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Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology: An Overview Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is an example of family aggregation? a. Both Jane and her husband are alcoholic. b. Jim and John, 21-year-old friends, are both schizophrenic. c. Karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. d. Kim's suicide was apparently a reaction to her mother's abuse. Answer: c. Karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. 2. What does Monique’s case best illustrate? a. Most individuals with mental disorders are violent. b. Women are more likely to commit suicide than men. c. Most individuals who experience a mental breakdown are clearly unwell long before treatment is sought. d. Mental illness can have a significant impact on one's life. Answer: d. Mental illness can have a significant impact on one's life. 3. What does Monique’s case best illustrate? a. Abnormal behavior usually produces more distress in others than the person who engages in the abnormal behavior. b. Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances. c. Most people who suffer from abnormal behavior are quickly identified as deviant by other people. d. When people suffer from mental disorders, they are unable to work or live independently. Answer: b. Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances. 4. What makes defining abnormality difficult? a. There are so many types of abnormal behavior that they can't be accurately described. b. There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal. c. Most of us are abnormal much of the time so that we cannot tell what is normal. d. Criteria for abnormality have yet to be developed. Answer: b. There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal. 5. Which of the following is a sufficient element to determine abnormality? a. Suffering b. Maladaptiveness c. Deviancy d. There is no single sufficient element. Answer: d. There is no single sufficient element. 6. The fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates that a. modern society is unlikely to change. b. what is acceptable for men and women is no longer different. c. American culture values independence. d. the values of a society may change over time. Answer: d. the values of a society may change over time. 7. Brett persistently injects himself with pain killers. This has greatly increased his chance of overdosing and dying. His behavior harms no one else. According to the DSM-5, is Brett's behavior consistent with the definition of a mental disorder? a. Yes, because many people in society engage in this behavior. b. Yes, because he is persistently acting in a way that harms him. c. No, because his behavior must also harm the well-being of others in the community. d. No, because there is no evidence that his actions are out of his own control. Answer: b. Yes, because he is persistently acting in a way that harms him. 8. According to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder? a. Always b. Only when the behavior is inconsistent with cultural norms c. When it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual d. Never Answer: c. When it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual 9. In the field of abnormal psychology, what does DSM stand for? a. Disorders, Science, and the Mind b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual c. Descriptors for the Science of the Mind d. Diagnostic Science of the Mind Answer: b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 10. Which of the following is included in the DSM-5? a. A discussion of the various causes of mental disorders b. A means of identifying different mental disorders c. A description of all conditions for mental illness d. A description of all of the possible treatments for each disorder Answer: b. A means of identifying different mental disorders 11. In the United States, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the a. American Psychological Association's bylaws. b. American Psychiatric Association's bylaws. c. World Health Organization's classification code. d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Answer: d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 12. Which of the following best describes the DSM? a. A complete guide to the origin, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders b. A work in progress that classifies mental disorders based on what is currently known c. A fundamentally flawed collection of unfounded assumptions about mental disorders d. A collection of random opinions to diagnosing mental disorders Answer: b. A work in progress that classifies mental disorders based on what is currently known 13. According to the case study in the textbook, for Zell Kravinsky the burden of ___________ was almost unbearable. a. hoarding personal possessions b. washing his hands compulsively c. refusing to help others d. writing and rewriting letters to his family Answer: c. refusing to help others. 14. What is a reason for classifying mental disorders? a. A classification system allows information to be organized. b. Then professionals won't need to look at as much information about a person. c. Then professionals can make assumptions about people based on their diagnosis. d. The diagnosis then often has an effect on peoples' behaviors. Answer: a. A classification system allows information to be organized. 15. Which concept provides psychologists with a consistent naming system that can be used to organize and identify information in a helpful manner? a. Epidemiology b. Classification c. Brain research d. Labeling Answer: b. Classification 16. Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders? a. A classification system establishes the types of problems that mental professionals can treat. b. When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost. c. A classification system allows for research to advance. d. Identifying the disorder that an individual has guides treatment. Answer: b. When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost. 17. Which of the following statements is true concerning classification systems for mental disorders? a. It is far more important that they be reliable than it is for them to be valid. b. Classification systems make it more difficult to gather statistics on the incidence and prevalence of disorders. c. Classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims. d. Although they assist scientists who are researching disorders, they always inhibit our ability to communicate about abnormal behavior in a consistent way. Answer: c. Classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims. 18. All of the following are disadvantages of classifying and diagnosing mental disorders EXCEPT a. stereotyping. b. labeling. c. stigma. d. structure. Answer: d. structure. 19. Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means a. people are reluctant to discuss their psychological problems because they are afraid others won't like them. b. people feel very sad and upset when they find out they have a mental illness. c. the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness. d. the problem of removing the diagnosis, even if people make a full recovery from mental illness. Answer: c. the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness. 20. What is wrong with describing someone as being "schizophrenic"? a. It implies someone is depressed. b. Such a definitive diagnosis is rare. c. The behavior of the schizophrenic changes so rapidly that this is only true a small percentage of the time. d. Labels should be applied to disorders, not to people. Answer: d. Labels should be applied to disorders, not to people. 21. Which of the following has been shown to reduce stigma of the mentally ill? a. Educating people that a mental illness is a “real” brain disorder b. Referring to a mental illness as a “mental disease” c. Increasing contact with individuals who have a mental illness d. Applying labels to individuals, such as “schizophrenic” or “bipolar” Answer: c. Increasing contact with individuals who have a mental illness. 22. What does the case of JGH, a Native American elder, illustrate? a. Alcoholism has long lasting effects on mood and behavior, even when drinking has ceased. b. A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when depressed. c. Depression is not universal. d. The symptoms of some illnesses are not apparent until after lengthy psychological evaluation. Answer: b. A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when depressed. 23. What is a culture-specific disorder? a. A disorder seen in all cultures b. A disorder that is seen universally, but presents itself differently depending on cultural factors c. A disorder that is a product of cultural stressors d. A disorder seen only in certain cultures Answer: d. A disorder seen only in certain cultures 24. Practically speaking, “abnormal” behavior means a. any behavior that is "away from the normal" and causes any distress. b. any behavior that causes the person distress. c. any behavior that causes us to consider our values. d. any behavior that deviates from the norms of the society in which the person lives. Answer: d. any behavior that deviates from the norms of the society in which the person lives. 25. Maria believes that her dead grandmother occasionally speaks to her. In deciding if Maria has a mental illness or not, which of the following should first be evaluated? a. How old is Maria? b. Is Maria's belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture? c. Do people in general consider Maria's belief abnormal? d. Does her belief match any of the symptoms in the disorders in the DSM? Answer: b. Is Maria's belief consistent with the beliefs of her culture? 26. Members of which culture are likely to make the distinction between mental illness (a term used to denote less severe conditions) and madness (a term used to describe more severe problems)? a. Iranians b. Jamaicans c. Americans d. Japanese Answer: b. Jamaicans 27. Why is it important to know how many people have diagnosable mental illnesses? a. Such information is needed to plan for the provision of adequate services. b. The number of people with mental illness and the level of crime are highly correlated. c. If the incidence of mental illness is rising, there needs to be a corresponding increase in the level of funding for medical research. d. Pharmaceutical companies need such information to ensure the appropriate level of drug production. Answer: a. Such information is needed to plan for the provision of adequate services. 28. ___________ refers to the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at a given point of time. a. Point prevalence b. Absolute prevalence c. 1-year prevalence d. Lifetime prevalence Answer: a. Point prevalence. 29. What is epidemiology? a. The exploration of what forms of treatment are most effective b. A form of psychotherapy c. The study of the role of genes in mental illness d. The study of the distribution of a disorder in a population Answer: d. The study of the distribution of a disorder in a population 30. Mental health epidemiology is a. the study of epidemics in mental disorders among the general population. b. the study of organic brain diseases among different ethnic populations of a defined geographic region. c. the study of the distribution of mental disorders in a given population. d. a sociological study of psychological disorders. Answer: c. the study of the distribution of mental disorders in a given population. 31. What does it mean if a disorder is said to be highly prevalent? a. It is common. b. It is not curable. c. It is treatable. d. It is contagious. Answer: a. It is common. 32. What type of prevalence estimate tends to be lowest? a. Point prevalence b. One-year prevalence c. Lifetime prevalence d. Virtual prevalence Answer: a. Point prevalence 33. ___________ rates may be reported in terms of the lifetime risk of contracting a particular disorder. a. Prevalence b. Point prevalence c. Point incidence d. Incidence Answer: a. Prevalence 34. Which of the following is an example of point prevalence? a. Forty people had a panic attack in the last year. b. Seventy people in her graduating class had been diagnosed with anorexia at some time during the past four years. c. 1% of the population is currently experiencing depressive symptoms. d. 15% of women will suffer from an anxiety disorder before the age of 30. Answer: c. 1% of the population is currently experiencing depressive symptoms. 35. What type of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder? a. Point prevalence b. One-year prevalence c. Lifetime prevalence d. All prevalence data count both those who have the disorder and those who have recovered. Answer: a. Point prevalence 36. The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year. The mayor should ask an epidemiologist for the ___________ of the disorder. a. prevalence rate b. incidence rate c. point prevalence d. acute occurrence Answer: b. incidence rate 37. What type of prevalence estimate tends to be highest? a. Point prevalence b. One-year prevalence c. Lifetime prevalence d. Virtual prevalence Answer: c. Lifetime prevalence 38. What term refers to the number of new cases of a disorder that occur over a given time period? a. Point prevalence b. One-year prevalence c. Incidence d. Valence Answer: c. Incidence 39. Why is it believed that the NCS survey used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimated that prevalence? a. Most problems are acute. b. Few people report symptoms of mental illness when completing surveys. c. The incidence of comorbidity is too high. d. Measures of several types of disorders were not included. Answer: d. Measures of several types of disorders were not included. 40. What is the most prevalent grouping of psychological disorder? a. Anxiety disorders b. Depressive disorders c. Substance abuse disorders d. Dissociative disorders Answer: a. Anxiety disorders 41. What is important to remember about the apparent high lifetime rate of mental disorders? a. Many people were probably misdiagnosed. b. So many people have disorders that this has become a major health issue. c. Many people with disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time. d. A large majority of people with disorders seek treatment, so the problem is not as bad as it seems. Answer: c. Many people with disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time. 42. What can be said about individuals who have a history of at least one serious psychological disorder? a. Most are effectively treated and never experience mental illness again. b. Over 50% have at least two or more other disorders. c. Few have a comorbid disorder. d. Individuals who have sought treatment for one illness are unlikely to ever experience another. Answer: b. Over 50% have at least two or more other disorders. 43. Comorbidity means a. that a disorder is often fatal. b. that a person has two or more disorders. c. that a person has a more severe form of a disorder. d. that a person is unlikely to recover from the disorder. Answer: b. that a person has two or more disorders. 44. A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that a. those people who have three or more comorbid disorders have one or more mild and transitory disorders. b. over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders. c. people who have one mental disorder are unlikely to have a second comorbid disorder. d. as people grow older they are more likely to have multiple severe disorders. Answer: b. over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders. 45. Most mental health treatment a. occurs in an outpatient setting. b. requires an overnight stay. c. does not involve professionals. d. occurs in psychiatric hospitals. Answer: a. occurs in an outpatient setting. 46. Most people with psychological disorders a. seek treatment as soon as they realize there is a problem. b. recover only if they seek treatment. c. delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years. d. exaggerate their symptoms so it takes longer for them to recover. Answer: c. delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years. 47. The trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that a. inpatient hospitalization in public institutions has increased. b. people with psychological problems more often receive inpatient treatment than outpatient treatment. c. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis. d. the number of community services has skyrocketed. Answer: c. people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis. 48. Which of the following mental health professionals has a doctoral degree in psychology and provides individual therapy to the patient? a. clinical psychologist b. occupational therapist c. caseworker d. psychiatrist Answer: a. clinical psychologist 49. Which of the following mental health professionals prescribes medications and monitors the patient for side effects? a. clinical psychologist b. psychiatrist c. counseling psychologist d. occupational therapist Answer: b. psychiatrist 50. A clinical social worker would provide a patient with help in which of the following areas? a. family therapy b. occupational therapy c. prescriptions d. clinical research Answer: a. family therapy 51. Describing a disorder as acute means that a. it causes very severe distress and impairment. b. it causes very mild distress and impairment. c. it is a very long-lasting disorder. d. it is a disorder that is short in duration. Answer: d. it is a disorder that is short in duration. 52. Why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder? a. A disorder cannot be identified unless there is an understanding of where it came from. b. All recognized disorders have known causes. c. Biological treatments only work when a disorder has a biological cause. d. The selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions about causality. Answer: d. The selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions about causality. 53. One strength of case studies is a. they can help prove causal relationships between variables. b. they can generate new ideas to explore. c. they do not involve bias. d. they are usually highly accurate. Answer: b. they can generate new ideas to explore. 54. Why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies? a. Case studies can provide little information about a disorder. b. Few patients are willing to be used as case studies. c. It is unethical. d. Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed. Answer: d. Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed. 55. Which of the following typically involves having a patient or research participant fill out questionnaires? a. Case study method b. Direct observation c. Self-report data collection d. Psychophysiological data collection Answer: c. Self-report data collection 56. Which of the following typically involves the use of trained observers? a. Case study method b. Direct observation c. Self-report data collection d. Psychophysiological data collection Answer: b. Direct observation 57. A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is a. very strong and widely used in abnormal psychology. b. rarely used in abnormal psychology because few people are willing to examine their own lives closely. c. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder. d. weak because it confuses correlational data with experimental data. Answer: c. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder. 58. Carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he has had several arrests for driving while intoxicated, Carl reports that he has no problems with drinking. This is an example of a. the problems with self-report data. b. the problems with case studies. c. the problems of diagnosis. d. the problems of forming hypotheses. Answer: a. the problems with self-report data. 59. ___________ are more or less plausible ideas used to explain something (e.g., a behavior) and can be tested using research methods. a. Observations b. Hypotheses c. Variables d. Correlations Answer: b. Hypotheses 60. An important FIRST step in studying a particular disorder is a. selecting the best case study for analysis. b. determining the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder. c. deciding upon the appropriate statistical analyses to use on the data to be collected. d. selecting the appropriate subjects for study. Answer: b. determining the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder. 61. Upon deciding to study individuals with a given disorder, what is the next step that should be taken? a. Select criteria for identifying individuals with the disorder. b. Determine what treatment approach will be tested. c. Establish which subjects will be the control group and which will be in the experimental group. d. Gather survey data to determine where your subjects are most likely to reside. Answer: a. Select criteria for identifying individuals with the disorder. 62. Ideally, a sample is described as what? a. Random b. Representative c. Generalizable d. Demographically pure Answer: b. Representative 63. Why is a representative sample desirable? a. Such samples are random. b. Hypotheses can only be tested on representative samples. c. Only representative samples yield meaningful results. d. The more representative a sample is, the more generalizable the data. Answer: d. The more representative a sample is, the more generalizable the data. 64. Dr. Katz is researching the causes of all phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for only people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is a. the people who come may not have a phobia. b. his sample will be too small. c. he is not getting a representative sample. d. he doesn't know if people are telling the truth about their fears or not. Answer: c. he is not getting a representative sample. 65. Why would a researcher want to ensure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample? a. This helps eliminate a correlational relationship. b. It increases the chances of finding a causal relationship. c. It provides important epidemiological information such as the prevalence and incidence of the disorder. d. It increases the researcher's ability to generalize findings to the larger group. Answer: d. It increases the researcher's ability to generalize findings to the larger group. 66. A researcher interested in the health problems of people with schizophrenia interviews only those people diagnosed with the disorder who are in an inpatient facility. The most glaring weakness in this study is a. the absence of correlational statistics. b. the failure to use DSM-IV criteria for health problems. c. having an inappropriate control group. d. nonrepresentative sampling. Answer: d. nonrepresentative sampling. 67. In Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problems. In this example, the girls with eating disorders are the ___________ group. a. comparison b. control c. criterion d. treatment Answer: c. criterion 68. In Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problems. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the ___________ group. a. conforming b. control c. criterion d. treatment Answer: b. control 69. In what significant ways do correlational research designs differ from experimental research designs? a. Correlational research does not require the selection of a sample to study. b. Correlational research does not generate hypotheses. c. There is no comparison group in correlational research. d. There is no manipulation of variables in correlational research. Answer: d. There is no manipulation of variables in correlational research. 70. To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use a. an experimental design. b. a representative sample of individuals with the disorder. c. a control group. d. a criterion group. Answer: c. a control group. 71. What is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders? a. People who have an eating disorder and a wide range of educational backgrounds. b. A group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except that they eat normally. c. A group that is drawn from the sample of people with eating disorders. d. People who used to have eating disorders but no longer say they do. Answer: b. A group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except that they eat normally. 72. Why are correlational research designs often used in abnormal psychology? a. They are best at determining cause and effect. b. They are the most useful for comparing groups. c. They give in-depth descriptions of the disorder being studied. d. It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology. Answer: d. It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology. 73. What is the most important limitation of correlational studies? a. They cannot determine cause and effect. b. They are very subject to bias. c. They rarely have representative samples. d. They are very difficult to do. Answer: a. They cannot determine cause and effect. 74. Researchers have observed that women who wear bras for more than 16 hours a day are more likely to develop breast cancer than those who spend less time in a bra. In other words, there is a correlation between wearing a bra and breast cancer. Based on this finding, which of the following statements is true? a. Wearing a bra causes cancer. b. All women should avoid wearing a bra for more than 16 hours a day. c. There is no relationship between wearing a bra and breast cancer; these data are clearly flawed. d. Some additional variable may serve to explain the relationship observed between wearing a bra and developing cancer. Answer: d. Some additional variable may serve to explain the relationship observed between wearing a bra and developing cancer. 75. Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y? a. x causes y b. y causes x c. as x increases, y increases d. as x increases, y decreases Answer: d. as x increases, y decreases 76. Dr. Gordon finds that heroin-addicted adults almost always smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol when they were young adolescents. Knowing this strong association we can conclude that a. cigarette smoking causes drinking, which causes heroin addiction. b. if cigarette smoking and drinking could be stopped in adolescence, heroin addiction would be stopped too. c. heroin addiction is caused by the same factors that cause early smoking and drinking. d. there is an association among the variables, but no causal inferences should be drawn. Answer: d. there is an association among the variables, but no causal inferences should be drawn. 77. Individuals who have alcohol problems tend to come from families with other individuals who have alcohol problems. This would suggest that a. genetic factors cause an individual to have alcohol problems. b. environmental factors cause an individual to have alcohol problems. c. both genetic and environmental factors cause an individual to have problems. d. although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be concluded. Answer: d. although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be concluded. 78. Dr. Francis has discovered that the more spaghetti people eat, the less likely they are to be diagnosed with depression. Based on this finding, what statement can be made about the relationship between spaghetti and depression? a. There is a positive correlation between spaghetti eating and depression. b. There is a negative correlation between spaghetti eating and depression. c. Spaghetti prevents depression. d. There is no relationship between spaghetti eating and depression. Answer: b. There is a negative correlation between spaghetti eating and depression. 79. It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ___________ correlated with developing schizophrenia. a. not b. randomly c. negatively d. positively Answer: d. positively 80. A significant positive correlation is found between variables x and y. Which of the following may be safely inferred? a. x causes y b. y causes x c. as x increases, y increases d. as x increases, y decreases Answer: c. as x increases, y increases 81. What does the notation p < .05 next to a correlation mean? a. The probability that a correlation would occur purely by chance is less than 95 out of 100 b. The probability that a correlation would occur purely by chance is less than 5 out of 100 c. The probability that a positive correlation will be found purely by chance d. The probability that a negative correlation will be found purely by chance Answer: b. The probability that a correlation would occur purely by chance is less than 5 out of 100 82. Which of the following terms is defined as the size of the association between two variables independent of the sample size? a. Statistical significance b. Clinical significance c. Effect size d. Association size Answer: c. Effect size 83. What is the term for the statistical approach that calculates and then combines the effect sizes from multiple studies? a. Meta-analysis b. Effect analysis c. Multiple-effect analysis d. Correlational analysis Answer: a. Meta-analysis 84. Which research approach requires subjects to recall the past? a. Reconstructive b. Repressed c. Retroactive d. Retrospective Answer: d. Retrospective 85. A researcher says, "These studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background factors they expect to find. However, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the disorder emerges." What kind of research strategy is the researcher referring to? a. Prospective strategies b. N = 1 strategies c. Retrospective strategies d. Analogue studies Answer: c. Retrospective strategies 86. What type of research design begins with the identification of individuals who are likely to develop a particular disorder? a. Correlational b. Experimental c. Prospective d. Retrospective Answer: c. Prospective 87. In most prospective studies, a. large samples of individuals are interviewed to see if there are any risk factors that differentiate those with the disorder of interest. b. children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up. c. analogue research is used because of the ethical problems with other experimental research. d. a representative sample of a general population of adults is used. Answer: b. children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up. 88. A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ___________ research method. a. correlational b. epidemiological c. case study d. experimental Answer: d. experimental 89. A researcher who studies children who are home-schooled and compares them to children who attend school is using the ___________ research method. a. correlational b. epidemiological c. case study d. experimental Answer: a. correlational 90. Which variable is manipulated in an experiment? a. Comparison b. Criterion c. Dependent d. Independent Answer: d. Independent 91. In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the ice cream can be described as what? a. The dependent variable b. The independent variable c. A correlational variable d. A confounding variable Answer: b. The independent variable 92. In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as what? a. The dependent variable b. The independent variable c. A correlational variable d. A confounding variable Answer: a. The dependent variable 93. Which of the following is an example of an ABAB design? a. Half of the subjects receive one treatment and the other half are not treated. b. All subjects received one of two treatments. c. A subject is observed and treated. d. A subject is observed both before and after two exposures to the treatment. Answer: d. A subject is observed both before and after two exposures to the treatment. 94. Fred refuses to speak at school, although he speaks normally at home. His therapist plans out a treatment where Fred is given a gold star every time he answers his teacher, and he can then trade in his stars for prizes. Fred begins speaking in class. The therapist then tells the teacher to stop the program for a couple of weeks. Fred stopped talking during that time. The teacher then starting giving Fred stars again, and Fred again began to talk. This is an example of a. a case study. b. a correlational study. c. an ABAB experimental design study. d. a self-report study. Answer: c. an ABAB experimental design study. 95. What is the value of using an ABAB design? a. It permits the study of the effects of multiple forms of treatment on a single subject. b. Subjects can be selected randomly. c. The effects of a single form of treatment are studied twice in the same subject. d. Generalizability is ensured. Answer: c. The effects of a single form of treatment are studied twice in the same subject. 96. A psychologist wishes to test the hypothesis that the experience of chronic physical pain can cause clinical depression, but the Ethics Committee of his university won't allow him to conduct a study in which he inflicts pain on the subjects. What kind of research design might best allow the psychologist to test this hypothesis while circumventing the committee's objection? a. Experimental b. Prospective c. Analogue d. Longitudinal Answer: c. Analogue 97. Which of the following is an example of an analogue study? a. Families with a history of schizophrenia are compared to families with no family history of mental illness. b. Rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. c. Blood is taken from a group of individuals with panic disorder both before and after viewing a disturbing film. d. Survey data is examined to determine the prevalence of mental illness. Answer: b. Rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. 98. Dr. Brown wants to study social phobia. She induces temporary anxiety by having normal subjects believe they will be negatively evaluated by another person. This is an example of a. a path analysis. b. an analogue study. c. an experimental epidemiological study. d. a correlational study. Answer: b. an analogue study. 99. What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock? a. Seligman demonstrated that dogs can get depressed. b. Seligman found that the dogs became aggressive. c. Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans. d. Seligman found that the exposure to the shock altered the level of brain chemicals known to be involved in depression. Answer: c. Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans. 100. A major scientific problem with analogue studies is a. the difficulty of disentangling intercorrelated factors. b. the difficulty of manipulating variables in a laboratory. c. the inability to draw causal inferences from such studies. d. the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon. Answer: d. the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon. Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. __________ are automatic beliefs concerning other people based on little information. Answer: Stereotypes 2. The number of people who have suffered from a particular disorder at any time in their lives is __________. Answer: lifetime prevalence 3. When mental disorders are short in duration, they are known as acute. When they are long in duration, they are __________. Answer: chronic 4. If the score on one variable is high and the score on another variable is low, this is known as a __________ correlation. Answer: negative 5. ______________ is used to study questions that would not be possible to study with human subjects. Answer: Analogue studies Short Answer Questions 1. Why is it difficult to agree on a definition of abnormal behavior? Answer: There are no sufficient or necessary conditions. Also, what is abnormal at one point in time may no longer be considered abnormal at another time. 2. What are the benefits of classifying mental disorders? Answer: Allows information to be organized, needed for research, most sciences do it, establishes the range of problems mental health professionals can address. 3. Discuss one disadvantage of developing a classification system for mental disorders. Answer: Multiple possible answers: 1. There is a loss of information when a classification scheme is applied to behavior, as will happen when any single word is used to convey something as complex as a mental disorder. 2. In addition, there may be some stigma attached to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis. 3. Stereotyping may occur, leading to incorrect assumptions about and expectations of an individual who has received a psychiatric diagnosis. 4. Explain what a culture-specific disorder is and provide an example of one. Answer: A culture-specific disorder is a disorder that occurs most commonly in or exclusively in a specific culture. While many disorders may present themselves differently in different cultures, these are disorders that are unique to a particular culture. Koro, a disorder seen most commonly in young Asian males, is one example. This anxiety disorder is characterized by an extreme fear that a body part is shrinking. 5. What is mental health epidemiology? How is it studied? Answer: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of a health-related problem within a population. Mental health epidemiology is the distribution and frequency of mental disorders. A key element in studying this is the frequency of mental disorder, which includes prevalence rates. 6. Discuss the difference between prevalence and incidence. Answer: Prevalence is the number of active cases of a disorder in a given population during a given period of time. Incidence is the number of new cases that occur over a given period of time. 7. What is comorbidity? Answer: The presence of two of more disorders in the same person. This is common in serious mental disorders, rarer for mild disorders. 8. Briefly discuss why research in abnormal psychology is important. Answer: Through the use of research, the characteristics of disorders can be studied and our understanding of the etiology of disorders is furthered. In addition, research must be used to determine the effectiveness of treatment. 9. What is a case study and what are its benefits and drawbacks? Answer: An in-depth, detailed account of a single case. They are good sources of research ideas and hypotheses. However, information from them does not generalize. They are uncontrolled and often impressionistic, so any conclusions drawn may be incorrect. 10. What is sampling and why is it important? Answer: Sampling is the procedure used to select subjects to study. As it is not possible to study all of the population of interest, a subset of the population is selected. The sample studied needs to resemble the larger population on all relevant variables so that findings made when studying the sample can be generalized to the population. In other words, results obtained with a sample should provide accurate information about the larger population. 11. Discuss the limitations of self-report data. Answer: Can be misleading, sometimes deliberately lie, misinterpret questions or try to present themselves more favorably or less favorably than is true. 12. What is an analogue study? Answer: A study of an approximation of the real thing in which the researcher is interested. Often done if studying the real thing is difficult or it would be unethical to manipulate the variables of interest. Essay Questions 1. Discuss some of the difficulties involved in attempting to define abnormal behavior. Answer: "Abnormal" presupposes some norm from which behavior deviates, but there is no definition of "normal" about which people can all agree. Abnormal is also related to behavior that is deemed undesirable by society. Value issues therefore always complicate the objective definition of disorders. What, exactly, comprises distress, disability, or dysfunction is also difficult to define. In addition, definitions of abnormality vary not only with culture, but over time. 2. What is the DSM and what is the definition of a mental disorder for the DSM-5? Answer: The DSM is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The DSM is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides information to be used in identifying mental disorders. The DSM does not provide information as to the cause of mental disorders. A mental disorder, according to the DSM-5, is a syndrome that occurs in an individual and involves clinically significant disturbance in behavior, emotion regulation, or cognitive functioning. These disturbances are thought to reflect an underlying biological, psychological, or developmental dysfunction, the consequences of which are clinically significant distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning such as social, occupational, or other activities). It must not be a merely expected response to common stressors and losses (for example the loss of a loved one) or a culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (for example, trance states in religious rituals). It is not primarily a result of social deviance or conflicts with society. 3. Describe the retrospective and prospective research designs. What are the benefits and problems of these designs? Answer: Retrospective: Study people with a disorder by collecting information about their lives before they became sick. Problem is faulty and selective memory, bias on the part of the person and the researcher. Prospective: Find people with high risk of developing a disorder before they have it, measure variables ahead of time and track the person to see who develops the disorder. Problem: Can't know how many will develop the disorder; small sample size. 4. What is an observational research design and how can such an approach further our understanding of abnormal behavior. What limitations are there of such designs and how can these be overcome? Answer: When an observational research design is employed, no manipulation is made, and data is merely gathered on the subject or subjects of interest. A group that is at risk for some disorder or one that has a particular disorder may be studied in order to gather information as to the factors that might influence the development of the disorder or the progression of the disorder. Just as a control group is used in an experiment, a control group must be used when conducting observational research. It is important, however, to recognize that no conclusions can be made about cause and effect. Correlational data, observing that two factors are related, does not permit such conclusions to be made as other factors may be the true cause for the observed relationship. For example, if a researcher observes a correlation between obesity and depression, it can't be concluded that depression causes obesity or that obesity causes depression. While either may be true, it cannot be determined from such data. In addition to these obvious causal connections, there could be additional factors that are causing both problems. Thus, while observational research designs provide information as to how things are related, no conclusions can be made as to cause and effect. 5. Describe the ABAB research design and give an example. Answer: A type of single case research design. A way of using case study to develop and test therapy techniques within a scientific framework. The same subject is studied over time. Phase A - collect information about the subject but don't intervene. Phase B - intervention. Repeating the phases tells whether it is what was done in the B phase that produced any changes. Many possible examples. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology: DSM 5 James N. Butcher, Jill M. Hooley, Susan M. Mineka 9780205965090, 9780205944286

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