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Chapter 9 Motivating, Satisfying, and Leading Employees MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is correct with regard to the opening case entitled “What Do Employees Want”? A) There is a pretty good match between the things that companies provide to employees and what employees want B) Managers generally do not have too much difficulty determining what their workers want C) A study by Sirota Survey Intelligence found that 48 percent of companies had workforces that could be classified as “enthusiastic” D) Most employees begin jobs with considerable enthusiasm, but they lose it because managers have attitudes that depress employee enthusiasm E) All of these are correct Answer: D 2) All of the following are counterproductive behaviours except A) theft. B) sabotage. C) sexual harassment. D) lack of motivation. E) workplace aggression. Answer: D 3) Which of the following statements is true regarding employee behaviour? A) Most employees in similar industries perform similarly B) Employee behaviors contribute directly to productivity and performance C) Employee behaviors contribute indirectly to productivity and performance D) Organizational citizenship behaviors are the total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects employees to display E) Theft and sabotage result in indirect financial costs for an organization Answer: B 4) Organizational citizenship refers to ________. A) employee behavior that contributes to the organization’s bottom line B) behavior of employees who make a positive overall contribution to the organization C) those behaviors that are always easily defined and measured D) those behaviors that detract from organizational performance E) an employee who refuses to work overtime Answer: B 5) Counterproductive behaviors include all of the following except A) absenteeism. B) turnover. C) theft. D) emotionality. E) sexual harassment. Answer: D 6) Personality and attitudes are dimensions of _______. A) emotional intelligence B) individual differences among employees C) agreeableness D) emotionality E) agreeableness Answer: B 7) Agreeableness, emotionality, and extroversion are all part of ________. A) EQ B) emotional intelligence C) personality D) attitude E) organizational commitment Answer: C 8) Self-awareness, empathy, and social skills are all part of ________. A) attitudes B) emotional intelligence C) personality D) self-esteem E) organizational citizenship Answer: B 9) Which statement is true regarding job satisfaction? A) High levels of job satisfaction almost always lead to higher productivity B) High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to higher productivity C) Job satisfaction is sometimes called job commitment D) Job satisfaction is not an attitude E) It is not possible to say anything about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity Answer: B 10) ________ reflects a person’s comfort level with relationships. A) Conscientiousness B) Extraversion C) Agreeableness D) Openness E) Emotionality Answer: B 11) ________ refers to one’s ability to understand how others feel. A) Self-awareness B) Managing emotions C) Empathy D) Agreeableness E) Conscientiousness Answer: C 12) The extent to which people have a positive attitude toward their job is called A) organizational commitment. B) job contentment. C) morale. D) job satisfaction. E) job attitude. Answer: D 13) Terry experiences a high degree of enjoyment from performing his job. The term that identifies this enjoyment is known as A) conscientiousness. B) human relations. C) motivation. D) job satisfaction. E) extroversion. Answer: D 14) What is the meaning of the term "job satisfaction"? A) An action on the part of management which makes the employees believe they are receiving special attention B) Satisfaction with the quality of leadership that employees are receiving C) The overall attitude people have toward their workplace D) The extent to which people have positive attitudes toward their jobs E) None of these Answer: D 15) ________ refers to the extent to which people have positive attitudes toward their jobs, while _______ refers to the overall attitude people have toward their workplace. A) Organizational commitment; morale B) Morale; organizational commitment C) Motivation; human relations D) Job satisfaction; morale E) Morale; job satisfaction Answer: D 16) Compared to workers with high morale and job satisfaction, workers with poor morale and job dissatisfaction are A) more likely to quit. B) more likely to enjoy their job. C) more likely to have reduced absenteeism. D) less productive. E) all of these. Answer: A 17) Compared to workers with high morale and job satisfaction, workers with poor morale and job dissatisfaction are A) more productive. B) more likely to quit. C) more likely to be paid less than others. D) less likely to have a good relationship with the boss. E) more likely to prefer a participative management style. Answer: B 18) Which of the following is not one of the “Big 5” personality traits? A) Agreeableness B) Extroversion C) Conscientiousness D) Emotionality E) Emotional intelligence Answer: E 19) What is a contributing factor to the higher costs experienced by firms with a low level of employee job satisfaction? A) Willingness to work overtime B) Loyalty to organization C) Fewer grievances D) Lower absenteeism E) Turnover rate increases Answer: E 20) What is a contributing factor to the higher costs experienced by firms with a low level of employee job satisfaction? A) Higher salary levels B) Greater willingness to work overtime C) Lower absenteeism D) Increased loyalty to the organization E) Higher turnover rates Answer: E 21) What is the meaning of the term "turnover" when dealing with people in the organization? A) Turnover measures the departure of employees from the organization B) Turnover measures the rate at which the finished goods inventory is sold during the year C) Turnover is the mental attitude about the job D) Turnover reflects the number of grievances submitted by employees E) Turnover measures the profitability of the firm per employee Answer: A 22) The benefits from having satisfied employees include all of the following except A) less productivity. B) harder effort to make a contribution. C) greater commitment to work. D) fewer complaints. E) usually better attendance. Answer: A 23) All of the following are negative consequences due to high levels of turnover except A) high retraining costs. B) disruptions in production. C) decreased productivity. D) less absenteeism. E) numerous vacancies. Answer: D 24) The overall attitude that employees have toward their workplace is called A) morale. B) motivation. C) human relations. D) job satisfaction. E) job placement. Answer: A 25) Which of the following is not an organizational benefit of satisfied workers? A) Fewer grievances B) High turnover C) Increased commitment to the employer D) More loyalty to the organization E) Higher level of effort Answer: B 26) Which of the following is not a cost of employee dissatisfaction? A) High retraining costs B) Decreased productivity C) Disruption of production schedules D) High turnover E) Increased commitment to the organization Answer: E 27) The percentage of an organization's workforce who leaves and must be replaced is referred to as A) sales per employee. B) return of investment. C) absenteeism. D) productivity. E) turnover. Answer: E 28) A(n) ________ contract is the set of expectations held by employees concerning what they will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide in return. A) psychological B) employee C) inducements/contribution D) leadership E) attitudinal Answer: A 29) A good person-job fit is a situation in which ________. A) the employee’s contributions and the company’s inducements balance B) the employee’s contributions slightly exceed the company’s inducements C) the company’s inducements slightly exceed the employee’s contributions D) the person hired for the job is qualified for it E) the person has the right psychological makeup for the job Answer: A 30) Christine is a programmer for a software company. In terms of a psychological contract, her ________ include her education, skills, effort, time, and energy, while her ________ include a good place to work, nice benefits, and a large salary. A) promises; commitments B) commitments; satisfaction C) contributions; inducements D) inducements; contributions E) satisfaction; commitments Answer: C 31) XYZ Enterprises has just downsized, eliminating the middle-management positions into which many entry-level managers had hoped to be promoted. How might this affect XYZ Enterprises? A) Employees at XYZ will likely see fewer inducements B) The psychological contract will likely be easier to manage now C) The person-job fit is likely to be more on target now D) XYZ will likely see more contributions from employees E) There will be little change Answer: A 32) Patricia and Gita were debating the meaning of the term “psychological contract.” Patricia would be correct if her meaning encompassed A) the level of anxiety each employee displays when working. B) the contract signed when taking a stress leave. C) the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide for the employee in return. D) the satisfaction of each employee with regard to their paycheque. E) the emotional role each employee plays in relationship to other employees. Answer: C 33) In terms of psychological contracts, ________ refer to what an employee does for the organization. A) inducements B) contributions C) inputs D) commitments E) promises Answer: B 34) In terms of psychological contracts, ________ refer to what the organization provides to the employee. A) contributions B) commitments C) inducements D) relations E) promises Answer: C 35) Motivation is A) a characteristic in employees over which management has no control. B) the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways. C) a characteristic only of middle and upper management. D) an inner characteristic that employees either have or don't have. E) something that allows management to step aside and let the workers take control. Answer: B 36) The classical theory of motivation says that A) workers are motivated when attention is paid to them by supervisors. B) workers are motivated almost solely by money. C) workers are motivated almost solely by status. D) there are many different factors that contribute to motivation. E) some factors prevent dissatisfaction and some factors contribute to satisfaction. Answer: B 37) Among the flaws of scientific management is that it A) does not recognize the importance of money as a motivator. B) does time-and-motion studies. C) was a success with manual labouring jobs. D) doesn't see that there are factors other than money that contribute to job satisfaction. E) relies too much on input from employees. Answer: D 38) The concept of finding the “one best way” to do a job was a key feature of A) scientific management. B) Herzberg's two-factor theory. C) Maslow's study of human needs. D) the Hawthorne studies. E) expectancy theory. Answer: A 39) Which of the following is correct regarding scientific management? A) Job analysis permitted the breakdown of the jobs into easily repeated tasks, which increased the production rate B) Improved lighting increased the production rate C) Individual workers received lower wages even though their production increased D) Firms permitted their employees to determine how the job would be performed E) All of these Answer: A 40) What conclusions did business managers draw from scientific management? A) Because salary is a hygiene factor, wages do not motivate workers to produce more B) The informal group was relatively unimportant C) Goal setting increased worker output D) Business firms had to provide for food, water, shelter, and sleep for their workers to increase output E) Paying workers a higher wage and redesigning the job into simple tasks would dramatically increase output Answer: E 41) What is the "Hawthorne Effect"? A) The observed effect that pay is an important motivator for workers B) An increase in employee output caused by almost any management action which makes workers believe that they are receiving special attention C) Increased lighting levels caused increased productivity D) It refers to the human need for self-fulfillment E) The discovery that the informal group at work can counteract management objectives Answer: B 42) If managers were to implement lessons learned from the Hawthorne Studies, they would A) eliminate informal groups as they are relatively unimportant. B) pay workers a higher wage as it would cause them to increase their production. C) have managers who used the Theory X principles. D) pay more attention to employees. E) none of these. Answer: D 43) Steve is trying to increase the productivity of his workers. He decides to offer an incentive of 25 cents for each unit over the average number produced in the last 3 weeks. Steve is following the ________ theory of motivation. A) equity B) two-factor C) Theory X D) classical E) hierarchy of needs Answer: D 44) Which theory suggests to managers that they determine how to perform each job most efficiently? A) Litwin's theory of organizational effect B) Equity theory C) The Hawthorne effect D) Scientific management E) Expectancy theory Answer: D 45) What motivates workers, according to the classical theory of scientific management? A) Workers are motivated by desirable working conditions B) Workers are motivated by the amount of social interaction on the job C) There are five levels of human needs with the individual being motivated by a higher level need only after the lower needs have been satisfied D) Workers are motivated by their level of responsibility E) Workers are motivated solely by money Answer: E 46) If workers are motivated by money, paying them more should increase productivity. Which motivational theory is this? A) Maslow's Hierarchy B) Goal setting theory C) Scientific management D) Theory x E) Two factor theory Answer: C 47) Time and motion studies A) are important for Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model. B) determine how best to perform a job most efficiently. C) helped with the Hawthorne studies. D) are crucial for improving human resources. E) are conducted by aerospace engineers. Answer: B 48) What was the original intent of the Hawthorne studies? A) To study the relationships within a hierarchy of human needs B) To examine the relationship between changes in workers' physical environments and worker output C) To measure the impact of employee satisfaction on employee output D) To redesign jobs at the Western Electric Plant E) To assist Henry Ford in the layout of an assembly line Answer: B 49) Research has shown that almost any action on the part of management may lead workers to believe that they are receiving special attention. This is known as A) empowerment. B) the Hawthorne effect. C) the classical theory of management. D) the human relations theory of management. E) time and motion study. Answer: B 50) What was the result of the Hawthorne studies that puzzled the researchers? A) The redesigned jobs made the work easier and faster for the employees B) Worker productivity increased when pay was increased C) Productivity went up when the amount of lighting was increased D) The differential percent pay system was ineffective in increasing productivity E) Increased lighting levels improved productivity, but so did lowering lighting levels Answer: E 51) What conclusions did business managers draw from the Hawthorne studies? A) Managers need to have an equally high concern for production and people B) Paying workers a higher wage would cause them to increase their production C) Paying attention to employees is a good business practice D) The informal group was relatively unimportant E) Using bright lights increases productivity Answer: C 52) The Hawthorne effect is A) the analysis of jobs and finding better, more efficient ways to perform them. B) the tendency for workers' productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management. C) a management approach based on the belief that people must be forced to be productive. D) the paying of workers a set rate for each piece of work produced. E) a management approach based on the belief that people want to be productive. Answer: B 53) David thinks his workers are naturally lazy and uncooperative and must therefore be either punished or rewarded to be made productive. David subscribes to the theory of motivation called A) the hierarchy of needs. B) Theory Y. C) Theory X. D) two-factor theory. E) expectancy theory. Answer: C 54) Kathy believes that her workers are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self-motivated, and interested in being productive. Her beliefs closely parallel the ___________ theory of motivation. A) Theory Y B) Theory X C) two-factor theory D) expectancy theory E) hierarchy of needs Answer: A 55) Which of the following is part of the Theory Y manager's beliefs? A) People naturally resist change B) People are gullible and not very bright C) People are energetic D) People are selfish E) People lack ambition Answer: C 56) Which is the best illustration of a Theory X manager? A) Believes that people's social and esteem needs must be met by the organization B) Believes that people are naturally energetic, responsible, and interested in being productive C) Believes that people are naturally irresponsible, uncooperative, and must be threatened in order to be productive D) Has a high concern for production and an equally high concern for people E) Believes that people want to balance inputs and output Answer: C 57) "Smith! Jones! You good-for-nothing, lazy, freeloading know-it-alls!" This statement exemplifies a ________ approach to motivation. A) expectancy theory B) equity theory C) Theory Y D) hierarchy of needs E) Theory X Answer: E 58) The human-resources model A) is present in all businesses. B) is a five step guideline. C) was developed by Maslow. D) is based on the tendency for workers' productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management. E) was developed by McGregor. Answer: E 59) Theory X assumptions include all of the following except A) people are selfless. B) people resist change. C) people lack ambition and dislike responsibility. D) people are gullible and not very bright. E) people are lazy. Answer: A 60) Theory Y assumptions include all of the following except A) people are energetic. B) people are intelligent. C) people resist change. D) people can be selfless. E) people are ambitious. Answer: C 61) A theory Y manager A) believes that people's social and esteem needs must be met by the organization B) believes that people are naturally irresponsible and must be threatened in order to be productive C) has a high concern for production and an equally high concern for people D) believes that people are naturally cooperative and interested in being productive E) believes that the most important needs are security and esteem needs Answer: D 62) Which of the following is not an assumption of Theory Y management? A) People are intelligent B) People are self-centred C) People seek responsibility D) People are energetic E) People are ambitious Answer: B 63) The Theory Y approach works best for people who A) are motivated by basic needs. B) are naturally energetic and growth oriented. C) are uncooperative and irresponsible. D) have a high concern for salary. E) want to earn a lot of money. Answer: B 64) Which of the following is not a characteristic belief of a Theory X manager? A) People are lazy B) People want to contribute to business growth and change C) People dislike responsibility D) People are not very bright E) People resist change Answer: B 65) Which theory suggests that some managers believe that people are naturally responsible and growth oriented, self motivated, and interested in being productive? A) Maslow's hierarchy of needs B) Litwin's theory of organizational effort C) McGregor's theory D) Herzberg's theory E) Equity theory Answer: C 66) Maslow's hierarchy of needs shows which of the following five needs in order starting from the lowest needs? A) Psychological, esteem, security, self-actualization, and social needs B) Social, physiological, esteem, security, and self-actualization needs C) Physiological, esteem, security, social, and self-actualization needs D) Physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs E) Psychological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs Answer: D 67) Which of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is being addressed by the employer that offers a pension fund to workers? A) Security B) Social C) Physiological D) Retirement E) Self actualization Answer: A 68) In the hierarchy of needs model, all of the following would have to be satisfied before the individual would seek status and a job title except A) a decent pension plan. B) friends at work. C) a decent salary. D) a challenging job. E) a secure place to live. Answer: D 69) The fundamental presumption in Maslow's hierarchy of needs is A) security needs are more important than physiological needs. B) self actualization needs can never really be satisfied. C) social needs are less important than esteem needs. D) a satisfied need is not a motivator. E) social needs are more important than all other needs. Answer: D 70) The most basic needs for food, water, shelter, and sleep were grouped together by Maslow and called A) hygiene factors. B) physiological needs. C) security needs. D) ego needs. E) concern for people. Answer: B 71) What is the highest level of needs in Maslow's hierarchy? A) Self-actualization B) Esteem C) Physiological D) Security E) Safety Answer: A 72) The people who work for Frank are very dissatisfied. Assuming that Maslow’s hierarchy is correct, which of the following actions is the likely best first step to motivate his subordinates? A) Improve their pay and job security B) Restructure their jobs so they are more interesting C) Create more opportunity for subordinates to learn new things D) Institute an "employee of the month" program E) Delegate more responsibility to employees Answer: A 73) Harriet thinks that Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model is very relevant for her workers. She also knows that their physiological needs are being met. What job-related things can she do to satisfy her workers’ concerns about the next level of need? A) Good friends at work B) A respected job title C) A sense of belonging to the company D) Job security E) Challenging job assignments Answer: D 74) How can a business firm help an employee meet self-actualization needs? A) Provide a challenging job B) Provide a wage high enough to buy food and provide for shelter C) Provide a respected job title and a large office D) Offer a social network at the business E) Offer a pension plan Answer: A 75) Which of the following is true about the Hierarchy of Needs theory? A) Once a need has been satisfied it becomes a motivator B) People's individual needs do not vary much C) Lower-level needs must be met before higher-level needs emerge D) Higher-level needs must be met before lower-level needs emerge E) The more a need is satisfied, the more it becomes a motivator Answer: C 76) Samantha is finally publishing her first computer manual. According to Maslow, which need is being met? A) Physiological B) Ego C) Security D) Self-actualization E) Concern for production Answer: D 77) The two-factor theory states that A) there are two aspects to motivation: content, which deals with the content of a job, and environment, which deals with satisfaction. B) there are two aspects to motivation: hygiene’s, which prevent dissatisfaction, and motivators, which contribute to satisfaction C) there are two factors that increase job satisfaction. D) there are two aspects to motivation: hygiene’s, which contribute to satisfaction, and motivators, which prevent dissatisfaction. E) recognition of the completion of a difficult task is an important factor. Answer: B 78) Which theory suggested that certain hygiene factors will affect motivation and satisfaction only if they are absent or do not meet the employee’s expectations? A) Expectancy theory B) Akinura's theory of workplace hygiene C) Herzberg's theory D) Goal setting theory E) McGregor's theory Answer: C 79) Tim tries to motivate his employees by making sure that pay and working conditions meet employee expectations and then providing employees with responsibility and recognition. Tim likely subscribes to the ________ theory of motivation. A) scientific management B) hierarchy of needs C) two-factor D) equity E) expectancy Answer: C 80) Which of the following is a motivating factor in Herzberg's two-factor theory? A) Good supervision B) A challenging job C) Salary D) Company policy E) Social interaction Answer: B 81) Which of the following is not a hygiene factor in Herzberg's two-factor theory? A) Company policies B) Supervision C) Working conditions D) Growth E) Salary Answer: D 82) Regarding the Two-Factor theory, which one of the following statements is true? A) The opposite of dissatisfaction is satisfaction. B) Hygiene factors impact dissatisfaction. C) The opposite of satisfaction is dissatisfaction. D) Hygiene factors deal with the content of the job. E) None of these statements is true Answer: B 83) Which theory is being used by managers who first assure that hygiene factors are acceptable before focusing their attention on motivational factors? A) Equity theory B) Theory X and Y C) Jacob's three-factor theory of motivation D) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs E) Two-factor theory Answer: E 84) It is correct to say about Herzberg's two-factor theory that A) only the presence of money can increase employee job satisfaction. B) Herzberg's hygiene factors are roughly equivalent to Maslow's lower level needs. C) if good hygiene factors are present, an employee will be satisfied. D) if motivation factors are present, an employee will not be dissatisfied. E) it has two parts: Theory X and Theory Y. Answer: B 85) Which of the following is a hygiene factor in Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation? A) Growth B) Responsibility C) Achievement D) Challenge E) Salary Answer: E 86) Larry's subordinates are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. Of the following, which is the best move to create satisfaction among his subordinates, assuming that Larry subscribes to Herzberg’s ideas? A) Improve the company policies on vacation time B) Spend more time with them to get to know them better C) Delegate more responsibility to them D) Get everyone new desks and equipment E) Increase everyone's pay Answer: C 87) Which of the following theories suggest that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining? A) Scientific management B) Equity theory C) Expectancy theory D) Two-factor theory E) Goal-setting theory Answer: C 88) Which of the following helps explain why some people do not work as hard as they can when their salaries are based purely on seniority? A) Two-factor theory B) Maslow's hierarchy of needs C) Scientific management D) Goal-setting theory E) Expectancy theory Answer: E 89) Tina is the most productive employee in her department. When her manager retires, Tina doesn't apply for the job, in spite of her excellent record and the pay and prestige associated with the job. She believes that the job will go to someone who has more seniority. Based on expectancy theory, Tina doesn't apply for the job based on A) the performance-rewards issue. B) her personal goals. C) the effort-performance issue. D) the rewards-personal goals issue. E) none of these. Answer: A 90) Joe wonders, "If I work hard will I get a pay raise?" Joe then concludes that "No, I won't receive a raise." This illustrates A) Theory X. B) scientific theory. C) expectancy theory. D) negative attitudes. E) equity theory. Answer: C 91) Annie offered all her subordinates a free dinner at a well-known Mexican restaurant if they reduced their error rate to 2 percent. The error rate stayed the same and later she found out that no one liked Mexican food. This is an illustration of the ________ theory of motivation. A) equity B) expectancy C) human relations D) two-factor E) hierarchy of needs Answer: B 92) The ________ theory suggests that people are motivated to work towards rewards that they want and that they believe they can obtain. A) two-factor B) hierarchy of Needs C) expectancy D) equity E) human relations Answer: C 93) In which theory does an employee assign a value (relatively desirable or relatively undesirable) to outcomes resulting from various levels of effort? A) Relativity B) Equity C) Expectancy D) Goal setting E) Macintosh's theory of workplace values Answer: C 94) In order to motivate his subordinates, Phil has offered them all a free dinner if they can complete a large project they are working on by the end of the month. But everyone thinks that the input they need won't be received in time for them to complete their report. Phil has ignored a requirement of the ________ theory. A) human relations B) two-factor C) hierarchy of needs D) equity E) expectancy Answer: E 95) The ________ theory focuses on people evaluating their treatment by the organization relative to the treatment of others. A) equity B) hierarchy of Needs C) human Relations D) expectancy E) two-Factor Answer: A 96) A football team signed a rookie defensive back at a higher rate of pay than any of its team veterans were paid. After that, the team almost immediately began to play more poorly. This decline can best be explained using A) goal-setting theory. B) equity theory. C) Maslow's hierarchy of needs. D) two-factor theory. E) expectancy theory. Answer: B 97) Which motivational theory includes the development of an employees' ratio of contribution to return and then compares the ratio to the perceived ratio of other employees? A) Scientific management B) The Grinnell effect C) Hawthorne D) Goal setting E) Equity Answer: E 98) Joe was hired out of college for a starting salary of $55 000 a year. Two months after he started he found out that Nancy was hired at the same time for $65 000. At first he was angry but then he found out that she had five years of previous experience and that she knew two more computer languages than he did. Then he wasn't angry anymore. This illustrates the ________ motivation theory. A) two-factor B) expectancy C) hierarchy of needs D) human relations E) equity Answer: E 99) When people feel inequitably treated they may do all of the following except A) work harder. B) reduce their effort. C) find different people to compare themselves with. D) complain. E) work shorter hours. Answer: A 100) Equity theory says that people analyze their ________ relative to their ________. A) contributions; returns B) theory x; theory y C) motivation factors; hygiene factors D) reinforcement; behaviour modification E) money; benefits Answer: A 101) Pay, praise, promotions, suspensions, and firings are examples of A) reinforcement. B) job enrichment. C) empowerment. D) participation. E) management by objectives. Answer: A 102) ________ is designed to change behavior by presenting people with unpleasant consequences. A) Punishment B) Omission C) Positive reinforcement D) Negative reinforcement E) None of these Answer: A 103) ________ is designed to change behavior by withholding negative consequences if employees exhibit desirable behaviour. A) Punishment B) Omission C) Positive reinforcement D) Negative reinforcement E) None of these Answer: D 104) Which of the following is correct with regard to the box entitled “Employee Engagement: The Ultimate Win-Win”? A) The CEO of I Love Rewards says that the best way to engage employees is to pay them above the industry standard B) Large companies like Microsoft have contracted with I Love Rewards to develop incentive-based packages for their employees C) The CEO of I Love Rewards does all interviewing of prospective employees himself to ensure that they share the vision of I Love Rewards D) I Love Rewards sells questionnaires to companies who want to improve employee morale and productivity E) All of these are correct Answer: B 105) ________ is designed to change behavior by presenting desired consequences when employees exhibit the desired behaviour. A) Punishment B) Omission C) Positive reinforcement D) Negative reinforcement E) None of these Answer: C 106) Marlene is a strong believer in reinforcement as a strategy for motivating people to do good work. She therefore presents desired consequences to employees when they exhibit behaviour she desires. She is using A) punishment. B) omission. C) positive reinforcement. D) negative reinforcement. E) none of these. Answer: C 107) Marshall thinks that the best way to stop undesirable behaviour on the part of his subordinates is to simply ignore it. Marshall is using ________ as a strategy. A) punishment B) omission C) positive reinforcement D) negative reinforcement E) none of these Answer: B 108) Usha thinks that the best way to stop undesirable behaviour is to apply negative consequences to employees who exhibit it. Usha is using A) punishment. B) omission. C) positive reinforcement. D) negative reinforcement. E) none of these. Answer: A 109) Don has started to arrive at work on time in order to avoid getting hollered at by his boss. Don is responding to what reinforcement strategy? A) Punishment B) Omission C) Positive reinforcement D) Negative reinforcement E) None of these Answer: D 110) ________ is designed to change behavior by withholding positive consequences when employees exhibit undesirable behaviour. A) Punishment B) Omission C) Positive reinforcement D) Negative reinforcement E) None of these Answer: B 111) Which theory indicates that behaviour can be encouraged or discouraged by means of rewards or punishments? A) Management by objectives B) Reinforcement/behaviour modification C) Empowerment D) Participative management E) Reverse psychology Answer: B 112) When Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment gives out “good job” cards to employees who do outstanding work. This is an example of what reinforcement strategy? A) Punishment B) Omission C) Positive reinforcement D) Negative reinforcement E) None of these Answer: C 113) The first step in establishing an effective MBO program is to A) establish overall organizational goals. B) communicate organizational goals to subordinates. C) set goals for each subordinate. D) find out what the subordinate's goals are. E) meet with subordinates to establish goals. Answer: A 114) Which is not one of the characteristics of good goals? A) Specific B) Almost impossible to reach C) Time-framed D) Measurable E) Moderately difficult Answer: B 115) Which of the strategies for enhancing job satisfaction is also used as a tool for managing the planning process? A) Management by objectives B) Theory X and Y C) Reinforcement and punishment D) Participative management and empowerment E) Job enrichment Answer: A 116) Which of the following is key to a successful MBO program? A) Punishment B) Job enrichment C) Organizational enrichment D) Collaborative action E) Rewards Answer: D 117) The system of procedures involving both managers and subordinates in setting goals and periodically reviewing progress toward accomplishment of those goals is known as A) reinforcement. B) management by objectives. C) participation. D) job enrichment. E) empowerment. Answer: B 118) Aaron, a sales manager, selects MBO because the biggest advantage is A) creating specific performance evaluation criteria. B) automatic setting of subordinate goals by managers. C) reducing employee turnover. D) increased employee motivation. E) reducing time spent in meetings. Answer: D 119) Which system involves giving employees a voice in how they do their jobs and how the company is managed? A) Management by objectives B) Reinforcement theory C) Participative management and empowerment D) Equity theory E) Expectancy theory Answer: C 120) A management method of increasing employees' job satisfaction by giving them a voice in how they do their jobs is called A) goal setting theory. B) reinforcement theory. C) participative management. D) management by objectives. E) theory X. Answer: C 121) Which of the following is correct with regard to the box entitled “Encouraging Employees To Share Ideas”? A) Research has shown that virtually all employees want to participate and be empowered B) If management would just show an interest, employees would be eager to share their job-related knowledge with management in order to improve productivity C) One study showed that empowerment in the U.S. was negatively related to job satisfaction, but in India it was positively related to job satisfaction D) Some workers don’t share their job-related knowledge because they are convinced that management doesn’t think they have anything to contribute E) All of these are correct Answer: D 122) At WestJet, front-line employees have the right to issue travel credits to customers they feel have not been treated properly. This is an example of A) punishment. B) omission. C) positive reinforcement. D) negative reinforcement. E) empowerment. Answer: E 123) Paying large bonuses to salespeople who exceed quotas is an example of A) job enrichment. B) positive reinforcement. C) participation. D) empowerment. E) management by objectives. Answer: B 124) When management pays workers for each piece or product completed, they are using the ________ strategy. A) job enrichment B) empowerment C) participative D) management by objectives E) reinforcement Answer: E 125) Teams in smaller more flexible organizations have the following benefits A) enhance company wide communication. B) encourage organizational members to feel more a part of the organization. C) higher employee motivation and job satisfaction. D) make decisions more quickly and effectively. E) all of these. Answer: B 126) Which of the following statements about teams is correct? A) Problem-solving teams are based on the idea that the best solutions to problems come when lower-level employees work with top managers B) It has been shown that self-managed teams often exceed the authority that has been given to them by top management C) IBM's development of the personal computer is a good example of a project team D) Research has shown that transnational teams do not work as well as project teams E) Teams provide monetary benefits to workers, but not non-monetary benefits Answer: C 127) At Continental Airlines, flight attendants now have more control over their own scheduling. This is an example of A) an emphasis on company loyalty. B) job redesign. C) participative decision making. D) management by objectives. E) job enrichment. Answer: E 128) Which of the following is a method of increasing job satisfaction by adding one or more motivating factors to job activities? A) Job analysis B) Job redesign C) Job enrichment D) Job expansion E) Telecommuting Answer: C 129) What does a job enrichment program attempt to accomplish? A) It attempts to add one or more motivating factors to the job situation B) It enriches the individual with a cash bonus for exceeding a quota C) It provides employees with a voice in how to do their jobs D) It provides an opportunity for employees and managers to meet and set goals for the coming year E) It helps to improve the worker by creating natural work groups and combining tasks Answer: A 130) Which of the following is not a typical method of implementing a job redesign? A) Combining tasks B) Forming natural work groups C) Enlarging jobs and increasing their variety D) Establishing client relationships E) Permitting workers to set their working hours Answer: E 131) Job redesign programs A) motivate individuals with a high need for growth or achievement. B) provide for rewards through reinforcement of desirable work behaviour. C) permit two workers to share a single full-time job. D) increase participative management within the organization. E) facilitate the introduction of flex time into the organization. Answer: A 132) In order to help increase Lee's job satisfaction, he has been given additional responsibilities in the dining area. This is an example of A) combining tasks. B) natural work grouping. C) job redesign. D) compressed work. E) job enrichment. Answer: E 133) When software writers at Microsoft got to watch test users work with programs and discuss problems with them, this was an example of A) combining tasks. B) work sharing. C) forming natural work groups. D) establishing client relationships. E) flex time programs. Answer: D 134) When the job done by a programmer who maintains computer systems is modified to include some systems design and systems development tasks, this is an example of A) flex time programs. B) work sharing. C) establishing client relationships. D) combining tasks. E) forming natural work groups. Answer: D 135) The strategy to add one or more motivating factors to job activities is called A) participation. B) behaviour modification. C) job enrichment. D) job redesign. E) management by objectives. Answer: C 136) The method of increasing job satisfaction by changing tasks to achieve a better fit between workers and their jobs is called A) job redesign. B) work share. C) management by objectives. D) job enrichment. E) job rotation. Answer: A 137) When the new product manager creates a subsystem team composed of the mechanical engineer, manufacturing manager, purchasing manager, and the marketing manager, this is an example of A) establishing client relationships. B) flex time programs. C) forming natural work groups. D) combining tasks. E) work sharing. Answer: C 138) Marsha appreciated several things about her job including her choice in scheduling the hours she worked. This is an example of motivating employees through A) Maslow’s Workplace Redesign. B) flex time. C) inflated workweek. D) core time motivational training. E) compressed workweek. Answer: B 139) Joe can choose four, five, or six days on which to work each week. This is an example of A) work sharing. B) telecommuting. C) job redesign. D) virtual offices. E) flex time. Answer: E 140) Bob's work week consists of four ten hour days. Bob is working a A) compressed work week. B) flex time work week. C) new age work week. D) partial work week. E) reduced work week. Answer: A 141) Which of the following is correct with regard to the box entitled “The Four-Day Workweek and Telecommuting: Are They Really Green”? A) The four-day workweek reduces gas consumption because workers only drive to work four days a week instead of five B) The four-day workweek means less electricity use because the businesses that use it are only open four days a week instead of five C) Telecommuting is a less environmentally-friendly approach than the four-day workweek D) Whether the four-day workweek is environmentally-friendly depends on what workers do on their day off E) All of these are correct Answer: D 142) Employees at CRT, Inc. are permitted to set their own working hours around a daily core time period; this is known as A) job sharing. B) quality circles. C) flex time. D) participative management. E) MBO. Answer: C 143) A compressed workweek A) is a modified work schedule. B) allows two people to share one job. C) is criticized for causing stress. D) involves employees working less hours. E) allows employees to do all or some of their work away from the office. Answer: A 144) Steve outfitted a room in his home with a modem-equipped personal computer with fax capabilities. He contacts customers even though he is 350 miles away from the corporate offices. Steve is an example of A) telecommuting. B) the virtual office. C) flex time. D) work sharing. E) job redesign. Answer: A 145) An obstacle in telecommuting programs is A) showing up for work on time. B) increased travel times. C) convincing managers that they can still get things done and meet deadlines. D) convincing managers that some time will be spent on family relations. E) availability of networked computers, fax machines, cellular telephones, and overnight delivery services. Answer: C 146) An example of ________ is when one person works mornings and another person works afternoons on the same job. A) flex time B) virtual offices C) work sharing D) job redesign E) telecommuting Answer: C 147) A modified work schedule which permits two or more employees to work part-time while filling a single full-time job is known as A) a quality circle. B) flex time. C) job cycling. D) work sharing. E) job enlargement. Answer: D 148) The __________ strategy allows employees to set their own working hours around a daily core time period. A) flex time B) quality circles C) participative management D) job enrichment E) job sharing Answer: A 149) Bill's employer allows him to work hours that allow him to pick his daughter up at school. Bill modified work schedule is called A) work share. B) telecommuting. C) empowerment. D) job sharing. E) flex time. Answer: E 150) Tricia performs some of her job duties at home and some days all of her job duties are performed away from her standard office setting. This is called A) flex time. B) job redesign. C) telecommuting. D) virtual offices. E) work share. Answer: C 151) Leadership is A) the process of motivating others to work to meet specific objectives. B) monitoring an organization's performance to ensure that it is meeting its goals. C) a method of increasing job satisfaction by designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs. D) determining what an organization needs to do and how best to get it done. E) determining how best to arrange an organization's resources into a coherent structure. Answer: A 152) Which of the following is not an activity of leaders? A) Developing a vision for the future B) Communicating a vision to followers C) Energizing people to overcome resource barriers D) Monitoring actual results to see if they conform to planned results E) Producing change Answer: D 153) Leadership A) refers to a manager choosing one alternative from among several options. B) refers to both processes and behaviors used by someone to motivate, inspire, and influence the behavior of others. C) means essentially the same thing as management. D) focuses on outlining procedures, creating structure, monitoring results, and working toward tangible outcomes. E) none of these. Answer: B 154) Managers focus on plans, results, and goals, whereas leaders focus on _________. A) productivity B) profitability C) people D) sales E) controlling for results Answer: C 155) Terrence was chosen by his teammates to head the fund drive just because he lives closest to the ballpark. Terrell has emerged as ________. A) a formal leader B) a virtual leader C) an informal leader D) a charismatic leader E) a scapegoat Answer: C 156) _________ is most necessary to achieve coordination and systematic results and to handle administrative activities during times of stability, while ___________ is most necessary to create and direct change and to help the organization get through tough times. A) Leadership; management B) Management; leadership C) Contingency management; crisis management D) Systematic decision making; intuition E) Formal leadership; informal leadership Answer: B 157) ____________ lead for stability; _______________ lead for change. A) Managers; leaders B) Leaders; managers C) Participative managers; autocratic managers D) Transformational leaders; transactional leaders E) None of these Answer: A 158) The earliest research on leadership focused on __________. A) leadership behaviors B) leadership traits C) leadership situations D) gender differences E) the impact of leadership on productivity Answer: B 159) Ben interviewed two applicants. In the interviews, he tried to determine each applicant’s level of energy and level of self-esteem. Ben was trying to apply the __________ approach to leadership. A) charismatic B) behavioral C) trait D) transformational E) situational Answer: C 160) An autocratic management style A) is proposed by McGregor as ideal. B) is always liked by employees. C) is used only in small businesses. D) allows for rapid decision making. E) is never appropriate. Answer: D 161) The management style most frequently associated with a battlefield commander is A) free-rein. B) reinforcement. C) democratic. D) autocratic. E) contingency. Answer: D 162) His boss has just informed Carlos that the new product demonstration scheduled for next week has just been moved to tomorrow. Unfortunately, Carlos and his subordinates have not started to put together their demonstration. The management style that Carlos would find best under these conditions is probably A) autocratic. B) democratic. C) contingency. D) reinforcement. E) free-rein. Answer: A 163) Scott manages a software development group. He has asked two of his subordinates to accompany him and a prospective new employee to lunch. He wants their opinions but he will make the final decision. Scott is using the ________ management style. A) contingency B) reinforcement C) autocratic D) free-rein E) democratic Answer: E 164) The Field Service department has just reported a potentially disastrous problem in a recently launched product. The Engineering VP has called an emergency meeting with department heads and specialized staff. Which management style is most likely to lead to the best solution? A) Reinforcement B) Contingency C) Autocratic D) Free-rein E) Democratic Answer: C 165) Linda is the chairperson of a volunteer committee to raise funds for a new library. The management style that she will most likely find to be most effective is the ________ style. A) democratic B) free-rein C) autocratic D) reinforcement E) contingency Answer: B 166) Managers who issue orders and expect them to be obeyed without question have adopted which one of the following styles? A) Two-factor style B) Free-rein style C) Democratic style D) Contingency style E) Autocratic style Answer: E 167) Which of the following managerial styles would be most useful in a situation testing a firm's effectiveness as a time-based competitor? A) Consultative B) Contingency C) Free-rein D) Democratic E) Autocratic Answer: E 168) Which of the following statements best describes the autocratic approach to managerial style? A) Be direct and tell people what you expect B) Pay employees well and they will work hard C) Involve your employees in every decision D) The best solution will depend upon the situation E) Allow employees the freedom to be creative Answer: A 169) When the manager of a technical group asks other group members about a job applicant, but ultimately makes the hiring decision, the manager is practicing which of the following styles? A) Free-rein B) Democratic C) Dictatorial D) Contingency E) Autocratic Answer: B 170) Which of the following statements best describes the democratic leadership style? A) Involve your employees in every decision B) Pay employees well and they will work hard C) Be direct and tell people what you expect D) The best solution will depend upon the situation E) Allow employees the freedom to be creative Answer: A 171) Managers who adopt which of the following styles typically serve as advisers to subordinates who are allowed to make decisions? A) Democratic B) Free-rein C) Autocratic D) Editorial E) Dictatorial Answer: B 172) Mary has just been appointed as chairperson of a volunteer committee to raise funds for a new local museum. She will likely find which of the following styles to be most effective? A) Autocratic B) Free-rein C) Democratic D) Dictatorial E) Exploratory Answer: B 173) Which of the following statements best describes the free-rein leadership style? A) Pay employees well and they will work hard B) Allow employees the freedom to be creative C) Involve your employees in every decision D) The best solution will depend upon the situation E) Be direct and tell people what you expect Answer: B 174) The situational approach to leadership means that a manager should A) use a democratic style when a rapid decision has to be made. B) use an autocratic style when a rapid decision has to be made. C) shift his or her managerial style based upon the situation that the manager faces. D) use a free-rein style when managing a group of inexperienced, young workers. E) use an autocratic style when managing a group of technicians. Answer: C 175) Researchers of the behavioral approach to leadership assumed that _____. A) behaviors of effective and ineffective leaders are similar B) behaviors of effective leaders are the same in all situations C) the trait approach to leadership was valid D) behaviors of leaders were caused because the leaders had certain traits E) leaders could not change their leadership style in different situations Answer: B 176) Bill’s current leadership approach is to “sell” decisions that he makes to his subordinates. If he wants to move one step in the direction of more freedom for subordinates, how should he change his style? A) Present tentative decision subject to change B) Present problem, get suggestions, and then make the decision C) Define limits, ask group to make decision D) Make the decision and announce it E) Present idea and invite questions Answer: E 177) A new manager faces low productivity in her department. Some of the employees are satisfied and some are not. On what should the new manager most likely focus to improve productivity? A) Virtual leadership B) Task-oriented leader behaviors C) Strategic leadership D) Employee-oriented leader behaviors E) Ethical leadership Answer: B 178) A new manager observes high productivity in her department, yet her employees have low levels of job satisfaction. On what should this manager most likely concentrate in order to improve job satisfaction? A) Virtual leadership B) Task-oriented leader behaviors C) Strategic leadership D) Employee-oriented leader behaviors E) Ethical leadership Answer: D 179) At Nordic Enterprises, Johann Ruud is most effective in carrying out the management of daily tasks that must be performed. Which of the following approaches most likely characterizes Johann’s management style? A) Charismatic B) Transactional C) Transformational D) Situational E) Ethical Answer: B 180) Transactional leadership is essentially the same as __________, while transformational leadership is closer to the notion of ____________. A) leadership; management B) controlling; planning C) management; leadership D) organizing; planning E) participative management; autocratic management Answer: C 181) Virtual leadership likely results in ________. A) employees working in the same physical location B) more face-to-face communication among employees C) telecommuting D) little communication among employees E) lower motivation on the part of employees Answer: C 182) Which of the following is a prominent feature of virtual leadership? A) Interpreting body language B) Communicating with subordinates by phone calls and email C) Strategic planning D) Welcoming diversity E) Face-to-face communication Answer: B 183) Japan is characterized by _________, whereas Canada is characterized by ___________. A) an emphasis on leadership traits; an emphasis on leadership behaviours B) individualism; collectivism C) an emphasis on leadership behaviours; an emphasis on leadership traits D) collectivism; individualism E) gender bias; no gender bias Answer: D 184) Charismatic leaders do all of the following except A) set high expectations for themselves. B) structure the work of subordinates so they will be efficient in carrying out their tasks. C) energize others by demonstrating personal excitement. D) empathize with others. E) express confidence in others. Answer: B 185) In a move to become less hierarchical, many organizations have eliminated the old-fashioned command and control mentality. This is most consistent with the idea of __________. A) leaders as coaches B) transaction leadership C) situational leadership D) trait leadership E) substitutes for leadership Answer: A 186) In referring to cross-cultural leadership, culture refers to ________. A) international differences B) diversity-based differences within one culture C) international differences and diversity-based differences within one culture D) neither international differences nor diversity-based differences within one culture E) the difficulty of leadership working at all in some cultures Answer: C 187) Recent corporate scandals at firms like Enron have called for more attention to ___________. A) virtual leadership B) ethical leadership C) strategic leadership D) charismatic leadership E) participative management Answer: B 188) Transactional leadership most often involves __________. A) the creation of a vision to guide change B) envisioning likely future trends C) routine activities D) recognizing the need for change E) energizing others by demonstrating personal excitement Answer: C 189) Which statement is correct regarding charismatic leadership? A) Charismatic leadership ideas are unpopular among contemporary managers B) Many studies have examined the impact of charismatic leadership C) Ethical concerns about charismatic leadership trouble some people D) Taking over a leadership role from a charismatic leader is typically easier than following a leader lacking in charisma E) All of these Answer: C 190) Which of the following is correct with regard to male and female leadership? A) Female leaders are more nurturing than male leaders B) Male leaders have a tendency to be more autocratic than females leaders C) Male leaders are harsher than female leaders D) Male leader are more task-focused than female leaders E) All of these Answer: B 191) In exercising strategic leadership, what is a leader most likely to do? A) Focus on company efficiency B) Focus on company profitability C) Align the company with its environment D) Avoid environmental impact on the firm E) It is not possible to say with the information given Answer: C 192) Which of the following is true about Canadian and American managers? A) Canadians usually use a democratic style while Americans prefer an autocratic style B) Americans are more committed to their companies C) Americans seem to be more willing to follow the latest management fad D) Americans are more open to different cultures E) Americans are more subtle than Canadians Answer: C TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 193) Employee behaviors are also called performance behaviors; these behaviors contribute directly to company productivity. Answer: True 194) Employees who are frequently absent for minor illnesses, personal reasons, or a general desire to avoid work are likely expressing their dissatisfaction with the job. Answer: True 195) An unusually high turnover rate may be the signal needed for a manager to begin an inquiry into the level of job satisfaction within the company. Answer: True 196) The benefits of organizational citizenship are more indirect than the benefits of performance behaviours. Answer: True 197) Emotional intelligence does not play a role in employee personality. Answer: False 198) Employees who are satisfied with their job usually have fewer grievances, are more likely to come to work each day, and remain with the company for a longer period of time. Answer: True 199) Job satisfaction is the attitude that employees have about their workplace. Answer: False 200) High levels of job satisfaction generally lead to higher levels of productivity. Answer: False 201) Empathy is one dimension of emotional intelligence. Answer: True 202) Employees usually experience either job satisfaction or high morale about their job, but not both. Answer: False 203) Job satisfaction means the extent to which employees have positive attitudes about their jobs. Answer: True 204) Morale is the degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs. Answer: False 205) High morale in the workforce is likely to lead to high turnover. Answer: False 206) Highly committed employees overlook minor sources of dissatisfaction. Answer: True 207) If an employee senses inequity in the psychological contract, he/she may look for a better job elsewhere. Answer: True 208) All organizations face the basic challenge of managing psychological contracts. Answer: True 209) A psychological contract is a person’s set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return. Answer: True 210) A good person-job fit is one in which the employee’s contributions match the inducements the organization offers. Answer: True 211) In terms of a psychological contract, inducements represent what employees will contribute to an organization. Answer: False 212) Classical motivation theory assumes that workers are motivated solely by money. Answer: True 213) According to the classical theory of motivation, attention from the supervisor is more of a motivator than money. Answer: False 214) The Hawthorne studies confirmed the scientific management viewpoint that worker productivity was a direct result of higher pay. Answer: False 215) The Hawthorne effect is the tendency for workers to be more productive when they believe that they are receiving special attention from management. Answer: True 216) Following the Hawthorne studies, managers realized that they had to focus more on money and other tangible motivators in the workplace. Answer: False 217) The researchers studying the Hawthorne Works concluded that productivity rose in response to almost any management action that workers interpreted as special attention. Answer: True 218) Managers who subscribe to Theory X tend to believe that people are naturally lazy and uncooperative. Answer: True 219) Managers who believe in Theory Y are more likely to have satisfied, motivated employees. Answer: True 220) Theory X managers believe that people are naturally lazy, uncooperative, lack ambition, resist change, and are gullible and not very bright. Answer: True 221) Abraham Maslow formulated the Hierarchy of Needs model that stated that people have a number of different needs that they attempt to satisfy in their work. Answer: True 222) Abraham Maslow is best known for his theory about the hierarchy of human needs which states that lower level needs must be met before a person will seek to meet higher level needs. Answer: True 223) The most basic needs in Maslow's hierarchy, which includes food, water, and shelter, are known as the security needs. Answer: False 224) Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are the two elements of the Two-Factor Theory. Answer: False 225) Working conditions is one of the motivation factors in Herzberg's two-factor theory of employee motivation. Answer: False 226) Two-factor theory states that hygiene factors affect motivation and satisfaction only if they are absent or fail to meet expectations. Answer: False 227) According to Herzberg, the opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction. Answer: True 228) Herzberg's motivating factors include salary (pay) as one of the primary motivational factors. Answer: False 229) Expectancy theory states that people compare what they contribute to their job with what they get in return compared to others. Answer: False 230) Rewards will not work as a motivator if people do not want the rewards offered by the company. Answer: True 231) Expectancy theory states that if people expect to get rewarded and don't receive it, lower morale and dissatisfaction will follow. Answer: False 232) For an individual to feel equitably treated, the input/outcome ratio must be about the same as the other individual’s ratio with whom he or she is comparing. Answer: True 233) The fundamental assumption of equity theory is that workers prefer a workplace where all employees are paid equally. Answer: False 234) Equity theory focuses on the identification of key factors that must be present in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Answer: False 235) Equity theory focuses on social comparisons and people evaluating their treatment by the organization relative to the treatment of others. Answer: True 236) When people feel they are being inequitably treated, they may ask for raises, reduce their effort or work shorter hours. Answer: True 237) Reinforcement includes both rewards and punishments. Answer: True 238) Omission means withholding positive consequences when employees exhibit undesirable behaviours. Answer: True 239) Negative reinforcement means withholding negative consequences when employees exhibit desired behaviours. Answer: True 240) Most managers favour punishment as a method to modify employee behaviour because it is more effective in spite of being less enjoyable to administer. Answer: False 241) Management by objectives is concerned mainly with helping managers implement and carry out their plans. Answer: True 242) Goal-setting theory describes the kinds of goals that better motivate employees. Answer: True 243) Participative management is a popular motivational tool because it promises a financial gain for the employees who are given a share of the profit earned by the firm. Answer: False 244) Participative management helps to make employees feel more committed to the goals of the organization because they help shape them. Answer: True 245) Participative management involves giving employees a voice in how they do their jobs and how the company is managed. Answer: True 246) Job enrichment and job redesign programs are used to increase satisfaction by putting motivating factors into jobs where the job itself is lacking. Answer: True 247) Job enrichment and job redesign can increase job satisfaction if the job lacks motivational factors. Answer: True 248) One of the ways to increase job satisfaction through job redesign is to combine tasks. Answer: True 249) Flextime programs failed as a tool to improve job satisfaction because of the extra burden placed on the supervisor. Answer: False 250) Flextime programs allow people to pick their own working hours thus permitting some individuals to work at night and others to work during the day. Answer: False 251) In a compressed work week employees work fewer days per week but more hours per day. Answer: True 252) In a typical flex time schedule there are hours which the employee must be on the job and the remaining hours are up to the employee to select. Answer: True 253) Allowing people to do some or all of their work away from the office is a new form of flex time known as subordinate-centred leadership. Answer: False 254) Leadership is the process of influencing people so that they are motivated to behave in ways that help to achieve the firm's objectives. Answer: True 255) Leadership and management mean essentially the same thing. Answer: False 256) Managers tend to focus on monitoring results and correcting deviations, whereas leaders tend to focus on energizing people to help reach goals. Answer: True 257) All managers are leaders but not all leaders are managers. Answer: False 258) Organizations need both leadership and management if they are to be effective. Answer: True 259) An autocratic manager may be successful when faced with a job in need of a quick decision. Answer: True 260) In the democratic managerial style subordinates are asked to vote on which alternative is the best, with the alternative getting the most votes being selected. Answer: False 261) The situational (contingency) approach to managing states that a manager should always have a backup plan (a contingent plan) just in case the first plan doesn't work. Answer: False 262) The trait approach to leadership proved to be inconsistent. Answer: True 263) The behavioral approach to leadership assumes that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another. Answer: False 264) Women tend to be more democratic when making decisions, whereas men tend to be more autocratic. Answer: True 265) Transformational leadership involves managing change. Answer: True 266) Strategic leadership may be seen as an extension of transactional leadership. Answer: False 267) Virtual leadership occurs most successfully in situations in which communication between the leader and the subordinates is infrequent. Answer: False 268) Leaders spend part of their time adopting either transformational or transactional perspectives, depending on their circumstances. Answer: False 269) Few studies have specifically attempted to test the meaning and impact of charismatic leadership. Answer: True 270) Most leadership theories and studies have focused on gender differences. Answer: False 271) Female leaders tend to be more nurturing and supportive than male leaders. Answer: False 272) Male leaders are typically more task-focused than female leaders. Answer: False SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 273) What are performance behaviours? Answer: The behaviours that relate directly to performing a job. 274) What is organizational citizenship? Answer: Behaviour that provides benefits to the organization, but in more indirect ways than job performance (for example, by being willing to work overtime). 275) What is personality? Answer: The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another. 276) List and briefly discuss the “big five” personality traits. Answer: agreeableness (ability to get along with others) , conscientiousness (being systematic, careful, responsible, and self-disciplined) , emotionality (the degree to which people tend to be positive or negative in their outlook) , extraversion (sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness) , and openness (refers to how open or rigid a person is in his or her beliefs). 277) What is meant by emotional intelligence? Answer: Emotional intelligence refers to the extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills. 278) What is job satisfaction? Answer: it reflects the extent to which people have positive attitudes about their jobs (a closely related concept—morale—refers to the overall attitude people have toward their workplace) 279) What is a psychological contract? Answer: the set of expectations held by a nemployee concerning what he or she will contributed to an organization. 280) When is a person-job fit considered to be good? Answer: A good person-job fit is one in which the employee's contributions match the inducements the organization offers. 281) What is the only factor motivating workers according to the classical theory of motivation? Answer: Money. 282) How does the classical theory of motivation differ from the Hawthorne studies? Answer: According to the classical theory of motivation, workers are motivated solely by money. Taylor reasoned that if workers are motivated by money, then paying them more should prompt them to produce more. Researchers studying the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric found unexpected results. In this study, increase pay failed to increase productivity. The researchers found that productivity rose in response to almost any management action that workers interpreted as special attention. Known as the Hawthorne effect, this finding had a major influence on human relations theory. 283) What is the Hawthorne effect? Answer: The Hawthorne effect is the finding that productivity rises in response to almost any management action that workers interpret as special attention. 284) What term did Douglas McGregor use to describe management assumptions that workers are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self-motivated, and interested in being productive? Answer: Theory Y. 285) List the five levels of needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, from lowest to highest. Answer: Physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization. 286) What are the motivational factors in Herzberg's two factor theory? Answer: Recognition, the work itself, responsibility, achievement, and growth. 287) According to the two-factor theory, how should managers enhance motivation? Answer: According to this theory, managers should follow a two-step approach to enhance motivation. First, managers must ensure that hygiene factors are acceptable because this will reduce dissatisfaction. Then they must offer motivational factors because these will improve satisfaction and motivation. 288) How does expectancy theory claim to explain employee motivation? Answer: Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated to work towards rewards that they want, and that they believe they have a reasonable chance (expectancy) of obtaining. Expectancy theory states that a number of issues must be considered for individuals to exert high effort. The individual must expect that high effort will result in high individual performance, and thereby organizational rewards. Finally, the individual must expect that the organizational reward will meet their personal goals. 289) How are equity theory and the psychological contract related? Answer: In both situations, employees compare a ratio of contribution to return. With equity theory, one employee compares his or her ratio with another employee's ratio. The psychological contract is a set of expectations between the organization and the individual about contributions and returns. 290) What are the hygiene factors in Herzberg's two factor theory? Answer: Hygiene factors include supervisors, working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay, security, and company policies and administration. 291) What is behaviour modification? Answer: With behavior modification, companies try to control, alter, or modify workers' behavior through systematic rewards and punishments for specific behaviours. 292) List three common ways to implement job redesign. Answer: Combining tasks, forming natural work groups, and establishing client relationships. 293) What is the difference between job enrichment and job redesign? Answer: Job redesign is the more general term, and refers to the restructuring work to achieve a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs. Job redesign can motivate individuals with strong needs for career growth or achievement. Job enrichment is a specific idea which involves adding one or more motivating factors to job activities. 294) What is a flex time program? Answer: Flex time is a method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust their work schedules on a daily or weekly basis. 295) What is one of the advantages of team management? Answer: Increased motivation and enhanced job satisfaction among those employees working in teams. 296) Under what conditions might the use of work teams be inappropriate? Answer: Although many employees enjoy working in teams, such programs are not always appropriate. Work teams may not be appropriate when workers perform repetitive, highly specialized tasks. Paying workers based on team productivity could result in resentment on the part of faster workers when slower workers reduce the group's total output. Slower workers might resent the pressure put on them by faster coworkers. 298) What is involved in participative management and empowerment? Answer: It means tapping into workers’ knowledge about the job, encouraging them to be self-motivated, to encourage them to make suggestions for improvements, and giving them more authority and responsibility so that they feel they are a real part of the company’s success. 299) What is leadership? Answer: It is the processes and behaviours used by managers to motivate, inspire, and influence the behaviour of others to meet objectives. 300) List the three basic managerial styles. Answer: Autocratic, democratic, and free-rein. 301) How have managerial styles changed as organizations have become flatter and workers more empowered? Answer: Managers have shifted from an autocratic to a more democratic style. 302) What is the essence of the trait approach to leadership? Answer: The attempt to find a set of traits that would distinguish leaders from non-leaders. 303) What was the goal of the behavioural approach to leadership? Answer: To determine how the behaviours of effective leaders differed from the behaviours of less effective leaders. 304) What is the essence of the situational approach to leadership? Answer: That appropriate leader behaviours differ from one situation to another. 305) What is charismatic leadership? Answer: a type of influence based on a leader’s personal charisma. 306) What are the three characteristics typically exhibited by charismatic leaders? Answer: they are able to envision future trends and patterns, they are able to energize others by demonstrating personal excitement, and they enable others by supporting them. 307) What is ethical leadership? Answer: maintaining high ethical standards and to hold followers to the same high standards. 308) What is virtual leadership? Answer: leadership that is practiced even when leaders and followers do not interact on a face-to-face basis. ESSAY QUESTIONS. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 309) Differentiate between performance behaviours, organizational citizenship behaviours, and counterproductive behaviours. Answer: Performance behaviours directly contribute to productivity and performance. Organizational citizenship behaviours are behaviours that make a positive overall contribution to the organization; such behaviors are often observed when employees go above and beyond what is expected of them. Counterproductive behaviours detract from performance and actually cost the organization. 310) What is emotional intelligence? Why is it important for employees in organizations? Answer: emotional intelligence refers to the extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, can express empathy for others, and possess social skills. People with high emotional intelligence may perform better than others, especially in jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction or that require directing others. These activities are obviously very important to the smooth functioning of organizations. 311) Why is employee job satisfaction important to a manager? What are the benefits when employees are satisfied with their jobs? What happens when employees are not satisfied? Answer: • satisfied workers are: • more likely to work hard and try to make useful contributions to the organization • fewer grievances • less negative behaviours • come to work daily • remain with the organization • dissatisfied workers are: • more likely to be absent due to minor illness etc. • have higher turnover • numerous vacancies • disruption in production • decreased productivity • high retraining costs 312) What are the key features of the psychological contract? Answer: A psychological contract is a person's set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what it will provide in return. An individual makes a variety of contributions to the organization; contributions can include effort, skills, ability, time, and loyalty. In return for these contributions, the organization provides inducements to the individual; these inducements can include pay, career opportunities, job security, status, etc. All organizations face the basic challenge of managing psychological contracts: They want value from their employees and they need to give employees the right inducements. Recent trends in downsizing and cutbacks have complicated the process of managing psychological contracts. In addition, globalization of business is also a challenge. 313) Outline the basic characteristics of the classical theory of motivation. Can this theory be used today by business firms? Explain. Answer: • workers motivated solely by money • meant that managers had to design the work process in such a way as to recognize this motivation for money • important to realize that factors other than money often contribute to job satisfaction • examples of the other views are: • results of Hawthorne Studies • expectancy theory • Theory X and Y • equity theory • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs • goal setting theory • two-factor theory 314) Explain the Hawthorne Effect, including why it is important, and the management theory that grew out of this work. Answer: workers respond not to just money they respond to management attention, it led to the Behavioural Theory of management 315) Describe the Human-Resources Model of motivational theory and identify its author. Answer: • Theory X, Theory Y • fundamental beliefs about people and their attitudes • for Theory X managers, people are lazy, lack ambition, self-centred, resist change, are gullible and not very bright • for Theory Y managers, people are just the opposite • proposed by Douglas McGregor 316) What are the characteristics of a manager with a Theory X belief about people? How does this differ from one who has a Theory Y belief about people? Answer: • see Table 10.1 Theory X: Managers believe employees are inherently lazy, avoid responsibility, and need strict supervision. They favor control and coercion to motivate. Theory Y: Managers believe employees are self-motivated, seek responsibility, and can be creative. They empower and trust employees to achieve goals autonomously. 317) Who developed the Hierarchy of Needs model? Describe this theory. Answer: • proposed by Abraham Maslow • five levels of needs (physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization) • as needs are satisfied people move to higher level needs • a satisfied need is not a motivator 318) Identify and describe the needs at each level of Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. How can managers use these needs to achieve business goals? Answer: • see Fig. 9.3 Maslow's hierarchy includes: 1. Physiological needs: Basic requirements like food and shelter. 2. Safety needs: Security, stability, and protection. 3. Social needs: Belonging, relationships, and acceptance. 4. Esteem needs: Recognition, respect, and achievement. 5. Self-actualization: Fulfilling potential and personal growth. Managers can align business goals by addressing these needs through fair wages (physiological), job security (safety), team-building (social), recognition (esteem), and opportunities for development (self-actualization). 319) Describe the motivating factors of Herzberg's two-factor theory. What is the role of salary and working conditions in Herzberg's theory of job satisfaction? Answer: • hygiene factors—such as working conditions • motivating factors—such as recognition for a job well done • motivation factors (satisfaction) : • achievement • recognition • the work itself • responsibility • advancement and growth • hygiene factors (dissatisfaction) : • working conditions • interpersonal relations • pay and security • company policies and administration 320) What is the two-factor theory and who proposed it? Answer: • proposed by Frederick Herzberg • hygiene factors (supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay and security, company policies) create or prevent dissatisfaction • motivating factors (achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth) create or prevent satisfaction 321) What are the basic assumptions inherent in equity theory? Answer: • people evaluate the ratio of contribution to return for them • then they compare the ratio to other employees to make sure that it is fair 322) How do expectancy theory and equity theory differ? Answer: Expectancy theory assumes that people are motivated by outcomes that they see as desirable and achievable, while equity theory assumes that people are motivated after they compare their own input/outcome ratio with the input/outcome ratio of their comparison other. 323) What is reinforcement theory and how would a manager apply it? Answer: • used to modify worker's behaviour by: • offering positive reinforcement (rewards) for behaviour it wishes to continue • negative reinforcement (punishment) for those behaviours it wishes to stop 324) Describe employee participation and empowerment and provide an example. Answer: • It involves tapping into worker’s knowledge about the job, encouraging them to be self-motivated, to make suggestions for improving work processes, and giving workers more authority and responsibility. It means motivating and energizing employees to create high quality products and to provide bend-over-backwards services to customers to increase the organizations competitiveness • at Westjet front line employees can issue travel credits to customers they feel have not been treated well 325) What is an MBO program and what are the major benefits of such a program? Answer: • MBO is an acronym for Management by Objectives • it is a system of collaborative goal setting that involves managers and subordinates in setting mutually acceptable goals • the benefits are: • improved motivation • more team oriented behaviour • commitment to corporate objectives 326) Briefly describe job redesign and identify the three major ways of implementing it. Answer: • methods to increase job satisfaction by designing a better fit between workers and their jobs • done by: • combining tasks • forming natural work groups • establishing client relationships 327) Describe the modified work schedule programs which a business may implement to increase employee job satisfaction. Answer: • flex time: increases job satisfaction by allowing them some choice in the hours they work • compressed workweek: employees work fewer days/week but more hours on the days they do work • telecommuting: allowing employees to do all or some of their work away from the office • work sharing: method of increasing employee job satisfaction by allowing two people to share one job 328) How is “leadership” different from “management”? Answer: Leadership refers to the processes and behaviours used by managers to motivate, inspire, and influence the behaviour of others to meet objectives. Management refers to the action of carrying out the functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Table 10.1 summarizes the differences between leaders and managers. 329) Briefly describe what managerial styles are, and then identify the three major types. Answer: • patterns of behaviour that a manager exhibits in dealing with subordinates • three types: • autocratic: managers generally issue orders and expect them to be obeyed without question • democratic: managers generally ask for input from subordinates but retain final decision-making power • free-rein: managers serve as advisers to subordinates who are allowed to make decisions 330) How do the trait and behavioural approaches differ? Answer: The trait approach assumes that specific personality traits are associated with effective leadership, while the behavioural approach assumes that it is the leader’s behaviour that determines effectiveness. 331) Explain the difference between transformational and transactional and leadership. Answer: Transformational leaders recognize the need for change, create a vision to guide that change, and execute the change effectively. Transactional leaders, by contrast, engage in routine, regimented activities. 332) Do men and women lead differently? Answer: Research suggests that female leaders are not necessarily more nurturing or supportive than male leaders. Likewise, male leaders are not necessarily more harsh, controlling, or task-oriented than female leaders. Women do have a tendency to be more democratic when making decisions, whereas men tend to be more autocratic. 333) Discuss the differences between Canadian and American management styles. Answer: • Canadian managers are more subtle and subdued • Canadians also seem more committed to their companies • Canadians are less willing to mindlessly follow the latest management fad • Canadians are more open to different cultures because of the multicultural nature of Canada Test Bank for Business Essentials Ronald J. Ebert, Ricky W. Griffin, Frederick A. Starke, George Dracopoulos 9780132479769, 9780134384733

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