Preview (3 of 9 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 1 “What’s For Dinner Honey?” 1. Elizabeth Barber’s research shows which of the following to be the earliest of women’s inventions? a. containers b. string c. looms d. cosmetics Answer: B Rationale: Elizabeth Barber's research points to string as one of the earliest inventions by women, dating back to prehistoric times. This finding is based on archaeological evidence indicating the use of string in various domestic and utilitarian contexts, such as for tying objects together and crafting containers. 2. Which of the following statements about foraging societies is true? a. In foraging societies, women organize their childbearing and childrearing within and around their work of gathering food. b. In foraging societies, women organize their work of gathering food within and around their main tasks of bearing and rearing children. c. How women in these societies organize their work and raise children depends on how they feel about these jobs. d. Foraging societies are closer to nature and more primitive than other societies, so bearing children and child rearing naturally take precedence over other forms of labor. Answer: A Rationale: In foraging societies, women typically organize their childbearing and childrearing responsibilities within and around their primary tasks of gathering food. This arrangement is practical as it allows women to fulfill their roles in both subsistence activities and caregiving, contributing to the overall sustainability of the group. 3. “Sexual division of labor” refers to the assignment of survival tasks of the society according to gender. This means that _________. a. the work of men and women does not overlap b. the work of men and women may overlap somewhat c. the work of men and women looks roughly the same d. any of the above—depending on the society that does the assigning Answer: D Rationale: The concept of "sexual division of labor" acknowledges that the assignment of tasks within a society based on gender roles can vary. In some societies, the work of men and women may not overlap much, while in others, there may be some overlap or even similarity in the tasks assigned to both genders. The specific arrangement depends on cultural, historical, and economic factors within each society. 4. Which of the following best describes the family wage ideology? a. Men earn a higher wage than women because they have a wife and children to support. b. Men and women both contribute equally to the family economy. c. Children should support their parents after they are grown and have established their own households. d. Women should receive a higher wage than men because they are the primary caregivers for their children. Answer: A Rationale: The family wage ideology suggests that men should earn a higher wage than women because they are perceived as the primary breadwinners responsible for supporting their families, including their wives and children. This ideology historically justified gender-based wage disparities in the workforce. 5. Work that is valued for its contribution to the marketplace can be said to have ________. a. use value b. exchange value c. reciprocal value d. gendered value Answer: B Rationale: Work that is valued for its contribution to the marketplace is considered to have exchange value. This value is determined by the demand for the goods or services produced through labor within a market economy. Exchange value contrasts with use value, which pertains to the inherent utility or usefulness of a good or service regardless of its marketability. 6. In the Kalahari, what form of women’s work is considered the equivalent of men’s work of procuring meat? a. hunting small animals b. growing staple crops c. gathering foods d. bearing children Answer: D Rationale: In the Kalahari, bearing children is considered the equivalent of men's work of procuring meat. This perspective reflects the cultural and economic significance attached to reproductive labor, particularly in societies where subsistence relies heavily on hunting and gathering. Women's ability to bear and raise children ensures the continuation of the community and its future labor force. 7. What was the result of Lenin’s decree that women should be paid the same as men? a. Women gained full equality under Communism. b. Men and women began to share domestic tasks so that each would have time to earn a wage. c. Women continued to perform domestic work without pay in addition to working for wages outside of the home. d. Men reacted to this idea with a backlash that prohibited women from the workplace for decades to come. Answer: C Rationale: Lenin's decree that women should be paid the same as men did not lead to full equality for women under Communism. Instead, women continued to perform unpaid domestic work alongside their waged employment outside the home. This situation persisted, reflecting broader societal attitudes toward gender roles and labor division. 8. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Housework is a type of exchange value work. b. Women’s work at home is rarely valued. c. The use value of housework is regulated by the market economy. d. none of the above Answer: B Rationale: Women's work at home is often undervalued within the context of a market economy. Despite its crucial role in maintaining households and supporting the well-being of family members, domestic labor, including housework and caregiving, is frequently unpaid and overlooked as it does not directly generate monetary income or participate in traditional market exchanges. 9. As described by sociologist Arlie Hochschild, what is the “second shift?” a. what international economists call the double day b. a situation wherein women work full-time and do most of the housework and childcare c. common to the majority of two-career families d. all of the above Answer: D Rationale: The "second shift," as described by sociologist Arlie Hochschild, refers to the situation where women, particularly those who are employed outside the home, are responsible for a disproportionate share of housework and childcare duties in addition to their paid employment. This phenomenon is prevalent in many households, particularly those where both partners are engaged in full-time careers. 10. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Humans, through agriculture, first domesticated plants about 40,000 years ago. b. The sexual division of labor among food-foraging groups is notoriously unequal. c. An egalitarian division of labor is the supposed ideal of today’s American middle class. d. The family wage ideology encourages women to seek wage employment. Answer: C Rationale: An egalitarian division of labor, where tasks and responsibilities are shared more equally between genders, is often considered the ideal within modern American middle-class households. This ideal reflects evolving societal norms and aspirations for greater gender equality in both domestic and professional spheres. 11. The potluck principle operates when ________. a. every family in a group eats only what they gather and hunt themselves b. people who share food get less to eat than if they consumed it independently c. people share resources and thus improve nutrition for all d. everyone in a group owns a ceramic casserole dish Answer: C Rationale: The potluck principle refers to the sharing of resources, typically food, among a group, leading to improved nutrition for all involved. Option C reflects this idea accurately. 12. Which of the following societies would most likely afford women high status? a. a patrilineal society in which men control economic resources and women stay at home with the children b. a society in which women control economic resources through matrilineal inheritance c. an industrial society in which women as well as men earn wages d. a society in which women produce large numbers of children who contribute to agricultural production Answer: B Rationale: In societies where women control economic resources through matrilineal inheritance (Option B), women are more likely to have high status as they wield economic power and influence. 13. Tools made and used primarily by women have been essential to human history. Which of the following statements about women’s tools is false? a. Women probably pioneered the use of containers for food, wood, and their offspring. b. Plants such as jute, willow, hemp, and flax can be used to make baskets, nets, and fences. c. It is hard to find archaeological evidence of what past women produced. d. Newer, stone tools men learned to make eventually replaced women’s tools. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is false. Women's tools, although sometimes replaced by newer technologies, were essential in various aspects of life and weren't necessarily replaced outright by men's tools. 14. The horticultural pattern where men clear the fields and women cultivate the crops is generally associated with which of the following? a. high status for women b. high rates of female fertility c. men’s exploitation of women’s labor d. increased rates of warfare Answer: A Rationale: The horticultural pattern described in the question typically correlates with high status for women (Option A), as it involves women actively engaged in agricultural production, contributing significantly to the community's well-being. 15. Agricultural production _________. a. allows women and men to share in the work of food production b. uses animals or machines, which increases time for relaxation c. led to the rise of settled village life d. all of the above Answer: C Rationale: Agricultural production led to the rise of settled village life (Option C) as people began to domesticate plants and animals, leading to more permanent settlements. 16. Women who make cloth ________. a. come from all classes and walks of life b. are represented in ancient art c. tell stories and record history through their designs d. all of the above Answer: D Rationale: All options are true regarding women who make cloth. They come from diverse backgrounds, are depicted in ancient art, and often embed stories and history in their designs. 17. Of the following, which contributes to the decline in women’s status associated with the rise of agricultural societies? a. failure to adhere to the virginity complex b. increasing social stratification and the development of a class society c. participation in field labor alongside men d. horticulture and the second shift Answer: B Rationale: The rise of social stratification and the development of class societies (Option B) often lead to a decline in women's status as power becomes concentrated in the hands of certain groups, typically men. 18. Today, the women of Grey Rock Harbor _________. a. have taken over the formerly male-dominated fishing industry b. are frustrated by the difficulty of finding single men to marry c. have more economic freedom than a generation ago d. bear many children, because they are peasants Answer: C Rationale: Option C is the correct answer. It reflects an improvement in the economic status of women in Grey Rock Harbor compared to the past. 19. The sexual division of labor _____________. a. defines some jobs as “men’s work” and others as “women’s work” b. occurs when women trade sexual favors for help with subsistence work c. was the cause of the Neolithic Revolution d. is a type of relativism Answer: A Rationale: The sexual division of labor involves assigning certain tasks as "men's work" or "women's work" (Option A), reflecting traditional gender roles within societies. 20. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Large populations of peasants characterize food-gathering societies. b. Agrarian societies are generally egalitarian. c. In agricultural societies, men perform the heavy labor of clearing fields. d. all of the above Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. In agricultural societies, it's often men who perform the physically demanding task of clearing fields to prepare for cultivation. ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. What are the four broad categories of work discussed in Chapter 1? Discuss two “jobs” found in the United States in terms of which categories they fit into (they may overlap more than one category). Answer: The four broad categories of work discussed in Chapter 1 are survival work, caregiving work, community organizing, and paid employment. Two jobs in the United States that can be analyzed in terms of these categories are nursing and teaching. Nursing primarily falls into the caregiving work category as it involves providing medical care and support to individuals in need. However, it also overlaps with paid employment, as nurses typically receive monetary compensation for their services. Teaching, on the other hand, can be categorized under both caregiving work, as educators provide mentorship and support to students, and paid employment, as teachers are usually employed by educational institutions. 2. Chapter 1 has presented several activities that are usually not thought of as work. Should all activities be considered work? Considering the arguments of Chapter 1, how would you define work? Why is women’s work so often undervalued? Answer: Not all activities should be considered work, as work typically involves labor that contributes to the well-being of individuals, families, or communities. In Chapter 1, work is defined as activities that are necessary for survival, caregiving, community organizing, and paid employment. Women's work is often undervalued due to various factors such as gender stereotypes, societal expectations, and historical devaluation of tasks traditionally performed by women. Tasks like childcare, housekeeping, and emotional support are often seen as natural extensions of women's roles and thus not given the same recognition or compensation as traditionally male-dominated roles. 3. The “family wage ideology” has strong influence in structuring wages in the Western world. Define family wage ideology and discuss why it has a detrimental effect on women. Answer: Family wage ideology is the belief that a man should earn enough to support his entire family, allowing women to focus solely on domestic responsibilities without needing to participate in paid employment. This ideology has a detrimental effect on women because it reinforces gender roles and perpetuates the undervaluation of women's labor outside the home. By expecting men to be the primary breadwinners, it limits women's economic opportunities and reinforces the gender wage gap. Additionally, it places undue pressure on men to solely provide for their families financially, disregarding the valuable contributions women make to household and caregiving duties. 4. In Grey Rock Harbour, Newfoundland, the collapse of the fishing industry led to a change in the sexual division of labor. Describe this change. Answer: In Grey Rock Harbour, Newfoundland, the collapse of the fishing industry led to a significant shift in the sexual division of labor. With men no longer able to rely on fishing as a primary source of income, many turned to alternative forms of employment or migrated to find work elsewhere. This forced women to take on new roles and responsibilities outside of the traditional domestic sphere. Women began to engage in paid employment and took on leadership roles within the community, challenging traditional gender norms and expanding their economic independence. 5. Imagine your friend has suggested that what housewives do around the home is not “real work.” Using your knowledge of Chapter 1, how would you respond? Answer: I would respond by explaining that the tasks performed by housewives are indeed real work, as they are essential for the functioning and well-being of households and families. Chapter 1 highlights the importance of caregiving work, which includes tasks such as childcare, cooking, cleaning, and emotional support, all of which are typically performed by housewives. These tasks are integral to the survival and functioning of families and communities and should be recognized and valued as such. Dismissing housework as not "real work" perpetuates gender stereotypes and undermines the labor and contributions of women in the domestic sphere. 6. Why has little evidence of women’s work been found in the archaeological record? Give three examples of items women manufactured in ancient times. For each, assess the value of the item to society at large and why such an item would or would not survive to make it into the archaeological record. Answer: Little evidence of women's work in the archaeological record can be attributed to several factors, including biases in archaeological interpretation and preservation, as well as the historically undervalued status of women's labor. Three examples of items women manufactured in ancient times include pottery, textiles, and food processing tools. Pottery served essential functions in storing food and water, contributing to the sustenance and survival of communities. Textiles provided clothing and shelter, offering protection from the elements. Food processing tools facilitated the preparation and preservation of food, ensuring the nutritional needs of society were met. Despite the societal significance of these items, they may not always survive in the archaeological record due to factors such as decay, erosion, or deliberate destruction over time. Additionally, the focus of archaeological research has often been on monumental structures or artifacts associated with male-dominated activities, leading to the underrepresentation of women's work. As a result, the archaeological record may not fully capture the extent of women's contributions to ancient societies, contributing to a skewed understanding of gender roles and labor divisions. Test Bank for A World Full of Women Martha C. Ward, Monica D. Edelstein 9780205957620

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right

Select menu by going to Admin > Appearance > Menus

Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right