, certain immigrant groups gained political and economic influence, reshaping the distribution of power within American society. However, migration also led to tensions and conflicts over power, as dominant groups sought to maintain control and preserve existing power structures against the influence of newcomers. One generalization is that both colonial experiences and migration often result in the restructuring of power dynamics within societies. In the case of colonialism, the imposition of colonial rule often leads to the concentration of power in the hands of the colonizers and local elites who collaborate with them. This can exacerbate existing power imbalances and perpetuate social hierarchies. On the other hand, migration tends to introduce diversity into societies, challenging existing power structures and potentially leading to shifts in power relations. Immigrant communities may form new power networks, altering the distribution of political, economic, and social power within the host society. However, both processes can also engender tensions and conflicts over power as different groups vie for influence and control. Overall, colonial experiences and migration have complex and varied effects on systems of power, often shaping the course of history in profound ways. Test Bank for A World Full of Women Martha C. Ward, Monica D. Edelstein 9780205957620

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