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Chapter 2: Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Archaeology and early writing indicate that the first people to think that the brain was the site of mental functions were the a. ancient Egyptians. b. ancient Greeks. c. Chinese. d. Hebrews. Answer: a. ancient Egyptians. 2. Early writings show that the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks often attributed abnormal behavior to a. poor parenting. b. physical disease. c. demonic possession. d. chemical imbalance in the brain. Answer: c. demonic possession. 3. In ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was a. assumed to have willingly entered into a pact with the devil. b. thought to be a witch. c. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god. d. assumed to have something physically wrong with the heart. Answer: c. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god. 4. Prayer, incantations, and noise-making were all techniques for a. altering a person's brain functioning. b. improving a person's dreams. c. helping a person become possessed by good spirits. d. exorcising demons. Answer: d. exorcising demons. 5. According to Hippocrates, mental disorders were part of which three general categories? a. Schizophrenia, mania, and melancholia. b. Schizophrenia, mania, and phrenitis. c. Melancholia, mania, and phrenitis. d. Melancholia, mania, and anxiety. Answer: c. Melancholia, mania, and phrenitis. 6. Each of the following is one of the "four humors" EXCEPT a. blood. b. phlegm. c. phrenitis. d. bile. Answer: c. phrenitis. 7. The belief in the four humors as a means of explaining temperament a. is inconsistent with a biological explanation for mental illness. b. has yet to be disproven. c. proposed different proportions of each humor in each individual. d. provides that first indication that ancient people recognized the significance of the brain in determining behavior. Answer: c. proposed different proportions of each humor in each individual. 8. The doctrine of the four humors a. was an attempt to support moral management. b. was an explanation for personality traits. c. was an early suggested treatment for melancholy. d. was the first psychological explanation of mental disorders. Answer: b. was an explanation for personality traits. 9. According to early beliefs, what would characterize an individual with an excess of blood? a. Depression b. Schizophrenia c. Irritability d. Cheerfulness Answer: d. Cheerfulness 10. Hippocrates suggested marriage as a cure for a. impotence. b. hysteria in women. c. phrenitis (brain fever) in men. d. melancholia. Answer: b. hysteria in women. 11. Cicero was feeling depressed. He sought help from Hippocrates. Hippocrates would probably have a. prescribed the roots of certain plants and unusual elixirs. b. utilized a talking cure. c. prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy. d. performed an exorcism. Answer: c. prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy. 12. According to your textbook, which mental disorder received the most attention from early scholars? a. Phobias b. Depression c. Schizophrenia d. Multiple personality disorder Answer: b. Depression 13. Plato was one of the first to argue for a. medical treatment of mental illness. b. demonic possession in mental illness. c. different punishments for mentally disturbed individuals. d. the use of bleeding as a treatment for mental illness. Answer: c. different punishments for mentally disturbed individuals. 14. Aristotle believed that a. mental disorders could be caused by psychological factors. b. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors. c. bodily fluids had nothing to do with mental illness. d. mental illness was due to demonic possession. Answer: b. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors. 15. One of Aristotle's major contributions to psychology was a. his belief that dreams explained most mental disorders. b. his theory that psychological disorders were due to psychological rather than physical factors. c. his description of personality traits. d. his description of consciousness. Answer: d. his description of consciousness. 16. The physicians of Alexandria, Egypt, in the era after Alexander the Great were most likely to treat mental patients by a. putting them in prisons. b. using brutal forms of exorcism. c. having them make sacrifices to gods. d. providing activities, massage, and education. Answer: d. providing activities, massage, and education. 17. What is Galen credited with? a. Providing the first biological explanation for mental disorders b. Performing the first human autopsies c. Demonstrating that the doctrine of the four humors was flawed d. Recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and psychological causes Answer: d. Recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and psychological causes 18. Chung Ching wrote two well-known medical works around A.D. 200 and has been referred to as the ____________ of China. a. Aristotle b. Galen c. Plato d. Hippocrates Answer: d. Hippocrates. 19. Compared to the West, in the Chinese "Dark Ages," views of mental illness a. began at a more sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although not for as long or with as negative a reaction to patients. b. began at a less sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although they regressed earlier and with a more negative reaction to patients. c. always believed that mental illness was due to supernatural forces. This belief is still prevalent in China. d. were always more sophisticated than the West; the focus was always on medical causes and humane treatment. Answer: a. began at a more sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although not for as long or with as negative a reaction to patients. 20. Which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior in the Middle Ages is accurate? a. Although the Hippocratic tradition was continued in most of Europe, Islamic countries emphasized demonology. b. Scientific reasoning and humane treatments were valued in both European and Islamic societies. c. Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches. d. The Chinese emphasized prayer, the Europeans emphasized exercise, and the Islamic peoples emphasized balancing the four bodily humors. Answer: c. Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches. 21. The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as a. superstitious. b. humane. c. medical. d. scientific. Answer: a. superstitious. 22. What trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe? a. Belief in theology was declining. b. Approaches to mental disorders were becoming increasingly scientific. c. Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity. d. Humane treatments were developed. Answer: c. Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity. 23. What is "mass madness"? a. An exhibition of disordered behavior by a group of people that appears to be caused by hysteria b. A reaction to the harsh and inhumane treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages c. A reference to the increased incidence of schizophrenia seen 16 years after a flu epidemic d. A reaction to hallucinogenic compounds taken as part of religious rituals in ancient Egypt Answer: a. An exhibition of disordered behavior by a group of people that appears to be caused by hysteria 24. What is lycanthropy? a. A form of mass hysteria characterized by wild dance-like movements b. A condition in which people believe themselves to be possessed by wolves c. A form of mass madness seen only in men d. A form of mass hysteria now known to have been drug-induced Answer: b. A condition in which people believe themselves to be possessed by wolves 25. The fact that episodes of mass madness peaked at the time of the Black Death illustrates that a. mass hysteria usually has a biological basis. b. mental and physical illnesses commonly occur together. c. phenomena that impact the society and its structure may also affect mental health. d. mental illnesses really are caused by imbalances in the four bodily humors. Answer: c. phenomena that impact the society and its structure may also affect mental health. 26. In 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors played a key role in most cases. This incident best illustrates a. St. Vitus's dance. b. exorcism. c. lycanthropy. d. mass madness. Answer: d. mass madness. 27. The disorder Koro, where males fear that their genitals have retracted into their body, possibly leading to death, is similar to the episodes of mass madness during the Black Death because a. both demonstrated that mass madness is primarily a physiological disorder. b. both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people. c. both demonstrated that the responses of other people to the person with mass madness determines whether the person will recover. d. both demonstrated that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to discover the cause of mass madness. Answer: b. both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people. 28. A common treatment for mental illness during the Middle Ages in Europe was a. exorcism. b. fresh air and supportive surroundings. c. banishment. d. an early form of psychoanalytic dream interpretation. Answer: a. exorcism. 29. Recent historical reviews of the literature indicate that the typical accused witch in the Middle Ages in Europe was a. a person we would now consider to have a mental illness. b. a priest who was a rival of a more powerful priest. c. an ill-tempered, impoverished woman. d. a person we would now consider to have mental retardation. Answer: c. an ill-tempered, impoverished woman. 30. People in the Middle Ages a. believed that mentally ill people were witches. b. believed that witches were mentally ill. c. believed that mentally ill witches should be treated differently than other types of witches. d. believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways. Answer: d. believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways. 31. During the Middle Ages in Europe, which of the following was most likely to treat mental illness? a. a priest b. a physician c. a scientist d. a surgeon Answer: a. a priest 32. Exorcism is a. still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results. b. a religious rite that is no longer used for the treatment of psychological problems. c. a symbolic act that can still be useful in changing psychological functioning. d. a treatment that, throughout history, was never a very popular method of treating psychological problems. Answer: a. still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results. 33. The emergence of humanism brought about changes in all of the following EXCEPT a. an increase in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior. b. scientific questioning. c. more humane treatment. d. fewer superstitious beliefs about demonic possession. Answer: a. an increase in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior. 34. Johann Weyer, in the early 1500s, a. was a popularly accepted writer who argued that mental illness was due to demon possession. b. was a popularly accepted writer who argued that mental illness was due to imbalances in the four humors. c. wrote a book that was condemned by many, arguing that many witches were actually mentally ill. d. wrote a book that was scorned by many, arguing that mental illness was due to bodily magnetism. Answer: c. wrote a book that was condemned by many, arguing that many witches were actually mentally ill. 35. Who was one of the first physicians in the early 1500s to criticize the idea that mental illness was due to demon possession (although he did believe the moon influenced the brain)? a. Paracelsus b. Galen c. Pinel d. Hippocrates Answer: a. Paracelsus 36. What was the purpose of the early asylums? a. To remove those who could not care for themselves from society b. To provide exorcisms c. To offer humanitarian treatment to those afflicted with mental illnesses d. To offer biological approaches to the treatment of mental disorders Answer: a. To remove those who could not care for themselves from society 37. How did early treatment of mental patients in the United States compare to that offered in Europe? a. Treatment in the United States was more humanitarian. b. It was comparable to that offered in Europe. c. The techniques employed were more scientifically based than those used in Europe. d. The treatment approaches used in the United States were more effective than those used in Europe. Answer: b. It was comparable to that offered in Europe. 38. If you visited an asylum in the 16th Century in Europe you would likely find a. a place which mixed together the mentally ill, the poor, criminals, and the physically ill. b. exorcisms being done by priests. c. a place where people were given good food, work, and rest so they could recover. d. mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty. Answer: d. mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty. 39. The early asylums a. were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill. b. were designed to be places of refuge for the mentally ill. c. were designed to treat the mentally ill with physiological treatments, such as bloodletting. d. were similar to the places the early Greeks used for people with mental illness. Answer: a. were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill. 40. Shackling a patient to a wall with little food or heat would be most typical of a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel. b. the sanatoriums of Alexandria, Egypt. c. the early asylums in Europe. d. the treatment advocated by Hippocrates. Answer: c. the early asylums in Europe. 41. "Bedlam" in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that a. treated the mentally ill with physiological treatments. b. exhibited their patients for profit. c. viewed themselves as religious houses for the demonically possessed. d. allowed patients a lot of freedom. Answer: b. exhibited their patients for profit. 42. In the United States, an early treatment involved the belief that a. patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly. b. patients were demonically possessed and needed to be made uncomfortable to get the demons to leave. c. patients were medically ill and needed physiological treatments. d. patients were basically animals and were treated as such. Answer: a. patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly. 43. Humanitarian treatment would be most typical of a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel. b. Bedlam. c. the early asylums in Europe. d. the early asylums in the United States. Answer: a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel. 44. There is some debate about whether Philippe Pinel a. was the first person to remove chains from mental patients in a French mental hospital. b. was the first person to refute the idea of witchcraft as an explanation for abnormal behavior. c. supported Mesmer's ideas of animal magnetism and hypnosis. d. approved of the use of bleeding, beatings, and imprisonment for mental patients. Answer: a. was the first person to remove chains from mental patients in a French mental hospital. 45. Philippe Pinel a. believed that mental illness was due to possession by demons and exorcism was the only useful treatment. b. believed that mental patients needed to choose rationality over insanity, so treatment was aimed at making their lives as patients uncomfortable. c. believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such – with kindness and caring. d. believed that mental illness was purely a physiological phenomena, and could only be treated by physical means such as bloodletting. Answer: c. believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such - with kindness and caring. 46. A contemporary of Pinel's in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was a. John Wesley. b. Benjamin Rush. c. Dorothea Dix. d. William Tuke. Answer: d. William Tuke. 47. Which of the following is credited with continuing the work of Pinel in the United States? a. John Wesley b. Benjamin Rush c. John Connolly d. Samuel Hitch Answer: b. Benjamin Rush 48. Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT a. signing the Declaration of Independence. b. encouraging more humane treatment of the mentally ill. c. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders. d. being the first American to organize a course in psychiatry. Answer: c. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders. 49. Benjamin Rush, who encouraged more humane treatment of the mentally ill in the United States, used as his principal remedies a. rest and talk. b. bloodletting and the tranquilizer chair. c. exorcism and purging. d. the tranquilizer chair and relaxation. Answer: b. bloodletting and the tranquilizer chair. 50. Who is considered the founder of American psychiatry? a. William Tuke b. Dorothea Dix c. Benjamin Rush d. Clifford Beers Answer: c. Benjamin Rush 51. The moral management treatment a. focused on the physiological problems that mental patients supposedly had rather than their mental state. b. focused on the symptoms that mental patients had rather than on their moral character. c. focused on warehousing and punishing mental patients, so that they would choose to become well. d. focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather than their disorder. Answer: d. focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather than their disorder. 52. All of the following were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800s EXCEPT a. manual labor. b. spiritual discussions. c. character development. d. antipsychotic medication. Answer: d. antipsychotic medication. 53. The level of success achieved with the use of moral management is surprising because a. most mental illnesses are not treatable. b. the drugs used were usually inappropriate. c. the majority of those hospitalized for mental illness were schizophrenic. d. many patients suffered from syphilis that was, at the time, incurable. Answer: d. many patients suffered from syphilis that was, at the time, incurable. 54. Which of the following was a form of treatment that addressed a patient's social, individual, and occupational needs? a. Moral management b. The treatments provided at the Geel Shrine c. Anton Mesmer's approach to treating the mentally ill d. The treatment started by the Nancy School Answer: a. Moral management 55. Which of the following contributed to the virtual absence of moral management by the nineteenth century? a. The fact that it was rarely effective in treating the mentally ill b. The shrinking of the size of most mental hospitals c. Society's displeasure with the idea that mentally ill people were morally inferior d. Advances in biomedical science Answer: d. Advances in biomedical science 56. Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being? a. Moral management b. Mental hygiene c. Humanitarian d. Deinstitutionalization Answer: b. Mental hygiene 57. Which of the following was a consequence of the rise of the mental hygiene movement and the occurrence of biomedical advances? a. The social and psychological environments of mental patients were ignored. b. Biological causes for most mental disorders were identified. c. Physical comfort was neglected. d. Most humanitarian gains were lost. Answer: a. The social and psychological environments of mental patients were ignored. 58. The demise of moral management occurred for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a. research showed that it had never been effective. b. the rise of the moral hygiene movement put a focus on patient well-being. c. the rise of biological explanations diminished the importance of the social environment. d. hospital facilities got so large that it was difficult to maintain the staff-patient relationships necessary for moral management. Answer: a. research showed that it had never been effective. 59. Dorothea Dix a. urged that religious conversion was a primary means of treatment for the mentally disturbed. b. was a major impediment to the mental hygiene movement in this country. c. was a leading force in the emphasis on finding biological cures for mental disorders. d. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries. Answer: d. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries. 60. Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States? a. Dorothea Dix b. Benjamin Rush c. Emil Kraepelin d. Philippe Pinel Answer: a. Dorothea Dix 61. The work of Dorothea Dix has been criticized for a. interfering with the provision of moral therapy. b. increasing the use of unproven treatment approaches. c. popularizing humanitarian approaches. d. preventing the development of biomedical approaches to mental illness. Answer: a. interfering with the provision of moral therapy. 62. In the early nineteenth century, psychiatrists were referred to as a. alienists. b. lunatics. c. soothsayers. d. purgatists. Answer: a. alienists. 63. Imagine that it is 1885. A man complains of "shattered nerves." He is lacking in energy and shows low mood. Physicians specializing in mental conditions (alienists) would likely consider this person a. a morally deficient individual. b. as suffering from neurasthenia. c. as suffering from hysteria. d. as untreatable because the condition was biological. Answer: b. as suffering from neurasthenia. 64. During the late nineteenth century, alienists a. focused on removing evil demons from the psyche. b. employed techniques such as drugging, restraint, and bleeding. c. did not view mental illnesses as treatable. d. incorporated moral management therapy into treatments. Answer: d. incorporated moral management therapy into treatments. 65. The "neurasthenia" recognized in the 1800s resembles today’s diagnosis of a. anxiety. b. schizophrenia. c. bipolar disorder. d. depression. Answer: d. depression. 66. By the end of the nineteenth century a. effective treatments had been developed for many forms of mental illness. b. little was known about most mental illnesses. c. asylums were recognized as humanitarian institutions that served an important function. d. most mental hospitals effectively addressed the physical needs of patients, but ignored other needs. Answer: b. little was known about most mental illnesses. 67. At the start of the twentieth century in America, public attitudes toward the mentally ill a. had become enlightened and humane. b. associated mental disorder with "tainted genes" and divine retribution. c. had become a conviction that the mentally ill were incurable and should be executed or jailed for the rest of their lives. d. were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance. Answer: d. were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance. 68. What is Clifford Beers known for? a. He developed the first effective antidepressant. b. His efforts lead to the establishment of over thirty mental hospitals. c. He vigorously rejected the Victorian idea that sexual fantasies caused mental disorders. d. He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received. Answer: d. He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received. 69. During the early twentieth century, a. more asylums and mental hospitals were established. b. most of the institutionalized mentally ill received moral therapy. c. hospital stays tended to be brief. d. housed very few people. Answer: a. more asylums and mental hospitals were established. 70. During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as a. effective. b. humane. c. moral. d. punitive. Answer: d. punitive. 71. Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid-1940s? a. The publication of A Mind That Found Itself b. The publication of The Snake Pit c. The research funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health d. The passage of the Community Health Services act Answer: b. The publication of The Snake Pit 72. The Hill-Burton Act a. ended the moral hygiene movement. b. contributed to the practice of warehousing the mentally ill. c. provided funding for mental health treatment in the community. d. legislated the creation of 50% more inpatient facilities for the mentally ill. Answer: c. provided funding for mental health treatment in the community. 73. Which of the following occurred in the late twentieth century? a. The establishment of large inpatient facilities for the mentally ill b. A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community c. Dramatic increases in the cost of caring for the mentally ill d. The inpatient mentally ill population doubled Answer: b. A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community 74. Medications for psychological disorders a. were first used centuries ago. b. were first used only recently. c. still currently use some ancient ingredients, such as "mummy powder." d. made the search for the causes of disorders more difficult. Answer: a. were first used centuries ago. 75. The rationale behind deinstitutionalization was a. a belief that physicians could better medicate and give physical treatment to patients in their own homes. b. a concern that prolonged hospitalization could keep patients from being able to adjust to and function in the outside world. c. a belief that most mental patients were faking and would cease to do so if they were not "rewarded" by allowing them to stay in the hospital. d. a concern that mental hospitals were such unpleasant places that for mental patients, living on their own could only be better. Answer: b. a concern that prolonged hospitalization could keep patients from being able to adjust to and function in the outside world. 76. Which of the following was a reason for the growth of the deinstitutionalization movement? a. A desire to involve the family in the care of the mentally ill. b. It was thought to be more humane. c. New medications were not successful. d. It was less cost effective than institutionalization. Answer: b. it was thought to be more humane. 77. Which of the following was an effect of the deinstitutionalization movement? a. A large number of psychiatric hospitals remained open. b. Mental hospital populations were re-institutionalized in medical hospitals. c. Most of the services once offered on an inpatient basis were available at community health centers. d. Some of those released would have been better off remaining hospitalized. Answer: d. Some of those released would have been better off remaining hospitalized. 78. Which of the following individuals is credited with emphasizing the link between brain pathology and mental illness? a. Dix. b. Skinner. c. Bandura. d. Kraepelin. Answer: d. Kraepelin. 79. The insanity associated with general paresis a. has no known physical cause. b. is caused by excessive alcohol consumption. c. is seen only in the aging who have compromised health. d. results from an infection of the brain. Answer: d. results from an infection of the brain. 80. Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis? a. The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms. b. General paresis was caused by malaria, and malarial therapy triggered an immune response that destroyed the existing infection. c. Malarial therapy prevented the syphilis spirochetes from entering the brain. d. There is no known treatment for general paresis. Answer: a. The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms. 81. Which of the following is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in psychopathology because it established the link between mental and physical illnesses? a. the discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity) b. the discovery of penicillin as a cure for syphilis c. the development of electroshock therapy for general paresis (syphilitic insanity) d. the discovery that brain injuries could be associated with mental disorders Answer: a. the discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity) 82. The use of malarial fever to treat paresis a. is an example of the barbaric treatment that mental patients received at the beginning of the twentieth century. b. proved to be so ineffectual that many professionals abandoned the biological explanation of mental disorders. c. represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine. d. was the first time scientists used knowledge of brain chemistry to develop specific drugs for treating mental disorders. Answer: c. represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine. 83. Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders? a. Dix b. Pinel c. Alzheimer d. Kraepelin Answer: d. Kraepelin 84. Kraepelin is credited with a. discovering that penicillin was an effective treatment for malaria. b. determining the cause of senile dementia. c. identifying different types of mental disorders. d. writing the first edition of the DSM. Answer: c. identifying different types of mental disorders. 85. The first classification of mental disorders involved a. identifying the biological causes of the disorders, so a person could be tested for them. b. understanding the theoretical descriptions of different disorders. c. recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder. d. identifying the types of thoughts that people with different mental illnesses tended to have. Answer: c. recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder. 86. The ancestral roots of what we now know as psychoanalysis can be traced back to a. the study of hypnosis. b. early beliefs in demonology and possession. c. the discovery of the cause of general paresis. d. Dorothea Dix. Answer: a. the study of hypnosis. 87. Mesmer was a proponent of a. humanitarianism. b. community mental health clinics. c. the mental hygiene movement. d. the power of animal magnetism. Answer: d. the power of animal magnetism. 88. Freud and Breuer proposed that allowing patients to discuss their problems under hypnosis would provide a therapeutic emotional release. What is this emotional release called? a. free association b. catharsis c. dream analysis d. mesmerism Answer: b. catharsis 89. The study of hypnosis and its relationship to hysteria was the starting point for a. the medical model. b. the biological classification of mental disorders. c. psychoanalysis. d. the mental hygiene movement. Answer: c. psychoanalysis. 90. The physicians of the Nancy School a. opposed the use of hypnotism. b. demonstrated the power of suggestion. c. found that hypnotism was not effective in the treatment of any mental illnesses. d. believed that hysteria was the result of brain degeneration. Answer: b. demonstrated the power of suggestion. 91. The Nancy School a. advanced the recognition that psychological factors were involved in the development of mental disorders. b. furthered our understanding of the role of biological factors in the development of mental illness. c. fell out of favor when the evidence supporting the views of Charcot accumulated. d. failed to recognize that most forms of psychopathology are incurable. Answer: a. advanced the recognition that psychological factors were involved in the development of mental disorders. 92. The Nancy School/Charcot debate is best described as one that focuses on a. biology vs. genes. b. learning vs. nurture. c. drugs vs. surgery. d. psychology vs. biology. Answer: d. psychology vs. biology. 93. In 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that a. unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders. b. hysteria was caused by hypnosis. c. hysteria and hypnosis were both the result of neurological abnormalities. d. many forms of mental disorder are the conscious result of seeking attention from others. Answer: a. unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders. 94. Freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected. a. catharsis b. unconscious c. hysteria d. operant conditioning Answer: b. unconscious 95. A catharsis is a. a type of hypnosis. b. an emotional release. c. the part of the brain where the unconscious exists. d. a type of hysteria. Answer: b. an emotional release. 96. Free association and dream analysis a. are techniques typically used in hypnotized subjects. b. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious. c. were developed in the early 1800s. d. have been used extensively in behavioral therapy. Answer: b. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious. 97. Who established the first experimental psychology laboratory? a. Wundt b. Watson c. Freud d. Kraepelin Answer: a. Wundt 98. Witmer is credited with a. establishing psychology as a field in the United States. b. bringing psychoanalysis to the United States. c. writing the first psychology text. d. being the founder of clinical psychology. Answer: d. being the founder of clinical psychology. 99. Behaviorism was a. a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis. b. a reaction to the lack of moral and spiritual factors in most theories at the time. c. an attempt to focus on the thinking styles of people with mental illness. d. a spin-off theory that elaborated on the psychoanalytic viewpoint. Answer: a. a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis. 100. A behavioral psychologist would be most likely to use a. hypnotism. b. observational techniques. c. free association. d. dream analysis. Answer: b. observational techniques. 101. A psychologist who takes a behavioral perspective would focus on a. learning. b. early experiences. c. unconscious conflicts. d. the role of dreams. Answer: a. learning. 102. Who is considered to be the "father" of behaviorism? a. Pavlov b. Freud c. Wundt d. Watson Answer: d. Watson 103. The central principle of classical conditioning is that a. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response. b. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in. c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated. d. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior. Answer: a. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response. 104. The role of learning is the central theme in a. Breuer's approach to treating people with mental disorders. b. Wundt's approach to psychological research. c. the psychoanalytic approach. d. the behavioral perspective. Answer: d. the behavioral perspective. 105. Both ___________ and ___________ studied the effects of consequences on the occurrence of behaviors. a. Skinner; Pavlov b. Pavlov; Thorndike c. Thorndike; Skinner d. Pavlov; Freud Answer: c. Thorndike; Skinner 106. The central principle of operant conditioning is that a. certain reflexes cause us to engage in habitual behavior. b. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in. c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated. d. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior. Answer: c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated. Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. __________ was the affliction in the Middle Ages in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves. Answer: Lycanthropy 2. __________ was the person who revolutionized moral management in the treatment of mental patients in the late 1700s. Answer: Benjamin Rush 3. __________ is the process of moving mental patients from the hospital to the community. Answer: Deinstitutionalization 4. The surgical procedure used by physicians that initially used an ice pick to treat severe mental disorder is a __________. Answer: lobotomy Short Answer Questions 1. What was the most common explanation for abnormal behavior among many ancient peoples including the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks? Answer: The most common explanation was possession by a demon or a god. 2. What is tarantism? Answer: Tarantism is a form of "mass madness" characterized by wild dancing. The behavior came to be viewed as a consequence of having been bitten by a tarantula. 3. How did people in the Middle Ages view physical and spiritual possession differently? Answer: People who experienced physical possession were mentally ill, those who experienced spiritual possession were witches. 4. What was Bedlam? Answer: Bedlam was an asylum in London that became well known for its deplorable conditions and practices. It was typical of many asylums of the sixteenth century that served primarily as storage facilities for the mentally ill. 5. Who was Benjamin Rush? Answer: Benjamin Rush is credited with encouraging the use of more humane treatment of the mentally ill in the United States. He was the first American to organize a course in psychiatry, and, although some of his practices may have been less than humane, he is recognized as a transitional figure between the poor treatment of the old era and the humane approaches of the new. 6. What was moral management? Answer: Moral management was an approach to the care of the mentally ill that emerged in the early part of the period of humanitarian reform. It focused on addressing the patient's social, individual, and occupational needs. 7. What contributions did Dorothea Dix make to the treatment of the mentally ill? Answer: Between 1841 and 1881 Dorothea Dix brought to light the inhuman treatment the mentally ill usually received and persuaded legislatures to fund the building of many mental hospitals. She is credited with improving conditions in American hospitals, establishing 32 mental hospitals, and fostering the growth of the mental hygiene movement in the United States. 8. Who was Clifford Beers? Answer: A former mental patient who wrote about his experiences in the institutions of his time. He helped change the attitude about the mentally ill and their treatment. 9. What was the attitude about hospitalization of the mentally ill during the later decades of the twentieth century? Answer: It is preferable to treat people in the community, and treatment should be deinstitutionalized, although it is not the perfect solution it was once thought to be. 10. Why was the discovery of the malarial treatment for general paresis important? Answer: It was the first scientifically demonstrated connection between a mental illness and brain pathology. 11. Who was Emil Kraepelin? Answer: The first to recognize that certain symptoms occurred regularly together and to begin the classification of mental disorders. 12. What contribution to our thinking about abnormal behavior did Freud and Breuer make? Answer: They made the discovery of the unconscious and argued that processes outside the person's awareness could help determine behavior. They showed that emotional tensions that patients were not aware of could cause hysteria. 13. Who was Wilhelm Wundt? Answer: The man who established the first experimental psychology laboratory. 14. What is the central theme of the behavioral perspective? Answer: The role of learning in human behavior. Essay Questions 1. Abnormal behavior often has been attributed to the influence of supernatural forces. Describe how these forces were used to explain abnormal behavior during various time periods and the treatments that resulted. Answer: Early writings of the Egyptians, Chinese, Hebrews, and Greeks show they attributed such behavior to possession by a demon or god. This was treated by exorcism. In the Middle Ages, the clergy were largely responsible for treatment because possession was considered causal. In fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe, witchcraft became another related explanation for which torture, burning, and other such methods were used. Recent historical analyses, however, suggest that the mentally ill may not have been taken to be witches, as was often once thought. Even in contemporary culture, one can find those who believe that supernatural forces cause psychological problems. Exorcisms are still occasionally practiced. 2. What was moral management? What caused its near abandonment in the second part of the nineteenth century? Answer: Moral management was a broad treatment that included a patient's social, individual, and occupational needs. The moral and spiritual development of patients was a focus. More emphasis was placed on patients’ character than on their disorder. Typical treatments were spiritual discussion and manual labor. It was surprisingly effective. It was abandoned because of changing attitudes toward the mentally ill and the increasing size of hospitals. The mental hygiene movement and advances in biomedical science also contributed to its decrease in popularity. The focus on physical and biological explanations and care meant that other factors in a patient's life were considered irrelevant. 3. Explain how the link between the brain and mental disorders was first established. Answer: While Hippocrates and others had long proposed that mental disorders had some physical cause, it was not until the 1800s that a clear link between a physical disease process and mental illness was established. This finding then paved the way for further exploration of how brain malfunctions could result in mental illness. General paresis was an illness that produced paralysis, insanity, and, typically, death within two to five years. This mental illness was recognized as a specific type of mental disorder in 1825. Thus, it was recognized as a unique disorder, and attempts could then be made to treat it. It was eventually recognized that this illness was caused by syphilis. This is the first documented link between an identifiable brain infection and mental illness. With this finding, and the rising influence of modern experimental science, the investigation of brain pathology as the cause of mental illness began in earnest. 4. What was the dispute between Charcot and the Nancy School? Why is this significant? Answer: The Nancy School, named for the town of Nancy in France, refers to a group of physicians who believed that hysteria was a form of self-hypnosis. In other words, they believed that hysteria had a psychological cause. They came to this conclusion as it was observed that the symptoms of hysteria could be both produced and removed by means of hypnosis. Charcot, a neurologist, had not been able to replicate the findings of the Nancy School and argued that degenerative brain changes led to hysteria. The dispute between Charcot and the Nancy School was a debate about the cause of hysteria (i.e., biological or psychological). In the end, the view of the Nancy School was accepted. This is said to represent the first recognition of a psychologically caused mental disorder. 5. Describe classical conditioning. Answer: Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus. After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology: DSM 5 James N. Butcher, Jill M. Hooley, Susan M. Mineka 9780205965090, 9780205944286

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