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Chapter 8 E-Commerce Learning Objectives Define e-commerce and describe its advantages, disadvantages, and business models. Explain the major categories of e-commerce. Describe the business-to-consumer e-commerce cycle. Summarize the major models of business-to-business e-commerce. Describe mobile-based and voice-based e-commerce. Explain four supporting technologies for e-commerce. Explain social commerce and the reasons for its popularity. Detailed Chapter Outline I. Defining E-Commerce E-commerce and e-business differ slightly. E-business encompasses all the activities a company performs in selling and buying products and services using computers and communication technologies. E-commerce is buying and selling goods and services over the Internet. In other words, e-commerce is part of e-business. However, the two terms are often used interchangeably. E-commerce builds on traditional commerce by adding the flexibility that networks offer and the availability of the Internet. The following are common business applications that use the Internet: Buying and selling products and services Collaborating with other companies Communicating with business partners Gathering business intelligence on customers and competitors Providing customer service Making software updates and patches available Offering vendor support Publishing and disseminating information A. The Value Chain and E-Commerce One way to examine e-commerce and its role in the business world is through value chain analysis. Michael Porter introduced the value chain concept in 1985. It consists of a series of activities designed to meet business needs by adding value (or cost) in each phase of the process. Typically, a division within a business designs, produces, markets, delivers, and supports its products or services. Each activity adds cost and value to the product or service delivered to the customer. In Michael Porter’s value chain organizational infrastructure, human resource management, technological development, and procurement (gathering input)—are supporting activities. The “margin” represents the value added by supporting primary activities. The primary activities are: inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service. For instance, by having superior relationships with suppliers (through prompt payments, electronic ordering, loyalty, and so forth), the company can ensure timely delivery and a high quality of raw materials. These, in turn, add value for customers by providing a high-quality product at a lower cost. If good quality and lower costs are top priorities for customers, the company knows on which parts of the value chain to focus (e.g., better suppliers to ensure quality and reduce costs, superior operations to ensure quality, better distribution to reduce costs, better aftersales service to ensure quality with warranties). So the value chain is really about understanding what aspects of an organization’s business add value for customers and then maximizing those aspects. In any industry, a company is part of a value chain when it buys goods or services from suppliers, adds features to increase value, and sells the goods or services to customers. The Internet can increase the speed and accuracy of communication between suppliers, distributors, and customers. Moreover, the Internet’s low cost means companies of any size can take advantage of value chain integration, which is the process of multiple companies in a shared market working together to plan and manage the flow of goods, services, and information from manufacturers to consumers. E-commerce can enhance a value chain by offering new ways to reduce costs or improve operations, including the following: Using e-mail rather than regular mail to notify customers of upcoming sales can reduce costs. Selling to customers via the company Web site can generate new sources of revenue, particularly from customers who live far away from the company’s headquarters or physical store. Offering online customer service can make products or services more appealing to customers. B. E-Commerce vs. Traditional Commerce In e-commerce, the Web and telecommunication technologies play a major role. Often, there is no physical store, and the buyer and seller do not see each other. Many companies now operate as a mix of traditional commerce and e-commerce, however, and have some kind of e-commerce presence. These companies, referred to as click-and-brick e-commerce, capitalize on the advantages of online interaction with their customers yet retain the benefits of having a physical store location. C. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Commerce Businesses of all sizes use the Internet and e-commerce applications to gain a competitive edge. Similar to traditional business, e-commerce has many advantages and disadvantages. If e-commerce is based on a sound business model, its advantages outweigh its disadvantages. Advantages of e-commerce include the following: Creating better relationships with suppliers, customers, and business partners Creating “price transparency,” meaning all market participants can trade at the same price Being able to operate around the clock and around the globe Gathering more information about potential customers Increasing customer involvement (e.g., offering a feedback section on the company Web site) Improving customer service Increasing flexibility and ease of shopping Increasing the number of customers Increasing opportunities for collaboration with business partners Increasing return on investment because inventory needs are reduced Offering personalized services and product customization Reducing administrative and transaction costs E-commerce also has the following disadvantages, although many of these should be eliminated or reduced in the near future: Bandwidth capacity problems (in certain parts of the world) Security and privacy issues Accessibility (not everybody is connected to the Web yet) Acceptance (not everybody accepts this technology) D. E-Commerce Business Models The Internet has improved productivity in many organizations, but this improvement must be converted to profitability. The companies that survive have a sound business model governing how they plan to make a profit and sustain a business for future growth. To achieve profitability, e-commerce companies focus their operations in different parts of the value chain. To generate revenue, for example, an e-commerce company might decide to sell only products or services or cut out the middleman in the link between suppliers and consumers. Traditional e-commerce models are usually an extension or revision of traditional business models, such as advertising or being a merchant, or a new type of model suitable for Web implementation, such as an infomediary (described in the following list). The following are the most widely used business models in e-commerce: Merchant—the merchant model transfers the old retail model to the e-commerce world by using the medium of the Internet. Brokerage—using the brokerage model brings sellers and buyers together on the Web and collects commissions on transactions between these parties. Advertising—the advertising model is an extension of traditional advertising media, such as radio and television. Mixed—the mixed model refers to generating revenue from more than one source. Infomediary—e-commerce sites that use the infomediary model collect information on consumers and businesses and then sell this information to other companies for marketing purposes. Subscription—using the subscription model, e-commerce sites sell digital products or services to customers. II. Major Categories of E-Commerce E-commerce transactions occur among consumers, businesses, and government, resulting in nine major categories, which are described in the following sections. A. Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce Business-to-consumer (B2C) companies—such as Amazon, Barnesandnoble.com, and Onsale.com—sell directly to consumers. Amazon and its business partners sell a wide array of products and services, including books, DVDs, prescription drugs, clothing, and household products. Amazon is also an example of a pure-play company, which means that it relies exclusively on the Web to distribute its products. In recent years, companies that used to have only physical stores—called brick-and-mortar companies—have entered the virtual marketplace by establishing comprehensive Web sites and virtual storefronts. Some experts believe that these companies may become more successful than pure-play companies because of the advantages a physical space can offer, such as customers being able to visit a store to see merchandise and make returns. B. Business-to-Business E-Commerce Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce involves electronic transactions between businesses. These transactions have been around for many years in the form of electronic data interchange (EDI) and electronic funds transfer (EFT). Companies using B2B applications for purchase orders, invoices, inventory status, shipping logistics, business contracts, and other operations report millions of dollars in savings by increasing transaction speed, reducing errors, and eliminating manual tasks. C. Consumer-to-Consumer E-Commerce Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce involves business transactions between users, such as when consumers sell to other consumers via the Internet. When people use online classified ads (e.g., Craigslist) or online auction sites (e.g., eBay), that is C2C e-commerce. D. Consumer-to-Business E-Commerce Consumer-to-business (C2B) e-commerce involves people selling products or services to businesses, such as when a consumer creates online surveys for a company to use. Another example is when businesses use crowdsourcing by asking consumers to perform services—such as contributing to a Web site—for a fee. E. Government and Nonbusiness E-Commerce Many government and other nonbusiness organizations use e-commerce applications, including the Department of Defense, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Department of the Treasury. These applications are broadly called e-government (or just “e-gov”) applications and are divided into these categories: Government-to-citizen (G2C)—tax filing and payments; completing, submitting, and downloading forms; requests for records; online voter registration Government-to-business (G2B)—sales of federal assets, license applications and renewals Government-to-government (G2G)—disaster assistance and crisis response Government-to-employee (G2E)—e-training Universities are an example of nonbusiness organizations that use e-commerce applications; for example, many universities use Web technologies for online classes, registration, and grade reporting. In addition, nonprofit, political, and social organizations use e-commerce applications for activities such as fund-raising, political forums, and purchasing. F. Organizational or Intrabusiness E-Commerce Organizational (intrabusiness) e-commerce involves e-commerce activities that take place inside an organization, typically via the organization’s intranet. They can include the exchange of goods, services, or information among employees. Some of these activities, though not specifically selling and buying, are considered supporting activities in Porter’s value chain. III.B2C E-Commerce Cycle Five major activities are involved in conducting B2C e-commerce: Information sharing—a B2C e-commerce company can use a variety of methods to share information with its customers, such as company Web sites, online catalogs, e-mail, online advertisements, video conferencing, message boards, and newsgroups. Ordering—customers can use electronic forms or e-mail to order products from a B2C site. Payment—customers have a variety of payment options, such as credit cards, e-checks, and e-wallets. Fulfillment—delivering products or services to customers varies, depending on whether physical products (books, videos, CDs) or digital products (software, music, electronic documents) are being delivered. For example, delivery of physical products can take place via air, sea, or ground at varying costs and with different options. Service and support—because maintaining current customers is less expensive than attracting new customers, e-commerce companies should make an effort to improve customer service and support by using some of the following methods: e-mail confirmations and product updates, online surveys, help desks, and guaranteed secure transactions. IV. B2B E-Commerce: A Second Look B2B uses the following technologies extensively: intranets, extranets, virtual private networks EDI, and EFT. B2B e-commerce reduces delivery time, inventory requirements, and prices, and it helps business partners share relevant, accurate, and timely information. The end result is improved supply chain management among business partners. B2B e-commerce also lowers production costs and improves accuracy by eliminating many labor-intensive tasks, such as creating invoices and tracking payments manually. In addition, the information flow among business partners is improved by creating a direct online connection in the supply chain network, which reduces delivery time. A. Major Models of B2B E-Commerce There are three major models of B2B e-commerce, based on who controls the marketplace—seller, buyer, or intermediary (third party). This results in three marketplace models: seller-side marketplace, buyer-side marketplace, and third-party exchange marketplace. A fourth marketplace model, trading partner agreements, which facilitate contracts and negotiations among business partners, is also gaining popularity. Seller-Side Marketplace The seller-side marketplace model occurs most often. In this model, sellers who cater to specialized markets, such as chemicals, electronics, and auto components, come together to create a common marketplace for buyers—sort of a one-stop shopping model. A popular application of this model is e-procurement, which enables employees in an organization to order and receive supplies and services directly from suppliers. E-procurement applications often have purchase-approval procedures that allow users to connect only to company-approved e-catalogs that give employees prenegotiated prices. The main objectives of e-procurement are to prevent purchases from suppliers that are not on the approved list of sellers and eliminate the processing costs of purchases. E-procurement applications can automate some buying and selling activities, which reduces costs and improves processing speeds. Major vendors of e-commerce and B2B solutions include I2 Technologies, IBM, Oracle, and SAP. Buyer-Side Marketplace Large corporations (such as General Electric or Boeing) as well as consortiums of large companies use the buyer-side marketplace model. Here is how it works: A buyer, or a group of buyers, opens an electronic marketplace and invites sellers to bid on announced products or make a request for quotation (RFQ). By participating in buyer-side marketplaces, sellers can do the following: Conduct sales transactions Automate the order management process Conduct post-sales analysis Automate the fulfillment function Third-Party Exchange Marketplace The third-party exchange market-place model is not controlled by sellers or buyers. Instead, it is controlled by a third party, and the marketplace generates revenue from the fees charged for matching buyers and sellers. A vertical market concentrates on a specific industry or market, such as the utilities industry, the beef and dairy industries, and the sale of medical products. A horizontal market concentrates on a specific function or business process and automates this function or process for different industries. This model offers suppliers a direct channel of communication to buyers through online storefronts. Trading Partner Agreements The main objectives of trading partner agreements are to automate negotiating processes and enforce contracts between participating businesses. Using this model, business partners can send and receive bids, contracts, and other information needed when offering and purchasing products and services. This model will become more common with the development of electronic business Extensible Markup Language (ebXML), a worldwide project working on using XML to standardize the exchange of e-commerce data, including electronic contracts and trading partner agreements. Using this model enables customers to submit, via the Internet, electronic documents that previously required hard copies with signatures. The Digital Signature Act of 1999 gives digital signatures the same legal validity as handwritten signatures. With Extensible Markup Language (ebXML) contracts can be transmitted electronically, and many processes between trading partners can be performed electronically, including inventory status, shipping logistics, purchase orders, reservation systems, and electronic payments. The main advantage of ebXML or XML over HTML is that one can assign data-type definitions to information on a page so Web browsers select only the data requested in a search. V. Mobile and Voice-Based E-Commerce Mobile commerce (m-commerce), based on the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), has been around for several years, particularly in European countries. M-commerce is the use of handheld devices, such as smartphones or PDAs, to conduct business transactions, such as making stock trades with an online brokerage firm. Many telecommunication companies offer Web-ready cell phones. In addition, a wide variety of m-commerce applications are available, among the most popular being iPhone apps, which include games, entertainment, news, and travel information. Microsoft has a wireless version of Internet Explorer called Internet Explorer Mobile. And many e-commerce companies are developing the simple, text-based interface required by current cell phones. For example, Google offers mobile Internet users features such as search, news, map, and Gmail. Other applications of m-commerce include banking, traffic updates, tourism services, shopping, and video conferencing. Mobile user-to-user applications, such as sharing games and pictures, are also popular. One can already use a mobile phone to access a Web site and order a product. The next step is voice-based e-commerce, which relies on voice recognition and text-to-speech technologies that have improved dramatically in the past decade. Voice-based e-commerce is suitable for such applications as making stock trades, looking up sports scores, reserving movie tickets, and getting directions to a restaurant. Security features for voice-based e-commerce are expected to include the following: Call recognition, so that calls have to be placed from specific mobile devices Voice recognition, so that authorizations have to match a specific voice pattern Shipping to a set address that cannot be changed by voice commands VI. E-Commerce Supporting Technologies A. Electronic Payment Systems An electronic payment is a transaction in which money or scrip is exchanged, only electronically. This usually involves the use of the Internet, other computer networks, and digitally stored value systems. Payment cards—credit cards, debit cards, charge cards, and smart cards—are the most popular instruments for electronic payment transactions. Smart cards have been used in Europe, Asia, and Australia for many years and are slowly gaining acceptance in the United States because of their multiple functions. A smart card is about the size of a credit card and contains an embedded microprocessor chip for storing important financial and personal information. E-cash, a secure and convenient alternative to bills and coins, complements credit, debit, and charge cards and adds convenience and control to everyday cash transactions. E-cash usually works with a smart card, and the amount of cash stored on the chip can be “recharged” electronically. An e-check, the electronic version of a paper check, offers security, speed, and convenience for online transactions. E-checks are a good solution when other electronic payment systems are too risky or otherwise not appropriate. E-wallets (virtual wallets), which are available for most handheld devices, offer a secure, convenient, and portable tool for online shopping. They store personal and financial information, such as credit card numbers, passwords, and PINs. PayPal is a popular online payment system used on many online auction sites. Users with valid e-mail addresses can set up PayPal accounts and make secure payments for online transactions using their credit cards or bank accounts. Micropayments are transactions on the Web involving very small amounts of money. They began as a way for advertisers to pay for cost per view or cost per click, which is typically one-tenth of a cent. Payment amounts are accumulated for customers until they are large enough to offset the transaction fee, and then the account deduction or charge is submitted to the bank. B. Web Marketing Web marketing uses the Web and its supporting technologies to promote goods and services. To better understand Web marketing, one can review the following list of terms: Ad impression—this refers to one user viewing one ad. Banner ads—usually placed on frequently visited Web sites, these ads are rather small (around 468×60 pixels) and employ simple animation. Clicking a banner ad displays a short marketing message or transfers the user to another Web site. Click—when users click URLs or banner ads, they are transferred to other Web sites or shown marketing messages, and this is recorded by the Web server. Cost per thousand (CPM)—most Web and e-mail advertising is priced based on the cost per thousand ad impressions. (M stands for mille, which means thousand.) Cost per click (CPC)—this refers to the cost of each click on an ad. Click-through rate (CTR)—this is computed by dividing the number of clicks an ad gets by the total impressions bought. Cookie—this is information a Web site stores on the user’s hard drive so it can be used for a later visit, such as for greeting a visitor by name. This information is also used to record user preferences and browsing habits. Hit—any element of a Web page (including text, graphics, and interactive items) that is clicked counts as a hit to a server. Meta tag—this HTML tag does not affect how a Web page is displayed; it provides information about a Web page, such as keywords that represent the page content, the Web designer, and frequency of page updates. Search engines use this information (particularly the keywords) to create indexes. Page view (PV)—this refers to one user viewing one Web page. Pop-up ads—these display ads appear on top of a browser window, blocking the user’s view. Pop-under ads—these display ads appear underneath a browser window. They are less intrusive than pop-up ads. Splash screen—a Web page displayed when the user first visits the site; it is designed to capture the user’s attention and motivate the user to browse the site. Spot leasing—search engines and directories offer space that companies can purchase for advertising purposes. Intelligent agents and push technology are also used as Web-marketing tools. An intelligent agent is an artificial intelligence application that can be used for Web marketing. Push technology is the opposite of pull technology, in which users search the Web to find (pull) information. With push technology, information is sent to users based on their previous inquiries, interests, or specifications. C. Mobile Marketing Online businesses should have a mobile marketing strategy in order to stay competitive. Popular mobile marketing strategies include the following: App-based marketing: This strategy uses mobile apps, but an online business does not necessarily need to develop its own app. In-game mobile marketing: This strategy uses mobile ads that appear within popular mobile games and can take several forms, such as banner popups, full-page image ads, or video ads, which appear between loading screens. Location-based marketing: This strategy uses ads that appear on mobile devices based on the location of a user relative to a specific business location (such as within a two-mile radius of a business). QR codes (quick response codes): This strategy allows a user to scan a QR code; the user is then transferred to a Web site that displays a marketing message for a product or service. Mobile search ads: This strategy uses basic search engine ads such as Google or Bing designed for mobile devices. Mobile image ads: This strategy uses image-based ads, such as banners, that appear on mobile devices. SMS (Short Message Service) and MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service): This strategy sends short messages with offers to mobile device users. D. Search Engine Optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is a method for improving the volume or quality of traffic to a Web site. It helps a Web site receive a high ranking in the search results, which tends to generate more revenue for the Web site. Unlike Web-marketing methods that involve paying for listings on search engines, SEO aims at increasing a Web site’s performance on search engines in a natural (and free) fashion. Optimizing a Web site involves editing a site’s contents and HTML code to increase its relevance to specific keywords. SEO includes techniques that make it easier for search engines to find and index a site for certain keywords. The following are some common ways to optimize a Web site’s traffic: Keywords—decide on a few keywords that best describe the Web site and use them consistently throughout the site’s contents. Page title—make sure the page title reflects the site and its contents accurately. Inbound links—one can get people to comment on one’s Web site, using one of the top keywords. Content—Update Web content regularly. Links to others—develop relationships with other Web sites. VII. E-Commerce and Beyond: Social Commerce Nearly two billion consumers are using social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Tumblr, and this number increases daily. Users of these social networks influence the purchasing decisions of many customers by recommending certain products or services to their friends. Some social networks also provide a direct link that enables a user to buy products and services directly. Social media, by providing a community of people with similar interests, is all about insight and product discovery. Web sites like Pinterest and Wanelo are similar to virtual malls and digital catalogs; customers are able to browse and connect with others who have similar interests. Social commerce can be defined as a subset of e-commerce that is influenced by social networks and other online media enhanced by the ever increasing power of smartphones. There are several categories of social networks and online media that collectively constitute social commerce. Below is the breakdown: Social networking sites: Users of these sites recommend a product or service to a friend, or the site offers a direct link for shopping, such as the Shop tab in Facebook or the Buy button in Twitter (in test phase). Group buying platforms: These Web sites offer a product or service at a huge discount if certain number of buyers agree to buy the product or service in a given time period, such as within a 24-hour period. Peer-to-peer e-commerce platforms: These Web sites are community-based marketplaces that enable individuals to communicate directly with each other and conduct e-commerce operations. Recommendation Web sites: These Web sites aggregate customers’ opinions related to products or services that they have purchased and then recommend them to others with the same interest. Some also offer incentives to individuals for sharing their purchases with friends through social media. Participatory e-commerce: These Web sites allow users to participate in the production process and bring a product or service to the sites in a collaborative fashion. Social advice: These Web sites provide shopping advice and opinion through chat and forums. User-curated shopping: These Web sites provide a platform for users to create actual products and/or generate listings of products that others can choose from. Key Terms E-business encompasses all the activities a company performs in selling and buying products and services using computers and communication technologies. (P.168) E-commerce is buying and selling goods and services over the Internet. (P.169) A value chain is a series of activities designed to meet business needs by adding value (or cost) in each phase of the e-commerce process. (P.169) Click-and-brick e-commerce mixes traditional commerce and e-commerce. It capitalizes on the advantages of online interaction with customers yet retains the benefits of having a physical store location. (P. 171) The merchant model transfers the old retail model to the e-commerce world by using the medium of the Internet. (P. 173) Using the brokerage model brings sellers and buyers together on the Web and collects commissions on transactions between these parties. (P.174) The advertising model is an extension of traditional advertising media, such as radio and television. Directories such as Yahoo! provide content (similar to radio and TV) to users for free. By creating more traffic with this free content, they can charge companies for placing banner ads or leasing spots on their sites. (P.174) The mixed model refers to generating revenue from more than one source. (P.174) Under the infomediary model, e-commerce sites collect information on consumers and businesses and then sell this information to other companies for marketing purposes. (P.174) Under the subscription model, e-commerce sites sell digital products or services to customers. (P.175) Business-to-consumer (B2C) companies sell directly to consumers. (P.175) Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce involves electronic transactions between businesses. (P.175) Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce involves business transactions between users, such as consumers selling to other consumers via the Internet. (P.176) Consumer-to-business (C2B) e-commerce involves people selling products or services to businesses, such as when a consumer creates online surveys for a company to use. (P.176) E-government applications can include government-to-citizen, government-to-business, government-to-government, and government-to-employee transactions. Services include tax filing, online voter registration, disaster assistance, and e-training for government employees. (P.176) Organizational (intrabusiness) e-commerce involves e-commerce activities that take place inside an organization, typically via the organization’s intranet. These activities can include the exchange of goods, services, or information among employees. (P.176) The seller-side marketplace model occurs most often. In this model, sellers who cater to specialized markets, such as chemicals, electronics, and auto components, come together to create a common marketplace for buyers—sort of a one-stop shopping model. (P.178) E-procurement enables employees in an organization to order and receive supplies and services directly from suppliers. (P.178) In a buyer-side marketplace model, a buyer, or a group of buyers, opens an electronic marketplace and invites sellers to bid on announced products or make a request for quotation (RFQ). Using this model, buyers can manage the procurement process more efficiently, lower administrative costs, and implement uniform pricing. (P.179) The third-party exchange marketplace model is not controlled by sellers or buyers. Instead, it is controlled by a third party, and the marketplace generates revenue from the fees charged for matching buyers and sellers. (P.180) A vertical market concentrates on a specific industry or market. The utilities industry, the beef and dairy industries, and the sale of medical products are examples of vertical markets. (P.180) A horizontal market concentrates on a specific function or business process and automates this function or process for different industries. (P.180) Trading partner agreements automate negotiating processes and enforce contracts between participating businesses. (P.180) Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is using handheld devices, such as smartphones or PDAs, to conduct business transactions. (P.180) Voice-based e-commerce relies on voice recognition and text-to-speech technologies. (P.181) Electronic payment refers to money or scrip that is exchanged electronically. It usually involves use of the Internet, other computer networks, and digitally stored value systems. It includes credit cards, debit cards, charge cards, and smart cards. (P.182) A smart card is about the size of a credit card and contains an embedded microprocessor chip for storing important financial and personal information. The chip can be loaded with information and updated periodically. (P.182) E-cash, a secure and convenient alternative to bills and coins, complements credit, debit, and charge cards and adds convenience and control to everyday cash transactions. (P.182) An e-check, the electronic version of a paper check, offers security, speed, and convenience for online transactions. (P.182) E-wallets, which are available for most handheld devices, offer a secure, convenient, and portable tool for online shopping. They store personal and financial information, such as credit card numbers, passwords, and PINs. (P.182) PayPal is a popular online payment system used for many online transactions. Users with valid e-mail addresses can set up accounts and make secure payments for online transactions using their credit cards or bank accounts. (P.182) Micropayments are transactions on the Web involving very small amounts of money. They began as a method for advertisers to pay for cost per view or cost per click. (P.183) Web marketing uses the Web and its supporting technologies to promote goods and services. (P.183) Search engine optimization (SEO) is a method for improving the volume or quality of traffic to a Web site. A higher ranking in search results should generate more revenue for a Web site. (P.186) Social commerce is a subset of e-commerce that is influenced by social networks and other online media. (P.186) Instructor Manual for MIS Hossein Bidgoli 9781305632004, 9781337625999, 9781337625982, 9781337406925

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