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Chapter 26: The Colonization of Land by Plants and Fungi 26.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to A) lignin. B) cellulose. C) secondary compounds. D) sporopollenin. Answer: D 2) All of the following are common to both charophytes and vascular land plants except A) sporopollenin. B) lignin. C) chlorophyll a. D) cellulose. E) chlorophyll b. Answer: B 3) According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature mitosis most similar to that of land plants? A) unicellular green algae B) cyanobacteria C) charophytes D) red algae E) multicellular green algae Answer: C 4) On a field trip, a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated organs, cell walls of cellulose, and chloroplasts with chlorophyll a. Based on this description, the organism could be a brown alga, a red alga, a green alga, a charophyte recently washed into the ocean from a freshwater or brackish water source, or a land plant washed into the ocean. The presence of which of the following features would definitively identify this organism as a land plant? A) alternation of generations B) sporopollenin C) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes D) flagellated sperm E) embryos Answer: E 5) Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that A) charophytes are not related to either green algae or land plants. B) plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae. C) alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophytes. D) land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations. E) scientists have no evidence to indicate whether or not land plants evolved from any kind of alga. Answer: B 6) Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"? A) Viridiplantae B) Plantae C) Pterophyta D) Bryophyta E) Charophycea Answer: B 7) The functional role of sporopollenin is primarily to A) comprise spore surface structures that catch the wind and assist in spore dispersal. B) reduce dehydration. C) make spores less dense and able to disperse more readily. D) repel toxic chemicals. E) provide nutrients to spores. Answer: B 8) If the kingdom Plantae is someday expanded to include the charophytes, then the shared derived characteristics of the kingdom will include 1. rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes. 2. chlorophylls a and b. 3. alternation of generations. 4. cell walls of cellulose. 5. ability to synthesize sporopollenin. A) 1 and 5 B) 1, 2, and 3 C) 1, 3, and 5 D) 1, 4, and 5 E) 1, 2, 4, and 5 Answer: A 9) Which of the following were probably factors that permitted early plants to successfully colonize land? 1. the relative number of potential predators (herbivores) 2. the relative number of competitors 3. the relative availability of symbiotic partners 4. air's relative lack of support, compared to water's support A) 1 and 2 B) 2 and 3 C) 3 and 4 D) 1, 2, and 3 E) 1, 2, and 4 Answer: D 10) Which of the following was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants? A) sources of water B) sperm transfer C) desiccation D) animal predation E) lack of sunlight Answer: D 11) The following are all adaptations in plants to life on land except A) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes. B) cuticles. C) tracheids. D) reduced gametophyte generation. E) multicellular, dependent embryos. Answer: A 12) Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the following more possible? A) increase of the aboveground stem. B) decreased absorption of mineral nutrients. C) increased absorption of CO2. D) increased number of chloroplasts in roots. E) effective lateral growth of the stem. Answer: A 13) Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction? A) Embryophytes are small because they are in an early developmental stage. B) Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia. C) Gametangia protect gametes from excess water. D) Eggs and sperm of bryophytes swim toward one another. E) Bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction. Answer: B 14) Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from largest to smallest. 1. antheridia 2. gametes 3. gametophytes 4. gametangia A) 1, 4, 3, 2 B) 3, 1, 2, 4 C) 3, 4, 2, 1 D) 3, 4, 1, 2 E) 4, 3, 1, 2 Answer: D 15) The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one to two cell layers thick. Consequently, which of the following is least likely to be found associated with such appendages? A) cuticle B) rings of cellulose—synthesizing complexes C) stomata D) peroxisomes E) phenolics Answer: C 16) Considering that the mature sporophytes of true mosses get their nutrition from the gametophytes on which they grow, and considering these generations as individual plants, what is true of the relationship between true moss sporophytes and gametophytes? A) Sporophytes are endosymbionts of gametophytes. B) Sporophytes are mutualists of gametophytes. C) Sporophytes are commensalists of gametophytes. D) Sporophytes are parasites of gametophytes. Answer: D 17) Which of the following characteristics helped seedless plants better adapt to life on land? A) a dominant gametophyte B) photosystem II C) a chitinous cuticle D) stomata E) an unbranched sporophyte Answer: D 18) Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive. 1. embryophytes 2. green plants 3. seedless vascular plants 4. ferns 5. tracheophytes A) 1, 2, 5, 3, 4 B) 2, 1, 5, 3, 4 C) 2, 5, 1, 3, 4 D) 1, 4, 2, 5, 3 E) 2, 1, 5, 4, 3 Answer: B 19) Evidence indicates that plants increase the number of stomata in their leaves as atmospheric CO2 levels decline. Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area should have the effect of doing which of the following? 1. increasing dehydration of leaf tissues 2. decreasing dehydration of leaf tissues 3. countering the effect of declining CO2 on photosynthesis 4. reinforcing the effect of declining CO2 on photosynthesis 5. decreasing the O2 content of air next to the leaves lower than it would otherwise be 6. increasing the O2 content of air next to the leaves higher than it would otherwise be A) 1, 3, and 5 B) 1, 3, and 6 C) 1, 4, and 5 D) 2, 3, and 6 E) 2, 4, and 5 Answer: B 20) Which of the following should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophyte that was the common ancestor of the land plants? A) early angiosperms B) early bryophytes C) early gymnosperms D) early lycophytes E) early pterophytes Answer: B 21) If intelligent extraterrestrials visited Earth 475 million years ago, and then again 300 million years ago (at the close of the Carboniferous period), what trends would they have noticed in Earth's terrestrial vegetation over this period? 1. a trend from dominant gametophytes to dominant sporophytes 2. a trend from sporangia borne on modified leaves (sporophylls) to sporangia borne on stalks (seta) 3. a trend from no true leaves, to microphylls, to megaphylls 4. a trend from soil-surface-hugging plants to "overtopping" plants 5. a trend toward increased lignification of conducting systems A) 1 and 3 B) 3, 4, and 5 C) 1, 2, 4, and 5 D) 1, 3, 4, and 5 E) 2, 3, 4, and 5 Answer: D 22) In seed plants, which of the following is part of a pollen grain and has a function most like that of the seed coat? A) sporophyll B) male gametophyte C) sporopollenin D) stigma E) sporangium Answer: C 23) A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and cell walls made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, which of the following, if present, would be least useful? A) endosperm B) seeds C) sperm that lack flagella D) flowers E) spores Answer: E 24) Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants? A) presence of "coal forests" and change in mode of nutrition B) periods of drought and presence of filamentous body shape C) predominance in swamps and presence of cellulose in cell walls D) colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells E) continental drift and mode of spore dispersal Answer: D 25) Which of the following characteristics is unique to chytrids compared to other groups of fungi? A) presence of flagella B) zoospores C) autotrophic mode of nutrition D) cell walls of cellulose E) nucleotide sequences of several genes Answer: A 26) The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce monomers that are aminated (i.e., have an amine group attached) molecules of β-glucose? A) insect exoskeleton B) plant cell walls C) fungal cell walls D) insect exoskeleton and fungal cell walls E) insect exoskeleton and plant cell walls Answer: E 27) If all fungi in an environment that perform decomposition were to suddenly die, then which group of organisms should benefit most, due to the fact that their fungal competitors have been removed? A) plants B) protists C) prokaryotes D) animals E) mutualistic fungi Answer: C 28) When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter? A) fungal haustoria B) soredia C) fungal enzymes D) increased oxygen levels E) larger bacterial populations Answer: C 29) Which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)? A) They acquire their nutrients by phagocytosis. B) Their body plan is a unicellular sphere. C) Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils. D) They are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources. E) They reproduce asexually by a process known as budding. Answer: D 30) The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are A) composed of hyphae. B) referred to as a mycelium. C) usually underground. D) All of these responses are correct. Answer: D 31) Immediately after karyogamy occurs, which term applies? A) plasmogamy B) heterokaryotic C) dikaryotic D) diploid Answer: D 32) Which description does not apply equally well to both sexual and asexual spores? A) have haploid nuclei B) represent the dispersal stage C) are produced by meiosis D) upon germination, will subsequently undergo S phase and mitosis Answer: C 33) Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following? 1. cells with a single haploid nucleus 2. heterokaryotic cells 3. dikaryotic cells 4. cells with two diploid nuclei A) 1 or 2 B) 1 or 3 C) 2 or 3 D) 2 or 4 E) 3 or 4 Answer: C 34) In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which consequently A) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures. B) results in multiple diploid nuclei per cell. C) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time. D) results in heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells. E) is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic. Answer: D 35) If all of their nuclei are equally active transcriptionally, then the cells of dikaryotic fungi, in terms of the gene products they can make, are essentially A) haploid. B) diploid. C) alloploid. D) completely homozygous. E) completely hemizygous. Answer: B 36) Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cell's chromosome number than does meiosis I? A) mitosis B) plasmogamy C) crossing over D) binary fission E) karyogamy Answer: E 37) Which of these paired fungal structures are structurally and functionally most alike? A) conidia and basidiocarps B) sporangia and hyphae C) soredia and gills D) haustoria and arbuscules E) zoospores and mycelia Answer: D 38) Which of the following has the least affiliation with all of the others? A) Glomeromycota B) mycorrhizae C) lichens D) arbuscules E) mutualistic fungi Answer: C 39) When pathogenic fungi are found growing on the roots of grape vines, grape farmers sometimes respond by covering the ground around their vines with plastic sheeting and pumping a gaseous fungicide into the soil. The most important concern of grape farmers who engage in this practice should be that the A) fungicide might also kill the native yeasts residing on the surfaces of the grapes. B) lichens growing on the vines' branches are not harmed. C) fungicide might also kill mycorrhizae. D) sheeting is transparent so that photosynthesis can continue. Answer: C 40) Which of the following terms refers to symbiotic relationships that involve fungi living between the cells in plant leaves? A) pathogens B) endosymbioses C) endophytes D) lichens E) mycorrhizae Answer: C 41) In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition? A) Pterophyta B) Bryophyta C) horsetail (Equisetum) D) Pterophyta, Bryophyta, and horsetail (Equisetum) E) Pterophyta and Bryophyta Answer: B 42) You are hiking in a forest and happen upon a plant featuring a central stemlike structure from which sprout many, tiny, leaflike structures. Which of the following would be the most certain means of distinguishing whether it was a true moss or a club moss? A) its color B) its height C) if seeds are present D) if conducting tissues are present E) the appearance of its spore-producing structures Answer: E 43) A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to A) mosses. B) charophytes. C) ferns. D) gymnosperms. E) flowering plants. Answer: C 44) You are hiking in a forest and come upon a mysterious plant, which you determine is either a lycophyte sporophyte or a pterophyte sporophyte. Which of the following would be most helpful in determining the correct classification of the plant? A) whether or not it has true leaves B) whether it has microphylls or megaphylls C) whether or not it has seeds D) its height E) whether or not it has chlorophyll a Answer: B 45) Sporophylls can be found in which of the following? A) mosses B) liverworts C) hornworts D) pterophytes E) charophytes Answer: D 46) Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, arrange the following structures from largest to smallest (or from most inclusive to least inclusive). 1. spores 2. sporophylls 3. sporophytes 4. sporangia A) 2, 4, 3, 1 B) 2, 3, 4, 1 C) 3, 1, 4, 2 D) 3, 4, 2, 1 E) 3, 2, 4, 1 Answer: E 47) If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period (they weren't), which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs? A) whisk ferns and epiphytes B) horsetails and bryophytes C) lycophytes and bryophytes D) ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes E) charophytes, bryophytes, and gymnosperms Answer: D 48) Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants? A) Extant seedless vascular plants are larger than the extinct varieties. B) Whole forests were dominated by large, seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period. C) They produce many spores, which are really the same as seeds. D) The gametophyte is the dominant generation. E) Sphagnum is an economically and ecologically important example. Answer: B 49) Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other? A) ferns B) mosses, hornworts, and liverworts C) charophytes D) angiosperms E) gymnosperms Answer: A 50) Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the following cells, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment. 1. cells of sporangium 2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root 3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls 4. cells of a gametophyte A) 3, 4, 1, 2 B) 3, 4, 2, 1 C) 3, 1, 4, 2 D) 3, 2, 1, 4 E) 3, 1, 2, 4 Answer: C 51) Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated. 1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence 2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence 3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence A) 1 → 2 → 3 B) 2 → 3 → 1 C) 2 → 1 → 3 D) 3 → 2 → 1 E) 3 → 1 → 2 Answer: E 52) How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms? A) by nourishing the plants that make them B) by facilitating dispersal of seeds C) by attracting insects to the pollen inside D) by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat E) by producing triploid cells via double fertilization Answer: B 53) Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm. 1. ovary 2. ovule 3. egg 4. carpel 5. embryo sac A) 4, 2, 1, 5, 3 B) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3 C) 5, 4, 3, 1, 2 D) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3 E) 4, 1, 2, 5, 3 Answer: E 54) Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed? A) ovule B) ovary C) fruit D) stamen Answer: A 55) Which of the following flower parts develops into the pulp of a fleshy fruit? A) stigma B) style C) ovule D) ovary E) micropyle Answer: D 56) Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. Which of the following features is unique to them and helps account for their success? A) wind pollination B) dominant gametophytes C) fruits enclosing seeds D) embryos enclosed within seed coats E) sperm cells without flagella Answer: C 57) Which of the following is a true statement about angiosperm carpels? A) Carpels are features of the gametophyte generation. B) Carpels consist of anther and stamen. C) Carpels are structures that directly produce male gametes. D) Carpels surround and nourish the female gametophyte. E) Carpels consist of highly modified microsporangia. Answer: D 58) The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. This cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells? A) binary fission B) mitosis C) meiosis D) mitosis without subsequent cytokinesis E) meiosis without subsequent cytokinesis Answer: B 59) What adaptations should one expect of the seed coats of angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by frugivorous (fruit-eating) animals, as opposed to angiosperm species whose seeds are dispersed by other means? 1. The exterior of the seed coat should have barbs or hooks. 2. The seed coat should contain secondary compounds that irritate the lining of the animal's mouth. 3. The seed coat should be able to withstand low pH's. 4. The seed coat, upon its complete digestion, should provide vitamins or nutrients to animals. 5. The seed coat should be resistant to the animals' digestive enzymes. A) 4 only B) 1 and 2 C) 2 and 3 D) 3 and 5 E) 3, 4, and 5 Answer: D 60) Which of the following are structures of angiosperm gametophytes? A) immature ovules B) pollen tubes C) ovaries D) stamens E) sepals Answer: B 61) Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants? A) The flower includes sporophyte tissue. B) The gametophyte generation is dominant. C) The gametophyte generation is what we see when looking at a large plant. D) The sporophyte generation is not photosynthetic. E) The sporophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower. Answer: A 62) Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the megasporangium of pine ovules? A) male gametophyte B) female gametophyte C) male sporophyte D) female sporophyte Answer: D 63) Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the fruit? A) male gametophyte B) female gametophyte C) male sporophyte D) female sporophyte Answer: D 64) Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the integument of a pine seed? A) male gametophyte B) female gametophyte C) male sporophyte D) female sporophyte Answer: D 65) Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the pollen tube? A) male gametophyte B) female gametophyte C) male sporophyte D) female sporophyte Answer: A 66) What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales? A) They are female reproductive parts. B) None are capable of photosynthesis. C) They are modified leaves. D) They are found on flowers. E) They are found on angiosperms. Answer: C 67) Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, which pair of structures protects seed plants' embryos and male gametophytes, respectively, from desiccation? A) ovules - waxy cuticle B) ovaries - filaments C) fruits - stamens D) pollen grains - waxy cuticle E) integuments - sporopollenin Answer: E 68) Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive). 1. sporophyte 2. microspores 3. microsporangia 4. pollen cone 5. pollen nuclei A) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5 B) 1, 4, 2, 3, 5 C) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4 D) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5 E) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1 Answer: A 69) Which trait(s) is (are) shared by many modern gymnosperms and angiosperms? 1. pollen transported by wind 2. lignified xylem 3. microscopic gametophytes 4. sterile sporophylls, modified to attract pollinators 5. endosperm A) 1 only B) 1 and 3 C) 1, 2, and 3 D) 1, 3, and 5 E) 2, 4, and 5 Answer: C 70) Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms? A) stigma B) carpel C) ovule D) ovary E) anthers Answer: C 71) Which of the following can be found in gymnosperms? A) no fertile flower parts B) triploid endosperm C) fruits D) pollen E) carpels Answer: D 72) Which of the following statements is true of the pine life cycle? A) Cones are homologous to the capsules of moss plants. B) The pine tree is a gametophyte. C) Male and female gametophytes are in close proximity during gamete synthesis. D) Conifer pollen grains contain male gametophytes. E) Double fertilization is a relatively common phenomenon. Answer: D 73) Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs? 1. sporophyte embryo 2. female gametophyte 3. egg cell 4. megaspore A) 4 → 3 → 2 → 1 B) 4 → 2 → 3 → 1 C) 4 → 1 → 2 → 3 D) 1 → 4 → 3 → 2 E) 1 → 4 → 2 → 3 Answer: B 74) Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow A) close to the ground. B) in dense, single-species stands. C) in relative isolation from other members of the same species. D) along coastlines where prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea. E) in well-drained soils. Answer: B 75) Which of the following statements correctly describes a portion of the pine life cycle? A) Female gametophytes use mitosis to produce eggs. B) Seeds are produced in pollen-producing cones. C) Pollen grains contain female gametophytes. D) A pollen tube slowly digests its way through the triploid endosperm. Answer: A 76) A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains, and then rinses away the excess stain, what should occur? A) The pollen grains will be pure red. B) The pollen grains will be pure blue. C) The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors. D) The pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors. E) Insofar as the pollen grains are independent of the plant that produced them, they will not absorb either stain. Answer: C 77) Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because they A) are woody. B) have macrophylls. C) have pollen. D) have sporophylls. E) have spores. Answer: C 78) Which of the following is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore? A) a different type of sporopollenin B) an internal reservoir of liquid water C) integument(s) D) ability to be dispersed E) waxy cuticle Answer: C 79) In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a A) moss sporophyte. B) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia. C) fern sporophyte. D) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte. E) fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia. Answer: E 80) All of the following cellular structures are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both angiosperms and gymnosperms except A) haploid nuclei. B) mitochondria. C) cell walls. D) chloroplasts. E) peroxisomes. Answer: D 81) The seed coat's most important function is to provide A) a non-stressful environment for the megasporangium. B) the means for dispersal. C) dormancy. D) a nutrient supply for the embryo. E) protection for the embryo. Answer: E 82) In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics is unique to the seed-producing plants? A) sporopollenin B) lignin present in cell walls C) pollen D) use of air currents as a dispersal agent E) megaphylls Answer: C 83) What is thought to be the correct sequence of the following events during the Carboniferous period? 1. vascular plants become more prevalent 2. megaphylls with large surface areas become more prevalent 3. atmospheric CO2 levels decline by a factor of five 4. global cooling occurs, leading to widespread glaciations A) 1, 2 ,3, 4 B) 2, 1, 3, 4 C) 2, 1, 4, 3 D) 1, 2, 4, 3 E) 3, 4, 1, 2 Answer: A 84) Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are primarily adaptations that A) prevent desiccation. B) favor pollination. C) foster seed dispersal. D) decrease competition. E) inhibit herbivory. Answer: E 85) The fruit of the mistletoe, a parasitic angiosperm, is a one-seeded berry. In members of the genus Viscum, the outside of the seed is viscous (sticky), which permits the seed to adhere to surfaces, such as the branches of host plants or the beaks of birds. What should be expected of the fruit if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues? A) It should be drab in color. B) It should be colored so as to provide it with camouflage. C) It should be nutritious. D) It should secrete enzymes that can digest bark. E) It should contain chemicals that cause birds to fly to the ground and vomit. Answer: C 86) What is the greatest threat to plant diversity? A) insects B) grazing and browsing by animals C) pathogenic fungi D) competition with other plants E) human population growth Answer: E 87) The microsporidian, Brachiola gambiae, parasitizes the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Adult female mosquitoes must take blood meals in order for their eggs to develop, and it is while they take blood that they transmit malarial parasites to humans. Male mosquitoes drink flower nectar. If humans are to safely and effectively use Brachiola gambiae as a biological control to reduce human deaths from malaria, then how many of the following statements should be true? 1. Brachiola should kill the mosquitoes before the malarial parasite they carry reaches maturity. 2. The microsporidian should not be harmful to other insects. 3. Microsporidians should infect mosquito larvae, rather than mosquito adults. 4. The subsequent decline in anopheline mosquitoes should not significantly disrupt human food resources or other food webs. 5. Brachiola must be harmful to male mosquitoes, but not to female mosquitoes. A) 2 and 5 B) 1, 2 and 4 C) 1, 2., and 4 D) 2, 3, 5 E) All of the statements are correct. Answer: C 88) Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and A) mosses. B) cyanobacteria. C) green algae. D) A and B E) B and C. Answer: E 89) In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner? A) carbohydrates B) fixed nitrogen C) antibiotics D) water and minerals E) protection from harmful UV Answer: D 90) Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens? A) Fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells. B) Lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells. C) Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae. D) The fungi grow on rocks and trees and are covered by algae. E) Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure. Answer: C 91) If haustoria from the fungal partner were to appear within the photosynthetic partner of a lichen, and if the growth rate of the photosynthetic partner consequently slowed substantially, then this would support the claim that A) algae and cyanobacteria are autotrophic. B) lichens are not purely mutualistic relationships. C) algae require maximal contact with the fungal partner in order to grow at optimal rates. D) fungi get all of the nutrition they need via the "leakiness" of photosynthetic partners. E) soredia are asexual reproductive structures combining both the fungal and photosynthetic partners. Answer: B 92) Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms? A) complete reliance on wind as the pollinating agent B) double internal fertilization C) free-living gametophytes D) carpels that contain microsporangia E) ovules that are not contained within ovaries Answer: B 93) Which of the following statements is true of monocots? A) They are currently thought to be polyphyletic. B) The veins of their leaves form a netlike pattern. C) They, along with the eudicots, magnoliids, and basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum Anthophyta. D) Each possesses multiple cotyledons. E) They are in the clade that includes most of our crops, except the cereal grains. Answer: C 94) What do fungi and arthropods have in common? A) Both groups are commonly coenocytic. B) The haploid state is dominant in both groups. C) Both groups are predominantly heterotrophs that ingest their food. D) The protective coats of both groups are made of chitin. E) Both groups have cell walls. Answer: D 26.2 Art Questions The following questions refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in Figure 26.1. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization. Figure 26.1 1) In Figure 26.1, which number represents the mature gametophyte? A) 1 B) 3 C) 5 D) 7 E) 11 Answer: D 2) In Figure 26.1, which number represents an embryo? A) 1 B) 3 C) 7 D) 9 E) 11 Answer: E 3) Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s) in Figure 26.1? A) 2 B) 4 C) 2 and 8 D) 4 and 8 E) 10 and 12 Answer: B 4) Which number represents a megaspore mother cell in Figure 26.1? A) 1 B) 3 C) 5 D) 7 E) 11 Answer: B 5) In Figure 26.1, the process labeled "6" involves A) nuclear fission. B) mitosis. C) meiosis. D) fertilization. E) binary fission. Answer: B The next few questions refer to the following phylogenetic trees. I. II. III. IV. 6) Which tree depicts the microsporidians as a sister group of the ascomycetes? A) I B) II C) III D) IV Answer: A 7) Which tree depicts the closest relationship between zygomycetes and chytrids? A) I B) II C) III D) IV Answer: C 8) Which tree depicts the microsporidians as a sister group of the fungi, rather than as a fungus? A) I B) II C) III D) IV Answer: D Figure 26.2 depicts the outline of a large fairy ring that has appeared overnight in an open meadow, as viewed from above. The fairy ring represents the furthest advance of this mycelium through the soil. Locations A—D are all 0.5 meters below the soil surface. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Figure 26.2 9) What is the most probable location of the oldest portion of this mycelium? A) A B) B C) C D) D Answer: C 10) Which location is nearest to basidiocarps? A) A B) B C) C D) D Answer: A 11) At which location is the mycelium currently absorbing the most nutrients per unit surface area, per unit time? A) A B) B C) C D) D Answer: A 12) At which location should one find the lowest concentration of fungal enzymes, assuming that the enzymes do not diffuse far from their source, and that no other fungi are present in this habitat? A) A B) B C) C D) D Answer: D 13) Assume that all four locations are 0.5 m above the surface. On a breezy day with prevailing winds blowing from left to right, where should one expect to find the highest concentration of free basidiospores in an air sample? A) A B) B C) C D) D Answer: D Figure 26.3 14) What is true of the phylogenetic tree in Figure 26.3? 1. It depicts uncertainty about whether the bryophytes or the vascular plants evolved first. 2. It is hypothetical. 3. It includes polytomies. 4. It shows that ferns (phylum Pterophyta) are the closest living relatives to the seed plants. 5. It indicates that seeds are a shared ancestral character of all vascular plants. A) 1 and 2 B) 2 and 3 C) 1, 2, and 3 D) 1, 2, and 4 E) 2, 3, and 5 Answer: B 26.3 Scenario Questions Please refer to the following information to answer the next few questions. Diploid nuclei of the ascomycete, Neurospora crassa, contain 14 chromosomes. A single diploid cell in an ascus will undergo one round of meiosis, followed in each of the daughter cells by one round of mitosis, producing a total of eight ascospores. 1) If a single, diploid G2 nucleus in an ascus contains 400 nanograms (ng) of DNA, then a single ascospore nucleus of this species should contain how much DNA (ng), carried on how many chromosomes? A) 100, carried on 7 chromosomes B) 100, carried on 14 chromosomes C) 200, carried on 7 chromosomes D) 200, carried on 14 chromosomes E) 400, carried on 14 chromosomes Answer: A 2) What is the ploidy of a single mature ascospore? A) haploid B) diploid C) triploid D) tetraploid E) polyploid Answer: A 3) Each of the eight ascospores present at the end of mitosis has the same chromosome number and DNA content (ng) as each of the four cells at the end of meiosis. What must have occurred in each spore between the round of meiosis and the round of mitosis? A) double fertilization B) crossing over C) nondisjunction D) autopolyploidy E) S phase Answer: E For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection. 4) Apart from direct amphibian-to-amphibian contact, what is the most likely means by which the zoospores spread from one free-living amphibian to another? A) by wind-blown spores B) by flagella C) by cilia D) by pseudopods E) by hyphae Answer: B 5) The chytrid sporangia reside within the amphibian epidermal cells. Consequently, which term(s) apply to Bd? 1. ectosymbionts 2. parasites 3. commensals 4. pathogens 5. endosymbionts A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and 3 C) 2 and 4 D) 2, 3, and 5 E) 2, 4, and 5 Answer: E 6) Sexual reproduction has not been observed in Bd. A Bd sporangium initially contains a single, haploid cell. Which of the following processes must be involved in generating the multiple zoospores eventually produced by each sporangium? 1. S phase 2. cytokinesis 3. mitosis 4. meiosis A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and 3 C) 2 and 3 D) 1, 2, and 3 E) 1, 2, and 4 Answer: D 7) If infection primarily involves the outermost layers of adult amphibian skin, and if the chytrids use the skin as their sole source of nutrition, then which term best applies to the chytrids? A) anaerobic chemoautotroph B) aerobic chemoautotroph C) anaerobic chemoheterotroph D) aerobic chemoheterotroph Answer: D 8) If Bd cannot grow properly at temperatures above 28°C (82°F), then, assuming the amphibians can survive, in which time or place should the chytrid infection proceed most rapidly? 1. cooler months 2. warmer months 3. lower altitudes 4. higher altitudes A) 1 or 3 B) 1 or 4 C) 2 or 3 D) 2 or 4 Answer: B 9) The fact that infection by Bd causes lethargy in many infected amphibians can have what effect on efforts to accurately census the numbers of dead or dying amphibians at a particular time, in a particular habitat? A) It can cause underestimation, due to infected amphibians preferring to seek out refuges relative to uninfected amphibians. B) It can cause underestimation, due to increased predation on, and removal of, infected amphibians relative to uninfected amphibians. C) It can cause overestimation, because infected frogs should be more readily observable to human census-takers than should uninfected amphibians. D) All three of the above statements are plausible. E) Two of the above statements are plausible. Answer: E 10) When adult amphibian skin harbors populations of the bacterium, Janthinobacterium lividum (Jl), chytrid infection seems to be inhibited. Which of the following represents the best experimental design for conclusively determining whether this inhibition is real? A) Inoculate uninfected amphibians with Jl, and determine whether the amphibians continue to remain uninfected by chytrids. B) Inoculate infected amphibians with Jl, and determine whether the amphibians recover from infection by chytrids. C) Take infected amphibians and assign them to two populations. Leave one population alone; inoculate the other with Jl. Measure the rate at which infection proceeds in both populations. D) Take infected amphibians and assign them to two populations. Inoculate one population with a high dose of Jl; inoculate the other with a low dose of Jl. Measure the survival frequency in both populations. Answer: C 11) A researcher took water in which a Jl population had been thriving, filtered the water to remove all bacterial cells, and then applied the water to the skins of adult amphibians to see if there would subsequently be a reduced infection rate by Bd when frog skins were inoculated with Bd. For which of the following hypotheses is the procedure described a potential test? A) the hypothesis that a toxin secreted by Jl cells kills Bd cells when both are present together on frog skin B) the hypothesis that Jl cells infect and kill Bd cells when both are present together on frog skin C) the hypothesis that Jl outcompetes Bd when both are present together on a frog's skin D) the hypothesis that the presence of Jl on frog skin causes a skin reaction that prevents attachment by Bd cells Answer: A The next few questions are based on the following description. A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-cm-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content. 12) This student has probably found a(n) A) immature pine tree. B) bryophyte sporophyte. C) fern sporophyte. D) horsetail gametophyte. E) lycophyte sporophyte. Answer: E 13) A dissection of the interior of this organism's stem should reveal A) lignified vascular tissues. B) cuticle. C) gametangia. D) that it is composed of only a single, long cell. E) a relatively high proportion of dead, water-filled cells. Answer: A Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 10 inches per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this bone-dry desert to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss. 14) Which of the following characteristics is (are) possessed in common by true mosses, ferns, and spike mosses, and therefore becomes useless at helping to determine to which of these groups flower of stone belongs? 1. a sporophyte generation that is dominant 2. true leaves and roots 3. flagellated sperm 4. strobili 5. alternation of generations A) 5 only B) 1 and 5 C) 2 and 3 D) 3 and 5 E) 2, 4, and 5 Answer: D 15) What feature of both true mosses and ferns makes it most surprising that they can survive for many generations in dry deserts? A) flagellated sperm B) lack of vascular tissues C) lack of true roots D) lack of cuticle E) a gametophyte generation that is dominant Answer: A 16) Which of the following features is most important in order for true mosses and ferns to survive and reproduce in the desert? A) that the sporophytes occupy only permanently shady, north-facing habitats B) that the sporophytes hug the ground, growing no taller than a couple of inches C) either that their gametophytes grow close together, or that they be hermaphroditic D) that the sporophytes have highly lignified vascular tissues Answer: C 17) Upon closer inspection of the leaves of flower of stone, one can observe tiny, cone-like structures. Each cone-like structure emits spores of two different sizes. Further investigation also reveals that the roots of flower of stone branch only at the growing tip of the root, forming a Y-shaped structure. Consequently, flower of stone should be expected to possess which other characteristics? 1. a gametophyte generation that is dominant 2. lignified vascular tissues 3. microphylls 4. filamentous rhizoids, but not true roots 5. spores that are diploid when mature A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and 5 C) 2 and 3 D) 2, 3, and 4 E) 3, 4, and 5 Answer: C 18) In which combination of locations would one who is searching for the gametophytes of flower of stone have the best chance of finding them? 1. moist soil 2. underground, nourished there by symbiotic fungi 3. south- or west-facing slopes 4. permanently shady places 5. far from any flower of stone sporophytes A) 1 only B) 1 and 2 C) 1, 2, and 4 D) 1, 2, and 5 E) 1, 3, 4, and 5 Answer: C The next few questions refer to the following description. The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the Age of the Dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. These beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from the microsporophylls. Upon visiting megasporophylls, the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. In cycads, pollen cones and seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans. 19) Which feature of cycads distinguishes them from most other gymnosperms? 1. They have exposed ovules. 2. They have flagellated sperm. 3. They are pollinated by animals. A) 1 only B) 2 only C) 3 only D) 2 and 3 E) 1, 2, and 3 Answer: D 20) Which feature of cycads makes them similar to many angiosperms? 1. They have exposed ovules. 2. They have flagellated sperm. 3. They are pollinated by animals. A) 1 only B) 2 only C) 3 only D) 2 and 3 E) 1, 2, and 3 Answer: C 21) If the beetles survive by consuming cycad pollen, then whether the beetles should be considered mutualists with, or parasites of, the cycads depends upon A) the extent to which their overall activities affect cycad reproduction. B) the extent to which the beetles are affected by the neurotoxins. C) the extent to which the beetles damage the cycad flowers. D) the distance the beetles must travel between cycad microsporophylls and cycad megasporophylls. Answer: A 22) On the Pacific island of Guam, large herbivorous bats called "flying foxes" commonly feed on cycad seeds, a potent source of neurotoxins. The flying foxes do not visit male cones. Consequently, what should be true? A) The flying foxes are attracted to cycad fruit, and eat the enclosed seeds only by accident. B) Flying foxes are highly susceptible to the effects of the neurotoxins. C) The flying foxes assist the beetles as important pollinating agents of the cycads. D) Flying foxes can be dispersal agents of cycad seeds if the seeds sometimes get swallowed whole (in other words, without getting chewed). Answer: D In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the following onion tissues. 23) How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus? A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 24 E) 32 Answer: B 24) How many chromosomes should be in an embryo nucleus? A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 24 E) 32 Answer: C 25) How many chromosomes should be in a megasporangium nucleus? A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 24 E) 32 Answer: C The next few questions refer to the following description. Match the animal features with the appropriate angiosperm analog. Oviparous (egg-laying) animals have internal fertilization (sperm cells encounter eggs within the female's body). Yolk and/or albumen is (are) provided to the embryo, and a shell is then deposited around the embryo and its food source. Eggs are subsequently deposited in an environment that promotes their further development, or are incubated by one or both parents. 26) The shell of an animal egg is what type of angiosperm analog? A) endosperm B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei C) carpels D) fruit E) integuments Answer: E 27) The internal fertilization that occurs prior to shell deposition is what type of angiosperm analog? A) endosperm B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei C) carpels D) fruit E) integuments Answer: B The Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excels (n = 17), is native to tropical rain forests of South America. It is a hardwood tree that can grow to over 50 meters tall, is a source of high-quality lumber, and is a favorite nesting site for harpy eagles. As the rainy season ends, tough-walled fruits, each containing 8-25 seeds (Brazil nuts), fall to the forest floor. Brazil nuts are composed primarily of endosperm. About $50 million worth of nuts are harvested each year. Scientists have discovered that the pale yellow flowers of Brazil nut trees cannot fertilize themselves and admit only female orchid bees as pollinators. The agouti (Dasyprocta spp.), a cat-sized rodent, is the only animal with teeth strong enough to crack the hard wall of Brazil nut fruits. It typically eats some of the seeds, buries others, and leaves still others inside the fruit, which moisture can now enter. The uneaten seeds may subsequently germinate. 28) Animals that consume Brazil nuts are deriving nutrition mostly from tissue whose nuclei have how many chromosomes? A) 17 B) 34 C) 51 D) 68 E) There is not enough information to say. Answer: C 29) The agouti is most directly involved with the Brazil nut tree's dispersal of A) male gametophytes. B) female gametophytes. C) sporophyte embryos. D) sporophyte megaspores. E) female gametes. Answer: C 30) Orchid bees are to Brazil nut trees as ________ are to pine trees. A) breezes B) rain droplets C) seed-eating birds D) squirrels E) both seed-eating birds and squirrels Answer: A 31) The harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja, is the largest, most powerful raptor in the Americas. It nests only in trees taller than 25 meters. It is a "sloth specialist," but will also take agouti. Thus, if these eagles capture too many agoutis from a particular locale, they might contribute to their own demise by A) having too many offspring. B) increasing habitat loss. C) decreasing atmospheric CO2. D) increasing the number of sloths. Answer: B 32) People who attempted to plant Brazil nuts in hopes of establishing plantations of Brazil nut trees played roles most similar to those of A) agoutis. B) orchid bees. C) pollen tubes. D) harpy eagles. Answer: A 33) The same bees that pollinate the flowers of the Brazil nut trees pollinate orchids, which are epiphytes (in other words, plants that grow on other plants); however, orchids cannot grow on Brazil nut trees. These observations explain A) the coevolution of Brazil nut trees and orchids. B) why Brazil nut trees do not set fruit in monoculture plantations. C) why male orchid bees do not pollinate Brazil nut tree flowers. D) why male orchid bees are smaller than female orchid bees. E) the importance of orchid and Brazil nut tree flowers for the production of orchid bee honey. Answer: B 34) Entrepreneurs attempted, but failed, to harvest nuts from plantations grown in Southeast Asia. Attempts to grow Brazil nut trees in South American plantations also failed. In both cases, the trees grew vigorously, produced healthy flowers in profusion, but set no fruit. Consequently, what is the likely source of the problem? A) poor sporophyte viability B) poor sporophyte fertility C) failure to produce fertile ovules D) failure to produce pollen E) pollination failure Answer: E 35) The taller a Brazil nut tree is, 1. the more valuable it is as a source of lumber. 2. the less useful it is to harpy eagles. 3. the greater its photosynthetic rate relative to neighboring plants. A) 1 only B) 1 and 2 C) 1 and 3 D) 2 and 3 Answer: C 36) Ecologists often build models to depict the relationships between organisms. In such models, an arrow is used to link two organisms in a relationship. The arrowhead is next to the organism that is affected. If the effect is positive, the arrow is labeled with (+), and if negative, then the label is (-). Which of the following models best illustrates the relationship of the Brazil nut tree and the other organisms associated with it? A) B) C) D) Answer: B 37) Ecologists often build models to depict the relationships between organisms. In such models, an arrow is used to link two organisms in a relationship. The arrowhead is next to the organism that is affected. If the effect is positive, the arrow is labeled with (+), and if negative, then the label is (-). Capuchin monkeys have been known to use rocks to smash open the fruits of Brazil nut trees. On the rare occasions this has been observed, the monkeys consume all of the Brazil nuts. Thus, which of the following correctly depicts the relationship between capuchin monkeys and Brazil nut trees? A) B) C) D) Answer: A 26.4 End-of-Chapter Questions 1) All fungi are A) symbiotic B) heterotrophic C) flagellated D) pathogenic E) decomposers Answer: B 2) Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae? A) chlorophyll b B) cellulose in cell walls C) multicellularity D) sexual reproduction E) alternation of generations Answer: E 3) A fruit is usually A) a mature ovary. B) a thickened style. C) an enlarged ovule. D) a modified root. E) a mature female gametophyte. Answer: A 4) Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi? A) slime molds B) vascular plants C) animals D) brown algae E) mosses Answer: C 5) The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to A) the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms. B) avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes. C) the potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats. D) the increased probability of contact between different mating types. E) an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition. Answer: E 6) A fruit is usually A) a mature ovary. B) a thickened style. C) an enlarged ovule. D) a modified root. E) a mature female gametophyte. Answer: A 7) Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi? A) slime molds B) vascular plants C) animals D) brown algae E) mosses Answer: C 8) The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to A) the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms. B) avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes. C) the potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats. D) the increased probability of contact between different mating types. E) an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition. Answer: E Test Bank for Campbell Biology in Focus Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson, Jane B. Reece 9780321813664, 9780321962751, 9780134710679

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