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Chapter 7 The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets Learning Objectives Describe the makeup of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Discuss navigational tools, search engines, and directories. Describe common Internet services. Summarize widely used Web applications. Explain the purpose of intranets. Explain the purpose of extranets. Summarize the trends of the Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 eras and Internet2. Describe the Internet of Everything. Detailed Chapter Outline I. The Internet and the World Wide Web The Internet is a worldwide collection of millions of computers and networks of all sizes. The term Internet is derived from the term internetworking, which means connecting networks. The Internet started in 1969 as a U.S. Department of Defense project called the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) that connected four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, University of California at Santa Barbara, Stanford Research Institute at Stanford University in California, and University of Utah at Salt Lake City. These connections were linked in a three-level hierarchical structure: backbones, regional networks, and local area networks. Internet backbone is made up of many interconnected government, academic, commercial, and other high-capacity data routers. Several private companies operate their own Internet backbones that interconnect at network access points (NAPs). NAPs determine how traffic is routed over the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW, or “the Web”) changed the Internet in 1989 by introducing a graphical interface to the largely text-based Internet. The Web organizes information by using hypermedia, meaning documents that include embedded references to audio, text, images, video, or other documents. Composed of billions of hypermedia documents, the Web constitutes a large portion of the Internet. The embedded references in hypermedia documents are called hypertext; they consist of links users can click to follow a particular thread (topic). By using hypertext links, users can access files, applications, and other computers in any order they like (unlike in paper documents) and retrieve information with the click of a button. Any computer that stores hypermedia documents and makes them available to other computers on the Internet is called a server or Web server, and computers requesting these documents are called clients. A client can be a home computer or a node in an organization’s LAN. A. The Domain Name System Domain names, such as IBM.com or whitehouse.gov, are unique identifiers of computer or network addresses on the Internet. Each computer or network also has an Internet Protocol (IP) address, such as 208.77.188.166, which is assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). When information is transferred from one network to another, domain names are converted to IP addresses by the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol. Servers using this protocol (called DNS servers) maintain lists of computers’ and Web sites’ addresses and their associated IP addresses. DNS servers translate all domain names into IP addresses. One can see domain names used in uniform resource locators (URLs), also called universal resource locators, to identify a Web page. A URL is the address of a document or site on the Internet. Every domain name has a suffix indicating the top-level domain (TLD) it belongs to. The TLD denotes the type of organization or country the address specifies. TLDs are divided into organizational domains (generic top-level domains, gTLDs) and geographic domains (country code top-level domains, ccTLDs). Many new gTLDs have been proposed, including .aero (aviation industry), .museum, .law, and .store. In addition, most countries have geographic domains. These ccTLDs include .au for Australia, .ca for Canada, .fr for France, .jp for Japan, and .uk for the United Kingdom. The TLDs can be in any language or character set and can contain any phrase, including a company or brand name. The new gTLDs fall into four categories: Generic word TLDs (e.g., .company or .TV) Corporate TLDs (e.g., .Microsoft or .Intel), owned by corporations to control use of their brands Community TLDs (e.g., .Spanish or .Persian), limited to members of a defined community Geographic TLDs (e.g., .London or .Madrid), owned by cities and geographic regions and used to promote business and tourism Here are brief explanations of each part of a URL, using http://www.csub.edu/~hbidgoli/books.html as an example: http—stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the protocol used for accessing most Web sites www.csub.edu—The www stands for WWW, World Wide Web, or the Web. The csub stands for California State University at Bakersfield. And the .edu is the suffix for educational institutions. Together, csub.edu uniquely identifies this Web site. /~hbidgoli—this part is the name of the directory in which files pertaining to the books the author has written are stored. A server can be divided into directories for better organization. books.html—this part is the document itself. The .html extension means it is a Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) document. B. Types of Internet Connections There are several methods for connecting to a network, including the Internet. These methods include dial-up and cable modems as well as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Several types of DSL services are available: Symmetric DSL (SDSL)—SDSL has the same data transmission rate to and from the phone network (called upstream and downstream), usually up to 1.5 Mbps (million bits per second) in both directions. Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)—ADSL has a lower transmission rate upstream (3.5 Mbps) than downstream (typically 24 Mbps)—for example, the ITU G.992.5 Annex M standard. Very High-Speed DSL (VDSL)—VDSL has a downstream/upstream transmission rate of up to 100 Mbps over short distances—for example, the ITU G.993.2 standard. Organizations often use T1 or T3 lines. These are provided by the telephone company and are capable of transporting the equivalent of 24 conventional telephone lines using only two pairs of copper wires. T1 uses two pairs of copper wires to carry up to 24 simultaneous conversations (called channels) and has a transmission rate of 1.544 Mbps. A T3 line is a digital communication link that supports transmission rates of 43–45 Mbps. A T3 line actually consists of 672 channels, each supporting rates of 64 Kbps. II. Navigational Tools, Search Engines, and Directories After knowing what the Internet is and how to connect to it, one will need tools to get around it and find what one is looking for. These tools can be divided into three categories: Navigational tools—these are used to travel from Web site to Web site (i.e., “surf” the Internet). Search engines—these allow one to look up information on the Internet by entering keywords related to one’s topic of interest. Directories—these are indexes of information, based on keywords embedded in documents that allow search engines to find what one is looking for. Some Web sites (such as Yahoo!) also use directories to organize content into categories. Originally, Internet users used text-based commands for simple tasks, such as downloading files or sending e-mails. However, it was tedious to type commands at the command line, and users also had to have certain programming skills to use these systems. The graphical browsers changed all this by providing menus and graphics-based tools that allowed users to point and click. A. Navigational Tools Typically, graphical Web browsers, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE), Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome, have menu options one has seen in word-processing programs, such as File, Edit, and Help. They also include options for viewing one’s browsing history, bookmarking favorite Web sites, and setting viewing preferences, as well as navigation buttons to move backward and forward in Web pages one has visited. B. Search Engines and Directories A search engine, such as Google, Bing, DuckDuckGo, or Ask, is an information system that enables users to retrieve data from the Web by using search terms. All search engines follow a three-step process: Crawling the Web—search engines use software called crawlers, spiders, bots, and other similar names. These automated modules search the Web continuously for new data. When one posts a new Web page, crawlers find it (if it is public), and when one updates it, crawlers find the new data. In addition, crawlers can go through the other pages that are part of one’s Web site, as long as there are links to those pages. All the gathered data is sent back to the search engine’s data center so the search engine always has the most current information on the Web. Indexing—housed at server farms, search engines use keywords to index data coming in from crawlers. Each keyword has an index entry that is linked to all Web pages containing that keyword. Indexing makes it possible for search engines to retrieve all related Web pages when a user enters a search term. Searching—when a user enters a search term, the search engine uses the index created in Step 2 (indexing) to look up the term. If the term exists in the index, the search engine identifies all Web pages linked to the term. However, it needs some way of prioritizing Web pages based on how close each one is to the search term. Search engines vary in intelligence, which is why one can use the same search term and get different results with two different search engines. III. Internet Services Many services are available via the Internet, and most are made possible by the TCP suite of protocols in the Application layer. For instance, TCP/IP provides several useful e-mail protocols, such as Simple Message Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for sending e-mails and Post Office Protocol (POP) for retrieving messages. A. E-Mail E-mail is one of the most widely used services on the Internet. There are two main types of e-mail. Web-based e-mail enables one to access an e-mail account from any computer and, in some cases, store one’s e-mails on a Web server. MSN Hotmail and Google Gmail are two examples of free Web-based e-mail services. The other type of e-mail is client-based e-mail, which consists of an e-mail program one installs on the computer; e-mail is downloaded and stored locally on the computer. Most e-mail programs include a folder system for organizing one’s e-mails and an address book in which to store e-mail addresses. Other commonly available features are spell checkers and delivery notifications. One can also attach documents and multimedia files to e-mails. B. Newsgroups and Discussion Groups The Internet serves millions of people with diverse backgrounds and interests. Although newsgroups and discussion groups are alike in many ways, discussion groups are usually for exchanging opinions and ideas on a specific topic, usually of a technical or scholarly nature. Group members post messages or articles that others in the group can read. Newsgroups are typically more general in nature and can cover any topic; they allow people to get together for fun or for business purposes. C. Instant Messaging Internet Relay Chat (IRC) enables users in chat rooms to exchange text messages with people in other locations in real time. Instant messaging (IM) is a service for communicating with others via a private “chat room” on the Internet. Many IM applications are available, such as Windows Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger, and Google Chat, and the capabilities and features vary depending on the application. A new type of messaging is offered by a mobile app called Snapchat. Here, users combine pictures, videos, text, and drawings into “Snaps” that are sent to other Snapchat users. These Snaps self-destruct in a matter of seconds, seeming to not leave a trace. WhatsApp Messenger (own by Facebook) and Facebook Messenger are two additional platforms for instant messaging. D. Internet Telephony Internet telephony is using the Internet rather than the telephone network to exchange spoken conversations. The protocol used for this capability is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). To use VoIP, one needs a high-speed Internet connection and usually a microphone or headset. Because access to the Internet is available at local phone connection rates, international and other long-distance calls are much less expensive. Many businesses use VoIP to offer hotlines, help desks, and other services at far lower cost than with telephone networks. VoIP is also used to route traffic starting and ending at conventional public switched telephone network (PSTN) phones. The only drawback is the call quality, which is not as good as with regular phone lines. However, the quality has been improving steadily. In addition to cost savings, VoIP offers the following advantages: Users do not experience busy lines. Voicemails can be received on the computer. Users can screen callers, even if the caller has caller ID blocked. Users can have calls forwarded from anywhere in the world. Users can direct calls to the correct departments and take automated orders. IV. Web Applications Several service industries use the Internet and its supporting technologies to offer services and products to a wide range of customers at more competitive prices and with increased convenience. The Internet is playing an important role in helping organizations reduce expenses, because Web applications can be used with minimum costs. A. Tourism and Travel The tourism and travel industry has benefited from e-commerce Web applications. Many travel Web sites allow customers to book tickets for plane trips and cruises as well as make reservations for hotels and rental cars. B. Publishing Many major publishers in the United States and Europe have Web sites that offer descriptions of forthcoming books, sample chapters, online ordering, and search features for looking up books on certain topics or by specific authors. Some publishers even offer books that can be read online free for 90 days or allow one to buy e-book versions or even selected chapters. C. Higher Education Most universities have Web sites with information about departments, programs, faculty, and academic resources. Some even offer virtual tours of the campus for prospective students, and more universities are creating virtual divisions that offer entire degree programs via the Internet. Online degree programs help colleges and universities facing an enrollment decline, because they make it possible for students who could not attend school otherwise to enroll in classes. In addition, many professional certification programs are offered through the Internet, which is convenient for people who live in remote areas or cannot attend regular classes. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) may not replace traditional university systems but are suitable for retraining, job-related credentials, and skills updating. A blended or hybrid model of teaching and learning will most likely emerge. Using this model, some courses will be taught online and some on campus, and the line between campus offering and online learning will become blurred in the years ahead. D. Real Estate Real-estate Web sites provide millions of up-to-date listings of homes for sale. Buyers can review neighborhoods, schools, and local real-estate prices, and customers can use these sites to find realtors and brokerage firms and learn home-buying tips. Some sites have virtual tours of houses for sale, which is convenient for buyers moving to another state. There are also apps available for both iPhone and Android devices that can simplify real-estate decisions. E. Employment Employment services are widely available on the Internet. They offer comprehensive services to job seekers, including the following: Expert advice and tools for managing one’s career Resume assistance, including tools for creating professional-looking resumes Job search tutorials Resume posting and distribution Searches by company, industry, region, or category F. Financial Institutions Almost all U.S. and Canadian banks and credit unions, and many others worldwide, offer online banking services and use e-mail to communicate with customers and send account statements and financial reports. E-mail helps banks reduce the time and costs of communicating via phone (particularly long-distance calls) and postal mail. Customers can get more up-to-date account information and check balances at any time of the day or night. Despite all these advantages, consumer acceptance has been slow. The following list describes some banking services available via the Internet: Accessing customer service by e-mail around the clock Viewing current and old transactions Online mortgage applications Transferring funds Viewing digital copies of checks G. Software Distribution Many vendors distribute software on the Internet as well as drivers and patches. Typically, patches, updates, and small programs such as new browser versions are fast and easy to download. Trying to download large programs, such as Microsoft Office Suite, takes too long, so these types of programs are not usually distributed via the Internet. Developing online copyright-protection schemes continues to be a challenge. If users need an encryption code to “unlock” software they have downloaded, making backups might not be possible. Despite these challenges, online software distribution provides an inexpensive, convenient, and fast way to sell software. H. Health Care With patient records stored on the Internet, healthcare workers can order lab tests and prescriptions, admit patients to hospitals, and refer patients to other physicians more easily; also, test and consultation results can be directed to the right patient records automatically. All patient information can be accessible from one central location; finding critical health information is faster and more efficient, especially if a patient falls ill while away from home. There are other uses for healthcare Web sites. Telemedicine, for example, enables medical professionals to conduct remote consultation, diagnosis, and conferencing, which can save on office overhead and travel costs. In addition, personal health information systems (PHISs) can make interactive medical tools available to the public. In addition, virtual medicine on the Internet enables specialists at major hospitals to operate on patients remotely. Telepresence surgery, as it is called, allows surgeons to operate all over the world without physically traveling anywhere. A robot performs the surgery based on the digitized information sent by the surgeon via the Internet. These robots have stereoscopic cameras to create three-dimensional images for the surgeon’s virtual reality goggles and tactical sensors that provide position information to the surgeon. I. Politics Most political candidates now make use of Web sites in campaigns. The sites are a helpful tool for announcing candidates’ platforms, publicizing their voting records, posting notices of upcoming appearances and debates, and even raising campaign funds. Some claim the Internet has helped empower voters and revitalize the democratic process. Being well informed about candidates’ stances on political issues is much easier with Web sites, for example, and online voting may make voting easier for people who in the past could not make it to polling sites. In addition, there is the possibility of legislators being able to remain in their home states, close to their constituents, and voting on bills via an online system. V. Intranets An intranet is a network within an organization that uses Internet protocols and technologies (e.g., TCP/IP, which includes File Transfer Protocol [FTP], SMTP, and others) for collecting, storing, and disseminating useful information that supports business activities, such as sales, customer service, human resources, and marketing. Intranets are also called corporate portals. An intranet uses Internet technologies to solve organizational problems that have been solved in the past by proprietary databases, groupware, scheduling, and workflow applications. An intranet is different from a LAN, although it uses the same physical connections. An intranet is an application or service that uses an organization’s computer network. In a typical intranet configuration users in the organization can access all Web servers, but the system administrator must define each user’s level of access. Employees can communicate with one another and post information on their departmental Web servers. Departmental Web servers can be used to host Web sites. A. The Internet vs. Intranets The Internet is a public network; an intranet is a private network. Any user can access the Internet, but access to an intranet is only for certain users and must be approved. Despite these differences, both use the same protocol, TCP/IP, and both use browsers for accessing information. Typically, they use similar languages for developing applications, such as Java, and offer files in similar formats. An advantage of an intranet is that because the organization can control which browser is used, it can specify a browser that supports the technologies the organization uses, such as Internet telephony or video conferencing. B. Applications of an Intranet A well-designed intranet can make the following types of information, among others, available to the entire organization in a timely manner to improve an organization’s efficiency and effectiveness: human resources management, sales and marketing, production and operations, and accounting and finance. Intranets can also help organizations move from a calendar or schedule-based document-publishing strategy to one that is based on events or needs. With an intranet, a company can make updates as soon as they are needed, in response to company events rather than a set schedule. Intranets reduce the costs and time of document production, too. Intranets eliminate the duplication and distribution steps, and often the step of migrating to a publishing application can be streamlined or eliminated. VI. Extranets An extranet is a secure network that uses the Internet and Web technologies to connect intranets of business partners so communication between organizations or between consumers is possible. Extranets are considered a type of interorganizational system (IOS). These systems facilitate information exchange among business partners. Some of these systems, such as electronic funds transfer (EFT) and e-mail, have been used in traditional businesses as well as in e-commerce. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is another common IOS. Some organizations allow customers and business partners to access their intranets for specific purposes. Often, an organization makes a portion of its intranet accessible to external parties as its extranet. Comprehensive security measures must ensure that access is granted only to authorized users and trusted business partners. There are numerous applications of extranets. Extranets not only allow companies to reduce internetworking costs, they give companies a competitive advantage, which can lead to increased profits. A successful extranet requires a comprehensive security system and management control, however. The security system should include access control, user-based authentication, encryption, and auditing and reporting capabilities. An extranet offers an organization the same benefits as an intranet but provides other advantages, such as the following: coordination, feedback, customer satisfaction, cost reduction, and expedited communication. VII. New Trends: The Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 Eras Web 2.0 refers to the trend toward Web applications that are more interactive than traditional Web applications. Collaboration or e-collaboration is one of the key components of Web 2.0. Most experts agree that Web 3.0, also known as “the Semantic Web,” provides personalization that allows users to access the Web more intelligently. Computers, not their users, will perform the tedious work involved in finding, combining, and acting upon information on the Web. The main focus of Web 2.0 has been on social networking and collaboration. Web 3.0, on the other hand, focuses on “intelligent” Web applications using various artificial intelligence technologies. These include natural language processing, artificial neural networks, and intelligent agents. The goal is to tailor online searching and requests to users’ specific search patterns, preferences, and needs. One part of Web 3.0 could be the semantic Web proposed by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee. According to Berners-Lee, the Web can be made more useful by using methods (such as content tags) that will enable computers to understand what they are displaying and communicate more effectively with one another. Nova Spivack’s Twine (www.slideshare.net/novaspivack/web-evolution-nova-spivack-twine) is one of the first online services to use Web 3.0 technologies. Twine automatically organizes information, learns about users’ specific interests and search patterns, and makes recommendations based on this information. A. Blogs A blog (short for Weblog) is a journal or newsletter that is updated frequently and intended for the general public. Blogs reflect their authors’ personalities and often include philosophical reflections and opinions on social or political issues. One popular blogging tool is Tumblr (www.tumblr.com), which allows users to post anything—text, photos, quotes, links, music, and videos—from their browsers, phones, desktops, e-mail programs, and so forth. There are also blogs on Web sites that are dedicated to particular topics or organizations; these are periodically updated with the latest news and views. Microblogs, a newer version of traditional blogs, enable users to create smaller versions of blog posts (known as microposts); these can take the form of short sentences or individual images or links. B. Wikis A wiki is a type of Web site that allows users to add, delete, and sometimes modify content. One of the best-known examples is the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. What is unique about wikis is that an information user can also be an information provider. The most serious problem with wikis is the quality of information, because allowing anyone to modify content affects the content’s accuracy. Wikis have caught on at many companies, too. For example, an Intel employee developed Intelpedia as a way for employees around the world to share information on company history, project progress, and more. However, some employees do not like their content being edited by others. For this reason, “corporate wikis” were developed; these include tighter security and access controls. Corporate wikis are used for a variety of purposes, such as posting news about product development. Many open-source software packages for creating wikis are available, such as MediaWiki and TWiki. C. Social Networking Sites Social networking refers to a broad class of Web sites and services that allow users to connect with friends, family, and colleagues online as well as meet people with similar interests or hobbies. More than 100 of these social networks are available on the Internet. Two of the most popular are Facebook and Twitter. In addition, LinkedIn is a professional networking site where one can connect with professional contacts and exchange ideas and job opportunities with a large network of professionals. Social networking sites are also popular for business use. For example, many companies use Twitter to keep track of customer opinions about their products. Companies also use social networking sites for advertising; they might include links to their company Web sites or use pay-per-click (PPC) features. PPC is an Internet advertising method used on Web sites, in which advertisers pay their host only when their ad is clicked. D. Business Application of Social Networks Social networks similar to the Internet put small businesses on the same footing as large organizations by providing an inexpensive platform for interacting with customers and selling products and services. Here are some specific examples that show how a business can use social networks in order to promote its products and services: Facebook—a business can create a Facebook business fan page. Twitter—a business can connect with its customers in real time. Pinterest—a business can showcase its product offerings. LinkedIn Groups—a great venue for businesses to enter into a professional dialogue with people in similar industries. Groups provide a place to share content with people and businesses with similar interest. YouTube—using this platform, a business can create video content and “how-to” videos. Social media platforms like Yelp, FourSquare, and Level Up are great for brick-and-mortar businesses. A business should register on these sites to claim a location spot. Businesses should offer incentives, such as check-in rewards or special discounts. Customer reviews on these sites are very helpful for attracting new customers. E. RSS Feeds RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds are a fast, easy way to distribute Web content in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format. RSS is a subscription service, and new content from Web sites that one has selected is delivered via a feed reader. The content all goes to one convenient spot where one can read “headlines.” XML, a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), is a flexible method for creating common formats for information. Unlike HTML tags that specify layout and appearance, XML tags represent the kind of content being posted and transmitted. Although both HTML and XML are tag-based languages, they have different purposes. XML was designed to improve interoperability and data sharing between different systems, which is why RSS feeds are in XML. Any system can interpret the data in an RSS feed the correct way because it is based on the data’s meaning, not its format and layout. F. Podcasting A podcast is an electronic audio file, such as an MP3 file, that is posted on the Web for users to download to their mobile devices or even their computers. Users can also listen to it over the Web. A podcast has a specific URL and is defined with an XML item tag. Podcasts are usually collected by an “aggregator,” such as iTunes or iPodder. Each time a new podcast is available, the aggregator collects it automatically, using the URL, and makes it available for subscribers. Syndication feeds are one way of announcing a podcast’s availability. Organizations use podcasts to update people on their products and services, new trends, changes in organizational structure, and merger/acquisition news. When multimedia information is involved, the terms video podcast, vodcast, or vidcast are sometimes used. G. The Internet2 Another recent development is Internet2 (I2), a collaborative effort involving more than 200 U.S. universities and corporations (including AT&T, IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco Systems) to develop advanced Internet technologies and applications for higher education and academic research. The I2 project started in 1987 and was planned as a decentralized network in which universities located in the same geographic region form alliances to create a local connection point-of-presence called a gigapop. Gigapops connect a variety of high-performance networks, and a gigapop’s main function is the exchange of I2 traffic with a specified bandwidth. I2 relies on the NSFNET and MCI’s very highspeed backbone network service (vBNS). This nationwide network operates at 622 Mbps, using MCI’s advanced switching and fiber-optic transmission technologies. Applications of I2 include: Learningware—this suite of applications is intended to make education more accessible, targeting distance learning and self-education. Digital Library—this initiative, started in the 1990s, aimed to create an electronic repository of educational resources, such as textbooks and journals. Teleimmersion—a teleimmersion system allows people in different locations to share a virtual environment created on the Web. Virtual reality has important applications in education, science, manufacturing, and collaborative decision making. Virtual laboratories—these are environments designed specifically for scientific and engineering applications, and they allow a group of researchers connected to I2 to work on joint projects, such as large-scale simulations and global databases. VIII. The Internet of Everything: The Next Big Network The Internet of Everything (IoE) refers to a Web-based development in which people, processes, data, and things are interconnected via the Internet using various means, such as RFID devices, barcodes, wireless systems (using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi), and QR codes. Whereas “IoE” refers to all the connections that would be made, the Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the physical objects that are connected to the Internet and, therefore, to all the other physical objects. And they will likely be smart devices that are uniquely identified though IP addresses, RFIDs, QR codes, or sensors. The technology behind the Internet of Everything will facilitate, among other things, automated inventory systems in the retail industry, automated and programmable appliances in domestic households, and road and bridge systems that will be able to detect a problem as soon as it occurs and notify the authorities. In general, the Internet of Everything could help solve many 21st-century social problems, such as hunger, water pollution, adverse climate change, and increasing energy costs. More specific benefits could include people being able to take more effective preventive measures regarding their health by wearing sensor-embedded clothing that measures vital signs; the resulting data can be securely and quickly transmitted to doctors. Individuals, businesses, and governments around the globe will benefit from IoE technology; security, privacy, and reliability will play a major role in the success of this technology, as it does for any network. There needs to be close coordination and communication among these three key players to protect the privacy and integrity of the information that is being shared on this global network. Key Terms The Internet is a worldwide collection of millions of computers and networks of all sizes. It is a network of networks. (P.141) The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), a project started in 1969 by the U.S. Department of Defense, was the beginning of the Internet. (P.141) The Internet backbone is a foundation network linked with fiber-optic cables that can support very high bandwidth. It is made up of many interconnected government, academic, commercial, and other high-capacity data routers. (P.142) With hypermedia, documents include embedded references to audio, text, images, video, and other documents. (P.142) The embedded references in hypermedia documents are called hypertext; they consist of links users can click to follow a particular thread (topic). (P.142) When information is transferred from one network to another, domain names are converted to IP addresses by the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol. Servers using this protocol (called DNS servers) maintain lists of computers’ and Web sites’ addresses and their associated IP addresses. (P.144) Uniform resource locators (URLs), also called universal resource locators, identify a Web page. A URL is the address of a document or site on the Internet. (P.144) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the language used to create Web pages. It defines a page’s layout and appearance by using tags and attributes. A tag delineates a section of the page, such as the header or body; an attribute specifies a value, such as a font color, for a page component. Navigational tools are used to travel from Web site to Web site—as in “surf” the Internet. (P.146) A search engine, such as Google or Ask, is an information system that enables users to retrieve data from the Web by using search terms. (P.146) Directories are indexes of information based on keywords embedded in documents, which make it possible for search engines to find what you are looking for. (P.146) Discussion groups are usually for exchanging opinions and ideas on a specific topic, usually of a technical or scholarly nature. Group members post messages or articles that others in the group can read. (P.148) Newsgroups are typically more general in nature and can cover any topic; they allow people to get together for fun or for business purposes. (P.148) Internet Relay Chat (IRC) enables users in chat rooms to exchange text messages with people in other locations in real time. (P.148) Instant messaging (IM) is a service for communicating with others via a private “chat room” on the Internet. (P.149) Internet telephony is using the Internet rather than the telephone network to exchange spoken conversations. (P.149) Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is the protocol used for Internet telephony. (P.149) An intranet is a network within an organization that uses Internet protocols and technologies (e.g., TCP/IP, which includes File Transfer Protocol [FTP], SMTP, and others) for collecting, storing, and disseminating useful information that supports business activities, such as sales, customer service, human resources, and marketing. (P.153) An extranet is a secure network that uses the Internet and Web technologies to connect intranets of business partners so communication between organizations or between consumers is possible. (P.155) Web 2.0 refers to the trend toward Web applications that are more interactive than traditional Web applications. Collaboration or e-collaboration is one of its key components. (P.157) A blog (short for Weblog) is a journal or newsletter that is updated frequently and intended for the general public. Blogs reflect their authors’ personalities and often include philosophical reflections and opinions on social or political issues. (P.158) A wiki is a type of Web site that allows users to add, delete, and sometimes modify content. (P.158) Social networking refers to a broad class of Web sites and services that allows users to connect with friends, family, and colleagues online as well as meet people with similar interests or hobbies. (P.158) RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds are a fast, easy way to distribute Web content in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format. It is a subscription service, and new content from Web sites you have selected is delivered via a feed reader to one convenient spot. (P.160) A podcast is an electronic audio file, such as an MP3 file, that is posted on the Web for users to download to their mobile devices—iPhones, iPods, and iPads, for example—or even their computers. (P.161) Internet2 (I2) is a collaborative effort involving more than 200 U.S. universities and corporations to develop advanced Internet technologies and applications for higher education and academic research. (P.161) A gigapop is a local connection point-of-presence that connects a variety of high-performance networks, and its main function is the exchange of I2 traffic with a specified bandwidth. (P.161) The Internet of Everything (IoE) refers to a Web-based development in which people, processes, data, and things are interconnected via the Internet using various means, such as RFID devices, barcodes, wireless systems (using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi), and QR codes. (P.162) The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the physical objects that are connected to the Internet and, therefore, to all the other physical objects. (P.162) Instructor Manual for MIS Hossein Bidgoli 9781305632004, 9781337625999, 9781337625982, 9781337406925

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