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Personal, Legal, Ethical, and Organizational Issues of Information Systems End of Chapter Solutions Reviews and Discussions 1. Define “net neutrality.” How can a non-neutral network impact businesses? According to the principle of net neutrality, Internet service providers (ISPs) and government agencies should treat all data on the Internet equally—that is, they should not block traffic, charge different rates, or discriminate in any way based on user, content, Web site, types of equipment in use, telecommunication provider, platform, or application. A non-neutral network will have impact on nearly all individuals and businesses regardless of the type of business that they are engaged in. A non-neutral network will increase the cost of Internet connection for nearly all the users. For those companies and individuals that want to have faster access in a non-neutral network have to pay a much higher rate in order to get to the “fast lane.” 2. How are employers monitoring their employees? Is this legal? Employers now have a myriad of software tools with which to monitor their employees. For example, they can monitor every keystroke that their employees enter into their computers or handheld devices. In addition, managers can view their employees’ photos, text messages, e-mails (sent or received), call logs, and Web site visits. Using these monitoring tools, companies are able to track their employees’ locations, check their phone calls, find out if a particular driver is wearing his seat belt, or even find out if the driver is tailgating other cars. With employee-monitoring systems, managers can supervise employees’ performance—the number of errors they make, their work speeds, and their time away from the desk. Several federal laws now regulate the collecting and using of information on people and corporations, but the laws are narrow in scope and contain loopholes. 3. Regarding the Web and network privacy, what is nonrepudiation? Nonrepudiation is a method for binding all the parties to a contract. 4. What are your two recommendations to improve ethical decision making in the information systems environment? Improving ethical decision-making in the information systems environment is crucial for ensuring that organizations uphold integrity, protect privacy, and foster trust among stakeholders. Here are two recommendations to enhance ethical decision-making in this domain: 1. Establish Ethical Guidelines and Policies: • Organizations should develop comprehensive ethical guidelines and policies that outline acceptable behaviors and practices concerning information systems usage. These guidelines should be aligned with ethical principles, industry standards, and legal regulations. • Ethical guidelines should cover various aspects, including data privacy, security protocols, transparency in data handling, fair use of technology, and responsible decision-making processes. • It's essential to ensure that these guidelines are communicated effectively to all stakeholders, including employees, managers, IT personnel, and third-party vendors. Training programs and workshops can be conducted to raise awareness about ethical considerations and promote adherence to established guidelines. 2. Implement Ethical Decision-Support Systems: • Organizations can leverage technology to develop and implement ethical decision-support systems (EDSS) within their information systems environment. EDSS integrates ethical principles, decision-making frameworks, and data analytics to assist stakeholders in making ethical choices. • These systems can incorporate ethical algorithms, rules engines, and machine learning models to analyze data, identify potential ethical dilemmas, and provide recommendations for ethical actions or resolutions. • By integrating EDSS into information systems, organizations can empower decision-makers with real-time insights and guidance, enabling them to navigate complex ethical challenges effectively. • Moreover, EDSS can facilitate transparency and accountability by documenting decision-making processes, rationale, and outcomes, thus enabling organizations to demonstrate their commitment to ethical conduct and compliance. Incorporating these recommendations into organizational practices can foster a culture of ethical awareness, responsibility, and accountability within the information systems environment. By prioritizing ethical considerations and integrating them into decision-making processes, organizations can mitigate risks, uphold their reputation, and cultivate trust among stakeholders in an increasingly digital and interconnected world. 5. How can an organization benefit from a patent? An organization can benefit from a patent in at least three ways: • It can generate revenue by licensing its patent to others. • It can use the patent to attract funding for further research and development. • It can use the patent to keep competitors from entering certain market segments. 6. What is green computing? What are three examples of information technologies that could promote green computing? Green computing involves the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers, servers, and computing devices (such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications equipment) in such a way that there is minimal impact on the environment. The following are three examples of information technologies that could promote green computing: • Replace actual face-to-face meetings with meetings over computer networks. • Use video conferencing, electronic meeting systems, and groupware. • Use a virtual world. 7. What are three examples of information technology that helps a telecommuter? Telecommuting, or remote work, has become increasingly prevalent in today's workforce, facilitated by various information technologies aimed at enhancing productivity, communication, and collaboration. Here are three examples of information technology tools that help telecommuters: 1. Virtual Private Network (VPN): - A VPN establishes a secure connection between a telecommuter's device (e.g., laptop, smartphone) and the company's internal network over the internet. This encrypted tunnel ensures that sensitive data transmitted between the telecommuter and the company's network remains private and protected from unauthorized access. • Telecommuters can securely access company resources, such as files, applications, and databases, as if they were physically present in the office. This enables seamless collaboration and enables telecommuters to work efficiently from any location with internet connectivity while ensuring data security and compliance with organizational policies. 2. Cloud-based Collaboration Tools: • Cloud-based collaboration tools, such as Microsoft Teams, Slack, and Google Workspace, enable telecommuters to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate work activities in real-time, regardless of their physical location. • These platforms offer features such as instant messaging, video conferencing, file sharing, document collaboration, and task management, fostering seamless communication and teamwork among remote team members. • Telecommuters can use these tools to participate in virtual meetings, share project updates, brainstorm ideas, provide feedback, and track project progress, thereby enhancing productivity, efficiency, and engagement in remote work environments. 3. Remote Desktop Software: • Remote desktop software, such as TeamViewer, Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), or LogMeIn, allows telecommuters to access and control their office desktop or workstation remotely from their home or any other location with internet access. • With remote desktop software, telecommuters can replicate the experience of working on their office computer, accessing files, applications, and resources with the same level of functionality and performance. • This technology enables telecommuters to maintain productivity and workflow continuity, access specialized software or tools installed on their office computer, and troubleshoot technical issues remotely without the need for physical presence in the office. These information technology tools empower telecommuters to overcome geographical barriers, collaborate effectively with colleagues, and access essential resources and systems needed to perform their job duties from remote locations. By leveraging these tools, organizations can support flexible work arrangements, improve employee satisfaction, and achieve operational resilience in an increasingly remote-friendly work environment. 8. What are two ways in which information technology impacts the workplace? Information technology (IT) has profoundly influenced the modern workplace, revolutionizing how organizations operate, communicate, and collaborate. Two significant ways in which information technology impacts the workplace include: 1. Enhanced Efficiency and Productivity: • Information technology automates routine tasks, streamlines processes, and optimizes workflows, leading to increased efficiency and productivity in the workplace. Through the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, customer relationship management (CRM) software, and project management tools, organizations can manage resources, track activities, and allocate tasks more effectively. • Collaboration platforms, such as Microsoft Teams, Slack, and Zoom, facilitate real-time communication, file sharing, and project collaboration among employees, regardless of their geographical locations. These tools enable seamless teamwork, knowledge sharing, and decision-making, reducing time spent on coordination and enhancing overall productivity. • Cloud computing allows for the storage, access, and sharing of data and applications over the internet, eliminating the need for physical infrastructure and enabling employees to access information and resources from anywhere with internet connectivity. This flexibility and accessibility empower employees to work remotely, increasing workforce agility and responsiveness to changing business needs. 2. Transformation of Workforce Dynamics: • Information technology has transformed the nature of work and workforce dynamics, enabling organizations to embrace flexible work arrangements, such as remote work, telecommuting, and freelance engagements. Virtual work environments fostered by IT tools and platforms enable employees to achieve better work-life balance, reduce commuting time, and accommodate diverse work styles and preferences. • The gig economy, facilitated by digital platforms like Uber, TaskRabbit, and Upwork, has emerged as a significant trend reshaping labor markets. Information technology connects freelancers, independent contractors, and temporary workers with businesses seeking specialized skills or services on-demand, creating new opportunities for talent sourcing and workforce augmentation. • Automation and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are reshaping job roles and skill requirements across industries, automating repetitive tasks, and augmenting human capabilities in areas such as data analysis, decision-making, and customer service. While these technologies offer efficiency gains and cost savings, they also raise concerns about job displacement and the need for upskilling and reskilling the workforce to adapt to evolving job roles and technological advancements. In summary, information technology has a profound impact on the workplace, driving efficiency improvements, enabling flexible work arrangements, and reshaping workforce dynamics. By harnessing the power of IT, organizations can adapt to changing business environments, foster innovation, and remain competitive in today's digital age. Projects 1. After reading the information presented in this chapter and other sources, write a one-page paper that outlines five recommendations for improving the privacy of e-mail in an organization. Your recommendations should also highlight ways that minimize or eliminate corporate data leakage. Title: Enhancing Email Privacy and Minimizing Corporate Data Leakage: Five Recommendations In today's digitally interconnected world, safeguarding email privacy and preventing corporate data leakage are paramount for organizations. Leveraging insights from the chapter on "Personal, Legal, Ethical, and Organizational Issues of Information Systems," along with other relevant sources, here are five recommendations to bolster email privacy and mitigate data leakage risks within an organization: 1. Implement Encryption Technologies: Utilize robust encryption protocols such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) to secure email communications. Encryption scrambles the content of emails, making them unreadable to unauthorized parties. By adopting encryption technologies, organizations can ensure that sensitive information remains protected, even if intercepted during transit. 2. Enforce Strict Access Controls: Enforce stringent access controls to regulate who can access and send emails containing sensitive data. Implement role-based access controls (RBAC) and multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms to authenticate users and restrict unauthorized access. By limiting access to only authorized personnel, organizations can minimize the risk of internal data breaches. 3. Provide Employee Training and Awareness: Conduct regular training sessions to educate employees about email security best practices, including recognizing phishing attempts, avoiding suspicious attachments, and practicing good password hygiene. Foster a culture of awareness and vigilance among employees to empower them to identify and report potential security threats promptly. Additionally, establish clear policies outlining acceptable use of corporate email accounts and consequences for non-compliance. 4. Deploy Data Loss Prevention (DLP) Solutions: Implement DLP solutions to monitor and prevent the unauthorized transmission of sensitive data via email. DLP tools utilize predefined rules and policies to identify and block outbound emails containing sensitive information, such as financial data or personally identifiable information (PII). By proactively detecting and preventing data leakage incidents, organizations can safeguard their confidential information from unauthorized disclosure. 5. Conduct Regular Security Audits and Assessments: Regularly conduct comprehensive security audits and assessments to identify vulnerabilities in email systems and protocols. Engage third-party security experts to perform penetration testing and vulnerability scans to uncover potential weaknesses that could be exploited by cyber adversaries. Continuously monitor email traffic and analyze logs for suspicious activities to detect anomalous behavior and address security incidents promptly. By implementing these recommendations, organizations can bolster the privacy of their email communications and mitigate the risk of corporate data leakage. Taking a proactive approach to email security not only safeguards sensitive information but also fosters trust among stakeholders and protects the organization's reputation in an increasingly digitized business landscape. 2. After reading the information presented in this chapter and other sources, write a one-page paper that describes net neutrality. Describe how a non-neutral network will impact all businesses. Understanding Net Neutrality: Upholding Fairness in the Digital Realm Net neutrality is a principle that advocates for equal treatment of all data on the internet, regardless of its source, destination, or content. It ensures that internet service providers (ISPs) treat all data packets equally, without discriminating or prioritizing certain types of traffic over others. Essentially, net neutrality mandates that ISPs should act as neutral conduits, delivering data without favoritism or interference. In a neutral network, all businesses, regardless of their size or financial resources, have equal access to consumers and can compete on a level playing field. Startups and small businesses can launch innovative services or products online without being disadvantaged by larger, more established competitors. Consumers, in turn, enjoy unrestricted access to a diverse array of content, applications, and services, fostering competition, innovation, and consumer choice. However, a non-neutral network threatens this level playing field and poses significant challenges for businesses of all sizes. In a non-neutral network, ISPs have the power to control and manipulate the flow of internet traffic, potentially favoring their own services or those of partners who pay for preferential treatment. This could lead to the creation of fast lanes and slow lanes on the internet, where certain content or services receive priority access while others are relegated to slower speeds or blocked entirely. For businesses, the impacts of a non-neutral network are far-reaching: 1. Barriers to Entry: Small businesses and startups may face barriers to entry as they struggle to compete with larger companies that can afford to pay for preferential treatment from ISPs. This stifles innovation and entrepreneurship, limiting the diversity of offerings available to consumers. 2. Increased Costs: Businesses may be forced to pay additional fees to ISPs to ensure their content or services receive adequate bandwidth and performance. These increased costs could be passed on to consumers, leading to higher prices for internet services or products. 3. Innovation Stifling: The threat of being relegated to slower internet lanes discourages innovation and investment in new online services or technologies. This hampers economic growth and diminishes the potential for breakthroughs in various sectors, from e-commerce and entertainment to healthcare and education. 4. Consumer Choice: Non-neutrality undermines consumer choice by limiting access to diverse content and services. Consumers may find themselves restricted to a narrow range of offerings controlled by a few dominant players, diminishing their ability to discover new products or alternative viewpoints. In conclusion, net neutrality is essential for preserving the open and democratic nature of the internet, ensuring fair competition, innovation, and consumer choice. A non-neutral network threatens to undermine these principles, posing significant challenges for businesses and consumers alike. Upholding net neutrality is imperative to foster a vibrant and equitable digital ecosystem that benefits society as a whole. 3. The admission office of Southern State University needs a simple and easy-to-follow Web policy document to send to its incoming freshmen. The document should tell students how to behave while on the Web. After reading the information presented in this chapter and other sources, create a document that includes a 10-item bullet list highlighting the key issues that incoming students should be aware of. Title: Southern State University Web Policy Guidelines for Incoming Freshmen Welcome to Southern State University! As you embark on your academic journey, it's important to understand how to navigate the online world responsibly. To ensure a safe and productive online experience, please review the following Web policy guidelines: 1. Respect Intellectual Property: • Avoid plagiarism by properly citing sources and obtaining permission before using others' work. • Do not download or distribute copyrighted material without authorization. 2. Practice Digital Citizenship: • Be mindful of your online interactions and language, treating others with respect and kindness. • Avoid engaging in cyberbullying or harassment. 3. Protect Personal Information: • Safeguard your personal information such as passwords, social security numbers, and financial details. • Be cautious when sharing personal information online and avoid disclosing sensitive data to unknown sources. 4. Use University Resources Responsibly: • Adhere to the university's acceptable use policy when using campus networks and resources. • Refrain from engaging in activities that may disrupt network integrity or violate university policies. 5. Exercise Caution with Social Media: • Be mindful of the content you share on social media platforms, as it can impact your personal and professional reputation. • Think before posting, and consider the potential consequences of your online actions. 6. Practice Safe Browsing Habits: • Use secure and reputable websites when conducting research or making online transactions. • Install antivirus software and keep it updated to protect against malware and cyber threats. 7. Be Critical of Online Information: • Evaluate the credibility and reliability of online sources before accepting information as fact. • Use critical thinking skills to discern between reputable sources and misinformation. 8. Respect Online Privacy: • Review and adjust privacy settings on social media accounts and other online platforms to control who can access your personal information. • Be cautious when sharing location data or participating in online quizzes and surveys. 9. Report Suspicious Activity: • Promptly report any suspicious or malicious online activity to university authorities or IT support. • Help maintain a safe and secure online environment for yourself and your fellow students. 10. Stay Informed and Educated: • Stay updated on emerging trends and best practices in online safety and security. • Take advantage of educational resources and workshops offered by the university to enhance your digital literacy skills. By adhering to these Web policy guidelines, you can contribute to a positive and responsible online community at Southern State University. Remember, your actions online reflect not only on yourself but also on our university community as a whole. Welcome to the digital age, and best wishes for a successful academic journey 4. An oil company in central Texas with over 2,000 employees needs a document regarding green computing to send to all its key employees. After reading the information presented in this chapter and other sources, create a one-page document that includes an eight-item bullet list highlighting the key issues that all division managers should be aware of. Give three examples of information technologies that can play a role in this green computing implementation. Document Title: Green Computing Guidelines for Division Managers As a division manager within our organization, it is crucial to understand the key issues associated with green computing and the role information technologies can play in its implementation. Below is a concise guide outlining eight essential considerations along with examples of relevant information technologies: Key Issues for Division Managers: 1. Energy Efficiency: Emphasize the importance of optimizing energy usage in all computing activities to reduce carbon footprint and operational costs. 2. E-Waste Management: Educate employees about proper disposal and recycling practices for electronic devices to minimize environmental impact. 3. Virtualization: Encourage the adoption of virtualization technologies to consolidate servers, reducing hardware requirements and energy consumption. 4. Cloud Computing: Promote the use of cloud-based services for storage and computing needs, leveraging shared resources to enhance efficiency and scalability. 5. Telecommuting: Explore opportunities for remote work arrangements to decrease the need for commuting, lowering fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. 6. Paperless Initiatives: Advocate for digital documentation and electronic communication methods to reduce paper usage and waste generation. 7. Lifecycle Management: Stress the importance of considering environmental factors throughout the lifecycle of IT equipment, from procurement to disposal. 8. Employee Awareness: Foster a culture of environmental responsibility by providing ongoing training and communication on green computing practices. Examples of Information Technologies for Green Computing: 1. Server Virtualization: Utilizing software such as VMware or Hyper-V to consolidate multiple physical servers into virtual machines, reducing energy consumption and space requirements. 2. Energy-efficient Hardware: Implementing energy-efficient servers, desktops, and peripherals equipped with power-saving features and technologies like Energy Star certification. 3. Smart Building Solutions: Deploying IoT (Internet of Things) devices and sensors to monitor and optimize energy usage within office buildings, enabling automated adjustments for lighting, heating, and cooling systems. By prioritizing these key issues and leveraging relevant information technologies, our organization can make significant strides towards sustainable and environmentally conscious computing practices. As division managers, your leadership in promoting green computing initiatives is essential for achieving our corporate sustainability goals and contributing to a greener future. 5. Southern Tech, a major distributor of electronic devices, needs your advice. With over 1,500 employees who use tablets and smartphones to perform their jobs, the company needs a document highlighting key health-related issues, which it will distribute to its employees to improve efficiency and reduce work-related injuries. After reading the information presented in this chapter and other sources, create a one-page document that includes a five-item bulleted list highlighting key health-related issues that employees need to be aware of. Why could tablets and smartphones potentially create more work-related injuries than desktop computers? Document Title: Health Guidelines for Tablet and Smartphone Users As employees of Southern Tech, it's important to be aware of key health-related issues associated with the use of tablets and smartphones in our workplace. Below are five critical considerations to promote employee well-being and reduce the risk of work-related injuries: Key Health-Related Issues for Employees: 1. Ergonomic Considerations: Ensure that devices are positioned at an ergonomic angle to prevent strain on the neck, shoulders, and wrists. Use accessories like stands or ergonomic cases to maintain proper posture during device usage. 2. Eye Strain: Take regular breaks and practice the 20-20-20 rule (every 20 minutes, look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds) to reduce eye strain caused by prolonged screen time. Adjust device brightness and font size to optimize viewing comfort. 3. Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI): Be mindful of repetitive tasks such as typing and swiping, which can lead to RSI in the fingers, wrists, and hands. Incorporate stretching exercises and ergonomic keyboard/mouse accessories to minimize the risk of RSI. 4. Digital Distraction: Limit excessive use of tablets and smartphones during work hours to mitigate mental fatigue and maintain focus. Set boundaries for device usage and prioritize tasks to prevent distractions that may lead to decreased productivity and increased stress. 5. Posture Awareness: Be conscious of body positioning while using tablets and smartphones, avoiding slouching or craning the neck forward. Practice proper posture and consider using adjustable desks or ergonomic seating arrangements to support spinal health. Why Tablets and Smartphones Could Potentially Create More Work-Related Injuries Than Desktop Computers: 1. Portability and Mobility: Unlike desktop computers, tablets and smartphones are often used in varied environments and positions, leading to a higher likelihood of ergonomic strain and improper posture. 2. Smaller Screen Size: The smaller screen size of tablets and smartphones may require users to squint or strain their eyes, increasing the risk of eye fatigue and discomfort compared to larger desktop monitors. 3. Touchscreen Interaction: Constant tapping, swiping, and typing on touchscreen devices can put repetitive strain on the fingers, wrists, and hands, potentially leading to RSI and musculoskeletal disorders over time. 4. Continuous Connectivity: The constant accessibility and connectivity of tablets and smartphones may encourage prolonged usage without breaks, exacerbating the risk of digital eye strain, mental fatigue, and musculoskeletal discomfort. 5. Multi-Tasking Demands: Employees may use tablets and smartphones for multitasking purposes, leading to divided attention and increased cognitive load, which can contribute to stress-related injuries and decreased overall well-being. By addressing these key health-related issues and promoting ergonomic practices and device usage guidelines, Southern Tech can foster a healthier and more productive work environment for all employees utilizing tablets and smartphones in their daily tasks. 6. An Internet company in Northern California is receiving frequent requests from employees who want to telecommute. The company’s CTO wants to be flexible and accommodate as many employees as possible. At the same time, the CTO wants to achieve productivity goals and keep to a minimum any legal issues that may arise from this new work alternative. After reading the information presented in this chapter and other sources, create a one-page document that includes three guidelines that telecommuters need to follow and three guidelines that the company needs to follow to achieve both personal and organizational objectives. What are three examples of information technologies that could help this company monitor these telecommuters? Document Title: Telecommuting Guidelines for Employees and Company As our company embraces telecommuting as a work alternative, it is essential to establish clear guidelines for both telecommuters and the organization to ensure productivity goals are met and legal issues are minimized. Below are three guidelines each for telecommuters and the company to achieve both personal and organizational objectives: Guidelines for Telecommuters: 1. Establish a Dedicated Workspace: Create a designated area at home conducive to work, free from distractions and interruptions. This space should mimic the professional environment of the office to enhance focus and productivity. 2. Adhere to Regular Work Hours: Maintain consistent work hours as outlined by the company's policies, including scheduled breaks and availability for team communication. Avoid extending work hours beyond what is agreed upon to maintain a healthy work-life balance. 3. Maintain Open Communication: Stay connected with supervisors and team members through regular communication channels, such as email, video conferencing, and instant messaging. Provide timely updates on work progress and actively participate in team meetings to foster collaboration and transparency. Guidelines for the Company: 1. Provide Clear Expectations: Clearly define performance expectations, deliverables, and communication protocols for telecommuters. Set realistic goals and deadlines to ensure accountability and alignment with organizational objectives. 2. Offer Training and Support: Provide telecommuters with necessary training on remote work tools, cybersecurity best practices, and time management techniques. Offer ongoing support and resources to address any challenges or concerns related to telecommuting. 3. Implement Performance Monitoring Measures: Utilize information technologies to monitor telecommuters' productivity and performance while respecting privacy and confidentiality. Establish metrics for evaluating remote work effectiveness and provide constructive feedback to support continuous improvement. Examples of Information Technologies for Monitoring Telecommuters: 1. Time Tracking Software: Implement time tracking tools such as Toggl or Harvest to monitor telecommuters' work hours, track project progress, and ensure adherence to scheduled tasks. 2. Remote Desktop Monitoring: Utilize remote desktop monitoring software like Teramind or ActivTrak to monitor telecommuters' computer activity, screen captures, and application usage to assess productivity levels and identify potential security risks. 3. Virtual Private Network (VPN): Require telecommuters to connect to the company's VPN for secure access to internal systems and data while working remotely. VPNs encrypt network traffic, ensuring data confidentiality and protecting against unauthorized access. By following these guidelines and leveraging appropriate information technologies, our company can successfully accommodate telecommuters while maintaining productivity, achieving organizational objectives, and minimizing legal risks associated with remote work arrangements. Are You Ready to Move On? 1. A variation of cybersquatting is typosquatting, also called URL hijacking. Answer: True 2. Log files, which are generated by Web server software, do not record a user’s actions on a Web site. Answer: False 3. Net neutrality will impact businesses and it does not have any impact on individuals. Answer: False 4. Which of the following is not a potential drawback of telecommuting? a. The ability to work in more pleasant surroundings b. No regulated work routine c. Less interaction with coworkers d. Lack of necessary supplies or equipment Answer: a 5. Which of the following is not part of a green computing strategy? a. Eliminating all cloud computing projects b. Using computing devices that consume less energy and are biodegradable c. Allowing certain employees to work from their homes, resulting in fewer cars on the roads d. Replacing actual face-to-face meetings with computer and video conferencing Answer: a 6. Which of the following is not part of the Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics? a. Thou shalt not use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect for others. b. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. c. Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work. d. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s files. Answer: a Case Studies Case Study 4-1: Telecommuting with a New Twist 1. According to the Wall Street Journal, how many people worked from home in 2011? According to the Wall Street Journal, the number of corporate employees who work from home at least one day a month rose 23 percent a year between 2007 and 2011, when it reached 22.8 million. Those who work from home only one or two days a month are leading the trend, rising by an average 69.5 percent every year in the same period, reaching 3.3 million in 2011. 2. What are some methods that employers use to monitor their employees? To make telecommuting more productive, some employers set targets for each employee to accomplish in a given period. Other employers review summaries of different Web sites that employees have visited and the amount of time that they have spent on various Web sites. Some other employers track projects and schedule meetings on shared calendars in order to monitor their employees. Still other employers require “virtual face time” via e-mail, instant messaging, video chat, or calls. 3. What is an example of a software tool that is used for employee monitoring? InterGuard (Awareness Technologies) is one example. 4. Are there any ethical or privacy issues involved when employers monitor their employees? Discuss. As long as employers tell their employees that they are being monitored, it is legal. Case Study 4-2: Privacy and Other Legal Issues at Google 1. What are some business applications of Google Maps’ Street View? Google Maps' Street View, with its immersive and detailed panoramic imagery of streets and locations worldwide, offers a plethora of business applications across various industries. Some notable business applications of Google Maps' Street View include: 1. Real Estate: • Real estate agents and property developers utilize Street View to provide virtual property tours, allowing potential buyers or renters to explore properties remotely. Street View enables users to visualize the neighborhood, assess property surroundings, and gauge proximity to amenities, schools, and transportation hubs. 2. Retail and Hospitality: • Retailers and hospitality businesses leverage Street View to enhance their online presence and attract customers. By embedding Street View imagery on their websites or Google My Business listings, businesses can offer virtual storefront tours, enabling customers to explore interior layouts, merchandise displays, and ambiance before visiting in person. 3. Tourism and Travel: • Travel agencies, hotels, and tourism operators incorporate Street View into their marketing strategies to showcase destinations and attractions. Street View enables travelers to preview vacation spots, landmarks, and points of interest, aiding in trip planning and decision-making. Moreover, businesses can highlight nearby accommodations, dining options, and recreational activities to entice potential visitors. 4. Urban Planning and Development: • Urban planners and city officials utilize Street View to assess urban infrastructure, traffic patterns, and pedestrian accessibility. Street View imagery provides valuable insights for urban development projects, transportation planning, and pedestrian safety initiatives. Planners can analyze street layouts, parking configurations, and public spaces to optimize urban design and enhance livability. 5. Commercial Property Assessment: • Businesses involved in commercial property assessment and management leverage Street View to conduct site evaluations and property inspections remotely. Street View imagery allows assessors to examine building exteriors, signage, accessibility features, and surrounding infrastructure without physically visiting the location, saving time and resources. 6. Emergency Response and Public Safety: • Emergency responders and public safety agencies use Street View to familiarize themselves with unfamiliar neighborhoods and assess potential hazards during emergency situations. Street View enables responders to identify landmarks, access points, and evacuation routes, facilitating more efficient and coordinated emergency response efforts. 7. Outdoor Advertising and Location-based Marketing: • Advertisers and marketers leverage Street View to identify high-traffic locations and strategic advertising opportunities. By analyzing Street View data, businesses can target specific demographics, tailor marketing campaigns, and optimize placement of outdoor advertisements to maximize visibility and reach. Overall, Google Maps' Street View serves as a valuable tool for businesses across various sectors, enabling them to enhance customer engagement, improve decision-making, and capitalize on new opportunities in an increasingly digital and interconnected world. 2. How has Google Maps’ Street View created privacy and other legal issues? Google had been unknowingly collecting private data from unencrypted Wi-Fi networks. The collected material included a list of people with certain medical conditions, e-mail addresses, video files, and lists of visited Web pages. According to Google, the data collection was an accident due to a programming error. 3. What is Google Books, and how has it created copyright protections and other legal issues? By searching the full text of books, the service attempts to provide an online catalog of all the books contained in its vast database, but some people have claimed that the application has violated copyright protections. Solution Manual for MIS Hossein Bidgoli 9781305632004, 9781337625999, 9781337625982, 9781337406925

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