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Chapter 6—Consumer Decision Making TRUE/FALSE 1. If consumer behavior is not well understood, a marketer will have difficulty creating an appropriate marketing mix. Answer: True Rationale: Understanding consumer behavior is crucial for developing effective marketing strategies that resonate with target audiences, ensuring the marketing mix addresses consumer preferences and motivations. 2. A stimulus is a unit of input from either an external or internal source that can affect sight, smell, taste, touch, or hearing. Answer: True Rationale: A stimulus refers to an input that can affect the senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing), influencing consumer perceptions and responses to products or marketing messages. 3. Chantel would like to try a good Mexican restaurant for dinner tonight, so she asks a couple of coworkers for suggestions. She is using an internal information search. Answer: False Rationale: Chantel is using an external information search; specifically, a nonmarketing-controlled information source. 4. Consumers with prior experience in buying a certain product will spend less time searching for product information and will limit the number of products that they consider. Answer: True Rationale: Consumers with prior experience tend to rely on familiarity and past knowledge, reducing the need for extensive information search and narrowing down their consideration set to familiar and trusted options. 5. When Alan buys rock-climbing equipment, he will only buy Black Diamond, Petzl, Edelweiss, or Wild Country brands even though other brands exist. These listed brands make up Alan’s awareness set. Answer: False Rationale: This is Alan’s evoked set. 6. Once an individual’s evoked set has been established, evaluation of those alternatives will determine what information must be obtained during the information search. Answer: False Rationale: The information search stage usually yields an evoked set and precedes evaluation of alternatives. 7. There are several tools marketing managers can use to increase cognitive dissonance, which enhances consumers’ attitude toward their brand. Answer: False Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is an inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and value or opinions, so marketers attempt to reduce the effects of cognitive dissonance. 8. The purchase of products like soft drinks, cleaning products, and gasoline generally exemplify routine response behavior. Answer: True Rationale: Routine response behavior describes purchasing decisions made with minimal effort and little deliberation, often for low-cost and frequently purchased items like soft drinks, cleaning products, and gasoline, where consumers have established habitual buying patterns. 9. Noah perceives the purchase of a tattoo to be a socially risky decision because he thinks that people will judge him unfairly if he has a tattoo. Hayley, however, does not perceive getting a tattoo as particularly risky behavior. As far as social risk is concerned, getting a tattoo will be a higher-involvement activity for Noah than for Hayley. Answer: True Rationale: Social risk perception varies among individuals; for Noah, who perceives potential judgment for having a tattoo, the decision involves higher personal involvement compared to Hayley, who does not perceive the same level of social risk. 10. In general, detailed, informative advertisements are most effective for high-involvement products because consumers actively search for additional information prior to making their decisions. Answer: True Rationale: Rationale: Detailed and informative advertisements cater to consumers of high-involvement products who engage in extensive information search and deliberation before making purchase decisions, aligning with their need for thorough product understanding and evaluation. 11. The United States, unlike some other countries, does not have a status structure or social class system. Answer: False Rationale: The United States has a social class system, which is a cultural factor influencing consumer behavior. 12. The majority of Americans today define themselves as middle class, regardless of their actual income or educational attainment. Answer: True Rationale: The majority of Americans today define themselves as middle class, regardless of their actual income or educational attainment. 13. A newly hired employee at an advertising agency chose the clothes she purchased for work by observing the clothes she saw worn in The Apprentice, a popular television reality show. In this example, the women hoping to work for Donald Trump served as primary membership groups. Answer: False Rationale: A primary membership group requires face-to-face membership, so a television show cannot serve as a primary membership group. 14. Opinion leaders are often the first to try new products and services. Answer: True Rationale: Opinion leaders are influential individuals who are often early adopters of new products and services, setting trends and shaping consumer preferences through their actions and recommendations. 15. One way marketers are identifying true opinion leaders is by looking to teen blogs to identify the social trends that are shaping consumer behavior. Answer: True Rationale: Marketers can identify true opinion leaders by monitoring teen blogs and social media platforms to track emerging social trends and insights that influence consumer behavior, leveraging these influencers to promote products effectively. 16. The socialization process involves adopting the values of the culture in which a person was raised and is usually strongly influenced by the family. Answer: True Rationale: The socialization process involves acquiring and internalizing cultural values and norms, primarily influenced by family and other social institutions, shaping individual behaviors and consumer attitudes within society. 17. Laurie would like to be fashionable and trendy. This would be considered her real self-image. Answer: False Rationale: This would be Laurie’s ideal self-image, which is the way she would like to be. Real self-image is how she perceives herself. 18. Selective exposure occurs when consumers change information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. Answer: False Rationale: Selective exposure is the process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others. Selective distortion occurs when consumers change information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. 19. An ad showing a thirsty athlete drinking a cold bottle of Gatorade is an example of an appeal to self-actualization needs. Answer: False Rationale: It is an appeal to physiological needs, not self-actualization needs. 20. There are two types of learning: concrete and abstract. Answer: False Rationale: The two types of learning are experiential and conceptual. 21. By keeping the blue triangle in the corner and the Nabisco name on several similar Nabisco snack products, Nabisco is attempting to capitalize on stimulus generalization. Answer: True Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when consumers transfer their learned response to one stimulus (such as a brand logo or design) to similar stimuli (other products with similar branding), allowing Nabisco to leverage familiarity and brand recognition across its product line to enhance consumer preference and loyalty. 22. Stimulus discrimination is a learned ability to differentiate among similar products. Answer: True Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to the ability to distinguish between similar stimuli or products based on learned cues or characteristics, helping consumers make informed choices and avoid confusion in the marketplace. 23. An attitude is a physiological difference among consumers. Answer: False Rationale: An attitude is a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object. 24. It is usually easier to change consumer beliefs about a service attribute than a product attribute. Answer: False Rationale: The opposite is true. Changing beliefs about a service can be especially difficult because service attributes are usually intangible. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The processes consumers use when making purchase decisions are called: A. consumer behavior. B. marketing. C. consumerism. D. perceptual mapping. E. database mining. Answer: A Rationale: Consumer behavior describes how consumers make purchase decisions. 2. Which step in the consumer decision-making process is a result of an imbalance between actual and desired states? A. Evaluation of alternatives B. Want recognition C. Purchase D. Need recognition E. Postpurchase behavior Answer: D Rationale: Need recognition is the result of an imbalance between actual and desired states. 3. Sam was driving when someone ran a stop sign and totaled his car. His car cannot be repaired, so he realized he’s going to have to get another one. What stage of the consumer decision-making process does this represent? A. Need recognition B. Purchase C. Evaluation of alternatives D. Postpurchase behavior E. Information search Answer: A Rationale: Sam is at the need recognition stage, which is the result of an imbalance between actual and desired states. 4. Which of the following is any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing? A. Tactic B. Need C. Stimulus D. Want E. Desire Answer: C Rationale: Stimuli can be either internal, such as occurrences you experience, or external, which are influences from an outside source. Both affect one or more of the five senses. 5. Rod saw a television commercial for a Honda S2000 and wants to test-drive one. The commercial is an example of a(n) _____ stimulus. A. internal B. external C. primary D. secondary E. nonpersonal Answer: B Rationale: External stimuli are influences from an outside source such as a television commercial. 6. As a result of hearing the adventures of returning soldiers, Monroe decided to enlist in the U.S. Army. These stories he heard from the soldiers acted as: A. affective states B. external stimuli C. internal stimuli D. purchase outcomes E. a dissonance creator Answer: B Rationale: External stimuli are influences from an outside source such as one’s friends. 7. Which of the following is the BEST example of an internal stimulus that would create need recognition? A. A friend comments on how shabby your coat looks B. A radio station runs an ad for a new video game rental store C. A headache D. An invitation to a graduation for which you need a gift E. A billboard promoting a new national Internet service provider Answer: C Rationale: Aches and pains are generated internally by your body without outside inputs from anything or anyone. 8. Lisa has to have a Diet Coke for breakfast. At a breakfast meeting, she was offered coffee and refused. She only wanted a Diet Coke. This illustrates that Lisa needs Diet Coke to: A. satisfy a want B. satisfy a need C. satisfy a belief D. satisfy a physiological drive E. satisfy a momentary stimulus Answer: A Rationale: A want is often brand specific, whereas a need is something an individual depends on to function efficiently. A person may need food but wants specific brands. 9. The imbalance between actual and desired states is sometimes referred to as the: A. Want-got gap. B. self-actualization quandary. C. either-or principle. D. got-want gap. E. cognitive-dissonance paradox. Answer: A Rationale: In other words, there is a difference between what a consumer has and what he or she would like to have. 10. After a need or want is recognized, a consumer may search for information about the various alternatives available to satisfy it. This occurs during which part of the consumer decision-making process? A. Evaluation of alternatives B. Information search C. Cognitive dissonance D. Consideration stage E. Product identification Answer: B Rationale: After recognizing a need or want, consumers search for information about the various alternatives available to satisfy it. 11. The steps of the consumer decision-making process in order are: A. need recognition, alternative aggregation, re evaluation, purchase decision, post purchase behavior B. need positioning, stimulus response reactions, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, post purchase behavior C. need positioning, alternative aggregation and divestment, purchase decision, post purchase evaluation D. information search, need positioning, evaluation of alternatives, product trial, purchase decision, post purchase satisfaction E. need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post purchase behavior Answer: E Rationale: See Exhibit 6.1. According to Exhibit 6.1, the consumer decision-making process includes the steps of need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post-purchase behavior, reflecting the sequential stages consumers typically go through when making purchasing decisions. 12. While looking at the DVDs at Target, Tee tried to remember the name of the action movie starring Harrison Ford as an archeologist so he could buy the DVD. Which step of the consumer decision-making process is this? A. Antecedent search B. Need recognition C. External information search D. Alternative evaluation E. Internal information search Answer: E Rationale: After a need or want is recognized, a consumer may be motivated to search for information. In this case, the information was already stored in his memory. 13. Which of the following products would most likely require the purchaser to use only an internal information search? A. A doctor for a recently detected illness B. A new washer and dryer C. A formal dance D. A favorite restaurant you love to patronize regularly E. Choosing a movie to see at the theater Answer: D Rationale: Internal information search is used with information stored in one’s memory. A favorite restaurant would be in a consumer’s memory. 14. The way a consumer goes about addressing a need is called a: A. need B. tactic C. stimulus D. want E. desire Answer: D Rationale: Marketing managers can create wants on the part of the consumer, which are ways a consumer goes about satisfying a need. 15. An external information search is especially important when: A. there is a great deal of past experience B. there are high costs associated with making an incorrect decision C. the cost of gathering information is high D. buying frequently purchased, low-cost items E. there is little risk of making an incorrect decision Answer: B Rationale: If a consumer perceives a purchase to involve high risk (financial, social, etc.), an external search will lower the risk by providing more information. 16. Which of the following is an information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion? A. External B. Nonmarketing-controlled C. Marketing-controlled D. Unbiased E. Primary Answer: B Rationale: Nonmarketing-controlled information sources do not originate with marketers promoting the product. 17. Bethany is in the market for a new cell phone. She tweets to her followers on Twitter: “Hey, looking for some info about good cell phone deals. Any advice?” Bethany is using a(n) _____ information source to help her make her decision. A. experiential B. marketing-controlled C. internal D. unbiased E. nonmarketing-controlled Answer: E Rationale: Nonmarketing-controlled information sources do not originate with marketers promoting the product. 18. A product information source that originates with marketers promoting the product is referred to as a: A. manipulative information source B. primary information source C. secondary information source D. marketing-controlled information source E. biased information source Answer: D Rationale: Marketing-controlled information sources, such as advertising and promotion, originate with marketers promotion the product. 19. While Robinson was looking at the CDs at Walmart, he was trying to remember the name of the group that sang the song he liked on last night’s episode of his favorite television show so he could buy it. Since recording companies pay to have their CDs promoted on television, the source of information Robinson is trying to recall is: A. a fortuitously evoked set B. marketing controlled C. nonmarketing controlled D. unitary data E. a credible consideration set Answer: B Rationale: Marketing-controlled information sources are product information sources that originate with marketers promoting the product. 20. All of the following are examples of marketing-controlled information sources EXCEPT: A. a review of laser printers in Consumer Reports. B. brochures about kitchen products sold by the Home Depot. C. a coupon for $1.00 off of laundry detergent. D. a recipe for oatmeal raisin cookies on a package of oatmeal. E. an advertisement in a magazine. Answer: A Rationale: A review by Consumer Reports would not be controlled by any marketer. 21. David is shopping for tires for his Audi. He looks in the yellow pages of the local phone book and calls Costco, Sam’s Club, Sears, and a local car repair shop. In his decision-making process, David is using: A. marketing-controlled information sources B. demographic information sources C. nonmarketing-controlled information sources D. secondary data sources E. internal search sources Answer: A Rationale: Marketing-controlled information sources are product information sources that originate with marketers promoting the product. 22. All of the following influence the extent to which an individual conducts an external search for information EXCEPT: A. perceived risk B. knowledge C. prior experience D. social class E. level of interest Answer: D Rationale: Social class wouldn’t necessarily affect the amount of information search a consumer would conduct. 23. A group of brands resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose is referred to as the buyer’s: A. evoked set B. primary set C. inert set D. complete set E. justifiable set Answer: A Rationale: A buyer’s evoked set is the set of alternatives from which a buyer can choose; also called consideration set. 24. Warren loves to go to the beach on his vacation but hates to have to worry about the possibility of hurricanes. As Warren looked for where he should go on vacation this summer, he consulted a publication called Smart Money and learned the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao are not in the hurricane belt. Now he will only consider these island resorts as possible vacation destinations. This group of resort islands is called Warren’s: A. involvement set B. evaluative set C. evolved set D. evoked set E. intuitive set Answer: D Rationale: An evoked set is the set of brands a consumer recalls and would consider as possible purchase choices. 25. Tariq is throwing a party tonight and needs to order a couple of pizzas. There are many pizza joints in town, but Tariq has narrowed down his choices to Tony’s Pizzeria, Domino’s, and Montoni’s. These three restaurants represent Tariq’s: A. evaluative criteria B. dissonance suppressors C. discretionary discriminators D. discriminatory set E. evoked set Answer: E Rationale: The evoked set is a group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose. 26. Another name for evoked set is: A. array B. reminder assortment C. induced memory D. consideration set E. awareness set Answer: D Rationale: These are the brands the buyer will consider and choose from. 27. Rose is shopping for a new camera. She has set a maximum of $250 as the highest price she will pay, so she doesn’t even bother considering cameras that cost more than that. Rose is narrowing the number of available choices by using a: A. cost margin B. product attribute C. cutoff D. boundary E. knockoff Answer: C Rationale: Cutoffs are either minimum or maximum levels of an attribute that an alternative must pass to be considered. 28. Extending a well-known and respected brand name from one product category to another product category is referred to as: A. brand stretching B. brand extensions C. brand bouncing D. brand transfer E. brand building Answer: B Rationale: Brand extensions are common a way companies employ categorization to their advantage. 29. Arm & Hammer is a well-known and respected brand of baking soda. The company has put its brand name on several products, such as laundry detergent, toothpaste, kitty litter, and many more. These are examples of: A. brand transfers B. brand modifications C. brand banks D. brand hierarchies E. brand extensions Answer: E Rationale: Brand extensions occur when a well-known and respected brand name from one product category is extended to other product categories. 30. Mai Lin is checking out at the grocery store when she notices the candy display right next to the cash register. “I haven’t had a Mounds bar in years,” she thinks. “That looks good! I think I’ll grab one.” So she hands the candy to cashier and says, “I’ll take this too.” Mai Lin has just made a(n): A. partially planned purchase B. unplanned purchase C. unwise purchase D. fully planned purchase E. frivolous purchase Answer: B Rationale: Unplanned purchases are impulse purchases. She did not go to the store specifically to buy the candy; she decided to buy it only when she saw it in the display as she was checking out. 31. Which of the following items is MOST likely to be a fully planned purchase? A. a pair of jeans B. a bottle of soda pop C. a motorcycle D. a flashlight E. All of the above. Answer: C Rationale: When a person is buying an expensive or complex item, such as a motorcycle, it is often a fully planned purchase based on a lot of information. 32. Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions is referred to as: A. cognitive dissonance. B. psychological discomfort. C. affect referral. D. perceptual imbalance. E. Dissatisfaction. Answer: A Rationale: This is the definition of cognitive dissonance. 33. Andrea just purchased a trip to Jamaica as a present to her husband for their tenth wedding anniversary. Andrea is anxious about the trip, afraid Bill will not like her choice of location and worried she spent too much money. Andrea is experiencing: A. selective dissatisfaction B. temporal distortion C. perceptual disharmony D. cognitive dissonance E. self-actualization involvement Answer: D Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is the term for post purchase tension and anxiety. 34. Feeding her family healthy foods is important to Terri. She makes a point of buying organic products as often as possible. As she goes through the grocery store she remembers that she needs milk, so she heads over to the dairy case, intending to purchase the organic variety. She notices that a carton of organic milk is priced at $4.89; however, the store-brand milk is on sale for 99 cents. She hesitates for a moment, then selects the cheaper store brand, telling herself that she just can’t pass up such a good bargain. As Terri wonders if she made the right purchase decision, she is experiencing: A. attribute remorse B. cognitive dissonance C. evaluation distortion D. consumer cognition E. perceptual disharmony Answer: B Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is an inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions. 35. All of the following are ways consumers can reduce cognitive dissonance EXCEPT: A. justifying the decision B. seeking new information C. sending a letter to the marketer D. avoiding contradictory information E. returning the product Answer: C Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is the inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions. 36. How can marketers reduce consumers’ cognitive dissonance? A. Offer guarantees B. Offer sales promotions C. Avoid contradictory information D. Change the product E. Ignore it Answer: A Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is an inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions, and marketers can reduce it by sending a postpurchase thank you or letter, displaying product superiority in ads, or offering guarantees. 37. _____ is the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior. A. Economic value B. Involvement C. Opportunity cost D. Temporal cost E. Perceived level of personal risk Answer: B Rationale: This is the definition of involvement. 38. The types of products people purchase using routine response behavior are typically: A. frequently purchased, low-cost items B. frequently purchased, high-cost items C. infrequently purchased, low-cost items D. infrequently purchased, high-cost items E. all types of items, regardless of price or frequency of purchase Answer: A Rationale: Routine response behavior is the type of decision making exhibited by consumers buying frequently purchased, low-cost goods and services. 39. _____ is characterized by low involvement, a short time frame, an internal-only information search, and low costs. A. Limited decision making B. Routine response behavior C. Emotional buying D. Intensive decision making E. Temporally-limited behavior Answer: B Rationale: See Exhibit 6.2. According to Exhibit 6.2, routine response behavior is characterized by low involvement, a short time frame, an internal-only information search, and low costs, making it appropriate for frequently purchased products with established preferences and minimal decision-making effort. 40. Each week, Jess comes to the supermarket with a list of essential items: milk, bread, peanut butter, and chocolate. This is an example of: A. buyer’s harmony B. situational convenience C. routine response behavior D. limited decision making E. consistent decision making Answer: C Rationale: The buying of frequently purchased, low-cost goods is typically routine response behavior. 41. Which of the following activities is most likely to be an example of routine response behavior? A. The purchase of a three-week vacation cruise B. A homeowner’s purchase of a new grill for $600 C. The first-time purchase of a copy machine for a home office D. The purchase of toilet paper E. The purchase of an infant car seat Answer: D Rationale: Only the toilet paper is an example of routine response behavior, as it is a frequently purchased, low-cost good and requires little search and decision time. 42. The type of decision making that requires a moderate amount of time for gathering information and deliberating about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category is referred to as: A. routine response behavior B. limited decision making C. extensive decision making D. uninvolved decision making E. affective decision making Answer: B Rationale: This is the definition of limited decision making. 43. Mario usually purchases Old Spice deodorant. Unfortunately, the drug store is sold out of Old Spice today, so Mario will have to choose a brand that’s in stock. In making his decision, Mario will engage in _____ consumer decision making. A. limited B. extended C. habitual D. classical E. routine Answer: A Rationale: Mario is familiar with deodorant and what it does but he is unfamiliar with the specific brands he has to choose from. 44. The electricity for lighting outdoor billboards is powered by transformers. The operator of a company that installs and manages billboards has purchased many such transformers. Today, he plans to buy a replacement for one that was destroyed by a recent hurricane. Before making this purchase, he will look at cost and also see if he can find one that is more weatherproof. He wants to make sure he buys the best transformer for the job and that he does not pay more money than he should. In other words, he will engage in _____ decision making. A. limited B. extended C. habitual D. classical E. routine Answer: A Rationale: The billboard operator is familiar with the product, but he is not immediately knowledgeable about the products currently on the market. 45. Nellie’s boss sells merchandise through Internet auctions. He needs to mail a $1,500 hexagonal antique picture frame. He has instructed Nellie to buy packaging that will make sure the oddly shaped frame arrives at its new owner’s home undamaged, but he has not told her how or where she will find such packaging. Given that she frequently has to purchase packaging supplies, what kind of purchase decision process would she most likely employ? A. High-involvement response behavior B. Low-involvement decision making C. Extensive decision making D. Limited decision making E. Routine response behavior Answer: D Rationale: She will most likely use limited decision making because she is familiar with packaging products but is unfamiliar with one that meets the exact size and protective criteria. 46. When a consumer is purchasing an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item, he or she is practicing: A. extensive decision making B. cognitive harmonizing C. limited problem solving D. strategic behavior E. stimulus discrimination Answer: A Rationale: This is the definition of extensive decision making. 47. Alanna is looking into purchasing a scooter as gas prices continue to rise. She needs a reasonably priced, comfortable, and safe scooter with room to store her books. She is not familiar with scooters, and this is a major purchase for her. The purchase will probably involve: A. low-involvement problem solving B. low-involvement decision making C. extensive decision making D. limited decision making E. dedicated cognitive behavior Answer: C Rationale: Customers practice extensive decision making when purchasing an unfamiliar and expensive or infrequently used product. 48. Kim places huge importance on what she wears to sing in front of her church and therefore takes her time to shop for the right clothes and shoes. This is due to the: A. opportunity costs B. fear of cognitive dissonance C. situational factors D. social visibility of the products E. cost of the products Answer: D Rationale: The level of involvement increases as social visibility of a product increases. 49. This type of risk occurs if consumers feel that making the wrong decision might cause some concern or anxiety. A. Financial risk B. Psychological risk C. Physiological risk D. Social risk E. Situational risk Answer: B Rationale: Some consumers, for example, might feel guilty about purchasing regular ice cream rather than fat-free frozen yogurt. 50. A marketing manager would expect his or her product to be a high-involvement product for most consumers if it: A. is a product adaptation of a market leader B. is a necessity C. has not been purchased before D. has low social visibility E. requires substantial financial investment Answer: E Rationale: As financial risk increases, consumers’ involvement in the decision increases. 51. All of the following factors directly influence consumers’ level of involvement in the purchase process EXCEPT: A. consumer’s age B. previous experience with the product C. financial risk associated with the product D. social visibility of the purchased item E. perceived risk of negative consequences as a result of the purchase Answer: A Rationale: Age is a demographic variable that doesn’t necessarily influence a consumer’s level of involvement. 52. Your best friend has sought your advice on what type of clothing she should buy for a job interview. If she gets the job, she will be the assistant to the producer of her favorite television program. She really wants this job and considers it a once in a lifetime opportunity. By asking your help with her wardrobe, your friend is most likely trying to: A. eliminate cognitive dissonance B. eliminate the low involvement in the decision C. reduce perceived risk of negative consequences D. increase the chances of selective exposure E. increase the motivation involved in the decision Answer: C Rationale: What is being sought is a reduction in the anxieties felt, because the best friend cannot anticipate the outcomes but believes there may be negative consequences. 53. When Avril went to purchase a birthday card for her new boyfriend, she went to three stores and spent four hours reading over 500 cards before selecting the perfect one. This card (which cost $3.25) is properly designated as a high-involvement product because of: A. product involvement B. situational involvement C. shopping involvement D. enduring involvement E. all of these Answer: B Rationale: The circumstances of the purchase (birthday card for a new boyfriend) turned a typically low involvement purchase into a high-involvement purchase. 54. Marketing managers often use in-store promotions to stimulate sales of: A. technical products B. high-involvement products C. high-priced products D. industrial products E. low-involvement products Answer: E Rationale: Because a low-involvement product has low potential risk for the consumer, it is easier to influence the consumer at the point of purchase. Marketing managers can use attention-getting devices to induce trial purchases. 55. All of the following are examples of individual factors that affect the decision-making process for consumers EXCEPT: A. gender B. age C. reference groups D. lifestyles E. personality Answer: C Rationale: See Exhibit 6.3. Reference groups are a social influence. 56. _____ is the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and is transmitted from one generation to the next. A. Socialization B. Customerization C. Consumerism D. Lifestyle E. Culture Answer: E Rationale: This is the definition of culture. 57. All of the following are characteristics of culture EXCEPT: A. culture is pervasive B. culture is learned C. culture is functional D. culture is an inherent trait E. culture is dynamic Answer: D Rationale: People are not born with culture––it is learned. 58. The fact that mothers in Japan feed their babies freeze-dried sardines and rice and most mothers in the United States would not eat a freeze-dried sardine, much less feed it to their babies, indicates how _____ influences the consumer decision-making process. A. culture B. perception C. motivation D. family life-cycle stage E. reference group membership Answer: A Rationale: Human interaction from one generation to the next shapes the habits of a society. This shaping of habits is a function of culture. 59. Danny and Ron are coworkers in an office. When they have a conversation about work, they stand about 2-3 feet from each other as they chat. The amount of personal space people expect to have when interacting with a coworker is an example of which cultural component? A. customs B. laws C. myths D. values E. artifacts Answer: A Rationale: Personal space is a cultural custom. 60. An enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an alternative mode of conduct is called a(n): A. lifestyle B. self-concept C. attitude D. value E. perception Answer: D Rationale: This is the definition of a value. 61. The most defining element of a culture is its: A. customs B. myths C. language D. laws E. values Answer: E Rationale: The most defining element of a culture is its values. 62. Which of the following statements about culture as an influence on consumer buying behavior is true? A. A firm that understands the culture it is selling to has just as great a probability of selling its product as a firm that has no understanding of the culture. B. Some fear the proliferation of the Internet will increase cultural heterogeneity. C. Language is an important aspect of culture. D. Core values remain the same for all cultures. E. All of the statements about culture as an influence on consumer buying behavior are true. Answer: C Rationale: Without understanding a culture, a firm has little chance of selling its products in it. Some fear widespread use of the Internet will increase cultural homogeneity. Core values differ among cultures. 63. Homogeneous groups of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group are called: A. autonomous personal units B. probability samples C. subcultures D. normative groups E. dissociative groups Answer: C Rationale: This is the definition of subculture. 64. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be described as a subculture? A. Bank managers B. Hispanics C. College students D. Southeasterners E. Quakers Answer: A Rationale: Bank managers are a professional group and do not share demographic characteristics or attitudes and values. 65. A(n) _____ is a group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms. A. extended family B. subculture C. dissociative group D. social class E. procreational family Answer: D Rationale: This is the definition of social class. 66. As a marketing tool in the United States, social class: A. is useful for lifestyle distinctions between groups. B. is just a simple measure of income level. C. offers few insights concerning consumer behavior. D. is not used because the United States is a classless society. E. has demonstrated that all classes of consumers shop in the same stores. Answer: A Rationale: Lifestyles do differ between the existing classes in the United States, offering useful insights for marketers. 67. Which of the following best characterizes the underclass? A. Highly educated underachievers whose incomes are below most comparably educated workers; often referred to as “slackers.” B. People who are not regularly employed and who depend primarily on the welfare system for sustenance; they have little schooling and live below the poverty line. C. Individuals who derive most of their income from the “underground economy” and who tend to “fly under the radar” of the Internal Revenue Service. D. Middle-level blue-collar workers largely working in skilled or semi-skilled service jobs; their income is below the national average. E. Low-paid service workers and operatives; they have some high school education a below-mainstream living standard. Answer: B Rationale: See Exhibit 6.4. According to Exhibit 6.4, the underclass is characterized as people who are not regularly employed, depend primarily on the welfare system, have little schooling, and live below the poverty line, highlighting their economic and social marginalization. 68. Social influences on consumer buying decisions include: A. society, culture, and family B. reference groups, society, opinion leaders, and family C. personality, lifestyle, and reference groups D. reference groups, opinion leaders, and family E. lifestyle, reference groups, and family Answer: D Rationale: Lifestyle and personality are individual influences. Culture and society are cultural factors. 69. A group in society, such as family, friends, or a professional organization, that influences an individual’s purchasing behavior is called a(n): A. reference group B. conformist group C. opinion group D. social group E. influential group Answer: A Rationale: This is the definition of reference group. 70. Reference groups can be categorized very broadly as either: A. primary or secondary B. persuasive or nonpersuasive C. direct or indirect D. positive or negative E. personal or nonpersonal Answer: C Rationale: The two categorizations of reference group are direct and indirect. 71. Which of the following statements about reference groups is true? A. Reference groups stimulate, but do not constrain, consumption behavior. B. Reference groups have strong influence on all brands and product purchases. C. A person can only belong to one reference group. D. Reference groups serve as information sources and influence perceptions. E. Understanding reference groups has not been helpful to marketers. Answer: D Rationale: Reference groups directly influence consumer behavior and provide signals (information) for appropriate behavior, which is very useful for marketers to understand. 72. A direct reference group is composed of: A. face-to-face membership groups that touch people’s lives directly B. only friends, neighbors, and relatives C. role models on television and in the movies D. people the individual does not want to be associated with E. people an individual aspires to be like Answer: A Rationale: Direct reference groups are face-to-face membership groups that touch people’s lives directly, such as family, friends, coworkers, clubs, professional groups, and religious groups. 73. A value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group is called a(n): A. expectation B. reference C. aspiration D. opinion E. norm Answer: E Rationale: Norms are considered acceptable behavior by a given reference group. 74. Dustin is a member of a fraternity that sees no problem of underage drinking. In fact, it is encouraged and expected the members will party and drink alcohol regardless of their age. For this group, drinking is considered a(n): A. norm B. requirement C. expectation D. affect E. primer Answer: A Rationale: Norms are values or attitudes deemed acceptable by a group. 75. All of the following are types of reference groups EXCEPT: A. primary B. secondary C. personal D. aspirational E. non-aspirational Answer: C Rationale: Primary and secondary reference groups are types of direct reference groups, and aspirational and non-aspirational reference groups are types of indirect reference groups. 76. Which category of reference groups represents groups in which a consumer does not have membership? A. Direct B. Indirect C. Primary D. Secondary E. Incomplete Answer: B Rationale: Indirect reference groups are groups consumers do not belong to, but they might aspire to belong to one (aspirational group) or not want to be associated with one (non-aspirational group). 77. David and Steven are best friends. Steven loves to compete in triathlons. David would love to compete with Steven but is a weak swimmer. David decides to take swim lessons to improve his breathing and stroke rhythms. Triathletes are a(n) _____ reference group for David. A. secondary B. primary C. aspirational D. non-aspirational E. direct Answer: C Rationale: Aspirational groups are those groups that someone wishes to join. 78. Jackie and Kevin like to eat at high-end restaurants where they can sit and enjoy their meal without rushing. An ad showing food created “fast from a can” would be appealing to Jackie and Kevin’s _____ reference group. A. non-aspirational B. direct reference C. membership D. integrated E. aspirational Answer: A Rationale: A non-aspirational group is a group the consumer attempts to maintain distance from and does not want to imitate in purchase behavior. 79. You are the brand manager for a new line of allergy-relief drugs. Which of the following methods might you employ to use opinion leadership/reference groups to help stimulate demand for your products? A. Create ads that show the typical consumer performing a healthy lifestyle activity. B. Develop a promotional campaign that tells customers they “deserve to use” these products. C. Drop the price of your new products to the point where customers will realize they are getting a bargain. D. Develop a promotional campaign that emphasizes safety and security needs being fulfilled by these healthcare products. E. Use a series of ads showing different healthcare associations and societies endorsing the use of these healthcare products. Answer: E Rationale: The endorsements use the sanctioning or referral power of sources possessing high credibility. 80. Opinion leaders are: A. wealthy, well-educated individuals. B. experts on all high-involvement consumer goods. C. usually the same individuals for all social classes. D. people who influence others. E. easy to locate and target. Answer: D Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who influence the opinions of others. 81. UGG has a portion of its Web site featuring photographs of celebrities wearing UGG shoes. The celebrities serve as: A. opinion leaders. B. laggards. C. early instigators. D. Gatekeepers. E. aspirational adopters. Answer: A Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who influence the opinions of others. 82. Cultural values and norms are passed down to children through the process of: A. accumulation B. encroachment C. assimilation D. socialization E. manifestation Answer: D Rationale: Children are socialized to learn the culture within which they are raised. 83. Because her mother only went to the supermarket once a month, this is how Monique prefers to do her grocery shopping. One of the reasons Monique is such an efficient shopper is that, like her mother, Monique believes, “Waste not, want not.” The passing down of norms and values to Monique is an example of: A. consumerism. B. the socialization process. C. acculturation. D. the roles opinion leaders play in business decision making. E. the role of society in consumer decision making. Answer: B Rationale: The socialization process is the passing down of cultural values and norms to children. 84. Lauren announced to her family last night that she wanted a pair of Heelys. Her sister Stephanie said she thought it was a stupid idea. Their mother, Susan, said Lauren deserved a special treat for winning the science fair. Because her father Tom said nothing, Lauren knew she was not getting the Heelys. In terms of the roles played by family members in the consumer decision-making process: A. Lauren was the initiator, and Tom had no role at all. B. Stephanie was the initiator, and Susan was the decision maker. C. Lauren was an influencer, and Susan was the decision maker. D. Lauren was the initiator, and Tom was the decision maker. E. Lauren was the initiator, and Stephanie had no role at all. Answer: D Rationale: Lauren suggested the purchase and was the initiator. Susan and Stephanie both tried to influence the purchase. Tom was the decision maker. 85. All of the following are individual factors influencing consumer buying decisions EXCEPT: A. gender B. age C. family D. personality E. life cycle stage Answer: C Rationale: A person’s buying decisions are influenced by personal characteristics that are unique to each individual, such as gender; age and life cycle stage; and personality, self-concept, and lifestyle. Family is a social factor influencing consumer buying decisions. 86. _____ is an orderly series of stages in which consumers’ attitudes and behavioral tendencies change through maturity, experience, and changing income and status. A. Socialization B. The wheel of consumerism C. The family life cycle D. Lifestyle consumption E. Acculturation Answer: C Rationale: Families go through an orderly series of stages, and consumption attitudes and behaviors are influenced by one’s stage in the series. 87. An individual’s _____ is a composite of psychological makeup and environmental forces. It includes people’s underlying dispositions, especially their most dominant characteristics. A. acculturation B. socialization C. personality D. autonomy E. attitude Answer: C Rationale: This describes personality, which is a way of organizing and grouping the consistencies of an individual’s reactions to situations. 88. _____ is how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evaluations. A. Socialization B. Personality C. Socialization D. Normalization E. Self-concept Answer: E Rationale: This is the definition of self-concept. 89. Which of the following represents the way an individual actually perceives himself or herself? A. Personal image B. Ideal self-image C. Real self-image D. Lifestyle image E. Defined self-image Answer: C Rationale: Self-image can be real, which is how a consumer actually perceives himself or herself, or ideal, which is the way an individual would like to be. 90. Chaz wants to be a pirate like Captain Jack Sparrow in Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean movies. He wears a bandanna and carries a toy cutlass. Though Jack Sparrow is fictional, Chaz’s role play reveals his _____. A. superego B. compliant orientation C. ideal self-image D. real self-image E. socialization process Answer: C Rationale: Ideal self-image represents the way an individual would like to be. 91. The process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture is called: A. identification B. retention C. comprehension D. perception E. cognitive adaptation Answer: D Rationale: This is the definition of perception. 92. Imagine life without that little spinning wheel icon to remind you that your computer is still searching for a Web site or copying documents. Without this wheel, consumers might think the computer had stopped working. This process in which consumers interpret this stimulus into a meaningful and coherent picture is called: A. exposure B. perception C. retention D. cognition E. selection Answer: B Rationale: Perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the stimuli that are bombarding consumers daily. 93. On any given day, a person may be subjected to over 2,500 advertising messages but may only be aware of 11 to 20 of them. This is called: A. selective distortion B. selective learning C. sporadic reinforcement D. intermittent selectivity E. selective exposure Answer: E Rationale: Consumers use selective exposure to decide which stimuli to select (attend to) and which to ignore. 94. When consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs, it is called: A. selective distortion B. selective dissonance C. intermittent reinforcement D. selective retention E. selective exposure Answer: A Rationale: This is the definition of selective distortion. 95. Families of police officers often alter information they hear about officers who die in the line of duty. This _____ allows them to live and function without constant anxiety while their loved one is engaged in a potentially dangerous job. A. selective retention B. selective distortion C. selective exposure D. faulty selectivity E. adaptive stimulus Answer: B Rationale: Selective distortion involves changing or distorting the communication message to make the message seemingly agree with preconceived opinion. 96. A few years ago, Toro introduced a small, lightweight snow blower called the Snow Pup. Even though the product worked great, sales failed to meet expectations because consumers perceived the name to mean that the Snow Pup was a toy or too light to do any serious snow removal. This is how _____ can influence the consumer decision-making process. A. selective distortion B. incorrect problem recognition C. lifestyle dissonance D. Americanization E. selective exposure Answer: A Rationale: Selective distortion is a process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs. 97. _____ occurs when consumers remember only information that supports their personal feelings or beliefs. A. Intermittent reinforcement B. Selective exposure C. Selective retention D. Faulty selectivity E. Selective distortion Answer: C Rationale: This is the definition of selective retention. 98. Cassandra, an accounting major, read an article stating that accounting graduates are receiving the highest starting salary offers for business majors. The article also stated that marketing majors start with lower salaries but surpass all other majors’ salaries within ten years. A week later, Cassandra doesn’t remember reading this last part of the article, just the first part. This is an example of: A. selective distortion B. selective exposure C. intermittent reinforcement D. selective socialization E. selective retention Answer: E Rationale: Selective retention is the process whereby a consumer remembers only information that supports personal feelings or beliefs. 99. Which of the following is the minimum difference in a stimulus that the consumer will notice? A. Minimum level of perception B. Absolute level of perception C. Differential threshold of perception D. Threshold level of perception E. Unique threshold of perception Answer: D Rationale: The threshold level of perception, which is the minimum difference in a stimulus that the consumer will notice, is sometimes referred to as the “just-noticeable difference.” 100. A driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs is called a(n): A. instigator B. motive C. enforcer D. stimulus E. belief Answer: B Rationale: Motives drive a person to take action to satisfy a need. 101. Ranked from the lowest to the highest level, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model includes: A. safety, esteem, social, physiological, and self-actualization needs B. physiological, social, esteem, economic, and self-actualization needs C. psychological, safety, economic, esteem, and social needs D. physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs E. safety, economic, social, esteem, and self-development needs Answer: D Rationale: See Exhibit 6.6. According to Exhibit 6.6, Maslow's hierarchy of needs is ranked as physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs, reflecting the progression from basic survival needs to higher-level psychological and self-fulfillment needs. 102. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, the first needs most people would try to satisfy are their _____ needs. A. safety B. physiological C. economic D. esteem E. derived Answer: B Rationale: The needs in order of lowest to highest are: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. 103. Dennis Haysbert stars in Allstate ads reminding consumers that they could be in a car crash or another event requiring insurance. Hence the slogan “You’re in Good Hands with Allstate.” These ads focus on which of Maslow’s needs? A. Esteem needs B. Economic needs C. Safety needs D. Physiological needs E. Social needs Answer: C Rationale: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs include physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. The insurance company’s selling point of safety is focusing on consumers’ safety needs. 104. Jan’s twin sister Joan is a fantastic cook who makes wonderful homemade meals for her family. Jan cannot cook and wishes she could do the same. An ad for Stove Top stuffing promises “one box, three meal ideas, 30 minutes.” Jan makes a point of adding this item to her grocery list. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this ad appeals to Jan’s _____ needs. A. physiological B. interactive C. esteem D. safety E. self-actualization Answer: C Rationale: Self-esteem needs include self-respect and a sense of accomplishment. 105. Ralph played mediocre golf for over 20 years. Then he retired and vowed to improve his golf game by buying one of the sets of new golf clubs that promise increased distance and have a $700 price tag. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Ralph is most likely trying to satisfy his _____ needs. A. social B. safety C. self-actualization D. physiological E. psychological Answer: C Rationale: Ralph is engaged in a self-improvement process. 106. The slogan used by the manufacturer of Jaguar automobiles, “Don’t dream it. Drive it.” was intended to appeal to consumers’: A. physiological needs B. social needs C. safety needs D. esteem needs E. self-actualization needs Answer: E Rationale: The slogan indicates that the ownership of the car will allow the user to realize his or her full potential. 107. If an advertiser wanted to create ads for a restaurant that stimulate the self-actualization motivation, it would create ads that: A. emphasize hunger. B. emphasize that only those people who want to tell others they have risen to the top of their profession use the restaurant. C. inform consumers about the cleanliness of the food preparation areas and procedures. D. show people enjoying others’ company while eating in the restaurant. E. indicate eating in the restaurant is what “you have earned and deserve”. Answer: E Rationale: Self-actualization needs stress self-fulfillment and self-expression, or reaching the point in life at which “people are what they feel they should be.” 108. The process that creates changes in behavior is called: A. selective adaptation. B. learning. C. involvement manipulation. D. attitude adjustment. E. behavior normalization. Answer: B Rationale: Learning is a process that creates changes in behavior, immediate or expected, through experience and practice. 109. Manufacturers of consumer goods often give away trial sizes of new products to encourage: A. experiential learning. B. selective perception. C. continuous reinforcement. D. conceptual learning. E. problem recognition. Answer: A Rationale: Trial behavior reinforces experiential learning, often leading to repeat behavior. 110. _____ is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first. A. Belief generalization B. Belief discrimination C. Stimulus generalization D. Stimulus discrimination E. Attitude formation Answer: C Rationale: This is the definition of stimulus generalization. 111. Kent Longino is the marketing VP for Andersen, one of the largest manufacturers of windows in the world. He is directing the introduction of a glass-encased sunroom that can be assembled in a weekend. He wants to capitalize on Andersen’s existing reputation. Which learning method should he attempt to stimulate when introducing the new product? A. Conceptual learning B. Experiential learning C. Repetition learning D. Stimulus generalization E. Stimulus discrimination Answer: D Rationale: Stimulus generalization is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first. 112. Celestial Seasonings is a well-recognized brand of tea. It has differentiated itself from traditional teas by producing herbal teas and others using the more exotic white tea leaves. It has recently introduced Celestial Seasonings Tea Dreams ice cream, a product it hopes will be successful due to consumers’ awareness of the brand. Celestial Seasonings is relying on _____ to make its new product a success. A. conceptual learning B. experiential learning C. repetition learning D. stimulus generalization E. stimulus discrimination Answer: D Rationale: Stimulus generalization is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first. 113. Omega is a prestigious brand of watch that is sold as a luxury product. It has a reputation based on quality and attention to detail. When the company introduces new timepieces, it can count on a well-established market already existing for the new product due to: A. perceptual generalization B. stimulus discrimination C. perceptual discrimination D. selective distortion E. stimulus generalization Answer: E Rationale: This is an example of stimulus generalization, which is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first. Omega consumers assume that any product made by Omega is worth purchasing. 114. At the beginning of every trailer for Disney’s Pixar film Wall-E, they say “From the makers who brought you Toy Story, A Bug’s Life, and Monsters Inc., we are proud to present Wall-E.” Here, Pixar is using: A. stimulus discrimination B. selective retention C. stimulus generalization D. social learning E. product reinforcement Answer: C Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when one response (positive attitude for a product) is extended to a similar stimulus (new product, same brand). 115. _____ is the learned ability to differentiate between similar objects such as packages of different brands of aspirin. A. Incentive discrimination B. Stimulus generalization C. Selective perception D. Selective generalization E. Stimulus discrimination Answer: E Rationale: This is describing stimulus discrimination, which is a learned ability to differentiate among similar products. 116. Rayshawn’s favorite soft drink is Coca-Cola. If he orders a Coke at a restaurant and is told that the restaurant serves only Pepsi products, he will often just order water rather than order a Pepsi. He insists that he can tell the difference between the two brands. Which learning concept is Rayshawn demonstrating? A. Selective retention B. Stimulus discrimination C. Perceptual generalization D. Selective generalization E. Stimulus generalization Answer: B Rationale: Stimulus discrimination occurs when consumers learn to differentiate among similar products. 117. Which of the following is an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world? A. Belief B. Value C. Affect D. Attitude E. Descriptor Answer: A Rationale: This is the definition of a belief. 118. Christian understands that a Black Diamond brand tent is suitable for several weather conditions, such as rain, snow, and sweltering heat. This is a description of his _____ about the Black Diamond tent. A. beliefs B. attitudes C. standards D. motives E. valuations Answer: A Rationale: A belief is an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world. 119. _____ are learned tendencies to respond consistently toward a given object. A. Motivational cues B. Cultures C. Lifestyles D. Perceptions E. Attitudes Answer: E Rationale: This is the definition of attitudes. 120. An attitude toward a product is: A. easy to change. B. a person’s point of view about the product. C. the same as a belief. D. the same as “intention to buy”. E. of short duration. Answer: B Rationale: “Point of view” is a simpler way to state “learned tendency to respond consistently.” Both denote an opinion. 121. A few years ago, tea was a product with relatively little growth and was considered to be a product for the old and the middle-aged. Then tea manufacturers started promoting the health benefits of tea. Since the introduction of the research on how tea provides the body with useful antioxidants, tea consumption has increased by more than 25 percent, and it appears its market share will continue to grow, especially among young women in their twenties. This is an illustration of how promotion can: A. change the importance of beliefs about product attributes. B. change beliefs about product attributes. C. add new beliefs about product attributes. D. reinforce current beliefs about product attributes. E. discover consumer needs about product attributes. Answer: C Rationale: The companies are attempting to changed consumers’ attitudes by creating new beliefs about an attribute not considered previously. New Car Purchase Zena has been promoted to VP of the management consulting firm where she works.. Her new status has led her to consider the need for a new car. Her trusty little Volkswagen Beetle has over 100,000 miles on it and no longer seems appropriate. Susanne, another VP, suggests that Zena consider a car produced in the United States because the firm has a policy of supporting U.S. businesses. Zena began her quest for a new car by visiting several car dealers and obtaining pamphlets on the models she is considering. She also studied Consumer Reports magazine, Car and Driver ratings, and other consumer rating publications to see what the experts think. After evaluating all options, Zena has decided to purchase a new Chrysler. She believes that the car is a good fit with her new image and position in her company. Since her purchase, she has seen more advertisements touting the car’s features than she ever noticed before. She also has noticed many models of her car on the road. Zena thinks the fact that so many others are driving the same model car as hers is proof that she made a good decision. 122. Refer to New Car Purchase. Zena’s visits to the dealers and looking at ratings in magazines best represent which step of the consumer decision-making process? A. Need recognition B. Information search C. Evaluation of alternatives D. Stimulus E. Post purchase behavior Answer: B Rationale: These activities best represent an information search. Zena needed to collect the information before she could begin evaluating alternatives. 123. Refer to New Car Purchase. In noticing similar cars on the road and advertising supporting her decision, Zena is reinforcing her decision and reducing the doubts she sometimes feels regarding this purchase. The feelings of inner tension are called: A. selective retention. B. perceptual distortion. C. post purchase action. D. cognitive dissonance. E. response attitudes. Answer: D Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is the term for post purchase tension and anxiety. 124. Refer to New Car Purchase. Which type of consumer buying decision does Zena’s purchase represent? A. Routine response B. Limited decision making C. Extensive decision making D. Impulse buying E. Motivational response Answer: C Rationale: Consumers practice extensive decision making when purchasing an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item. 125. Refer to New Car Purchase. Zena spent a considerable amount of time and effort on her new car purchase. This suggests that the car is a(n) _____ product for Zena. A. impulse B. low-involvement C. routine response D. nondurable E. high-involvement Answer: E Rationale: Involvement is the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior. A consumer who deliberately searches for information about products and brands in order to evaluate them thoroughly is most likely engaging in high-involvement decision making. 126. Refer to New Car Purchase. Susanne has influenced Zena’s choice of a new automobile. In this instance, Susanne is acting as a(n): A. dissociative reference B. purchase catalyst C. gatekeeper D. social reference E. opinion leader Answer: E Rationale: An opinion leader is an individual who influences the opinions of others. 127. Refer to New Car Purchase. If you evaluate Zena’s choice of a Chrysler based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the car was bought to meet _____ needs. A. self-actualization B. security C. esteem D. safety E. physiological Answer: C Rationale: Esteem needs include prestige, fame, and recognition of one’s accomplishments, and in Zena’s case, her promotion to VP. Breyer’s Ice Cream One hot August afternoon, as Nelson is driving home from work, he sees a billboard for Breyer’s Ice Cream. He remembers that he is out of ice cream at home, and thinks it would be really great to have a nice, cold bowl of ice cream on such a hot day. So he stops into the convenience store near his home, heads straight for the dairy case, and picks up a half-gallon of strawberry ice cream. 128. Refer to Breyer’s Ice Cream. When Nelson realized he was out of ice cream at home, which stage of the consumer decision-making process was this? A. Evaluation of alternatives B. Information search C. Purchase D. Post purchase behavior E. Need recognition Answer: E Rationale: Need recognition is the first stage in the process, and it is the result of an imbalance between actual and desired states. 129. Refer to Breyer’s Ice Cream. The billboard that Nelson noticed is an example of a(n) _____ information source. A. experiential B. nonmarketing-controlled C. internal D. unbiased E. marketing-controlled Answer: E Rationale: Marketing-controlled information sources originate with marketers promoting the product. 130. Refer to Breyer’s Ice Cream. Nelson just started a diet last week and swore to himself that he would limit his ice cream consumption. So he feels a little guilty as he purchases the half-gallon carton. But as he walks out of the store into the August heat, he tells himself that it’s such a hot day, and he works so hard in the office, that he deserves a nice treat. Nelson is experiencing: A. the observer-expectancy effect B. cognitive dissonance C. functional dynamics D. dissociative reference E. confirmation bias Answer: B Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is the inner tension a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values and opinions. 131. Refer to Breyer’s Ice Cream. Nelson’s ice cream purchase best represents which type of consumer buying decision? A. Routine response behavior B. Limited decision making C. Extensive decision making D. Situation convenience E. Motivational response Answer: A Rationale: The fact that Nelson is out of ice cream suggests it is a frequently purchased product, typically a routine response behavior. 132. Refer to Breyer’s Ice Cream. The fact that Nelson paid attention to the billboard is an example of: A. selective perception. B. selective exposure. C. selective distortion. D. selective retention. E. selective discrimination. Answer: B Rationale: Selective exposure is the process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others. 133. Refer to Breyer’s Ice Cream. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which need was Nelson trying to satisfy when he purchased the ice cream? A. Self-actualization B. Esteem C. Safety D. Social E. Physiological Answer: E Rationale: Thirst is a physiological need on Maslow’s hierarchy. Day Care Fiona is considering a day care facility for her five-week-old daughter Kate. She has been visiting day care centers for the past two weeks and has interviewed caregivers at eight different centers. It is extremely important to Fiona that Kate be stimulated intellectually and fed according to schedule. After considering all eight centers, Fiona chose PerfectCare. While she is quite pleased with her choice, she continues to wonder if she made the correct decision. 134. Refer to Day Care. Fiona’s visits to the day care centers, interviews with the caregivers, and input from family and friends represent which step of the consumer decision process? A. Postpurchase behavior B. Stimulus generalization C. Evaluation of alternatives D. Information search E. Need recognition Answer: D Rationale: These activities best represent the information search stage of the consumer decision-making process. 135. Refer to Day Care. Fiona’s uncertainty about whether she made the correct decision and the feelings that go along with this uncertainty are called: A. selective retention B. perceptual distortion C. postpurchase action D. cognitive dissonance E. routine response Answer: D Rationale: Cognitive dissonance is the term for postpurchase tension and anxiety. 136. Refer to Day Care. Fiona spent a significant amount of time and effort in selecting the day care center for Kate. This suggests the center is a(n) _____ product for Fiona. A. impulse B. low-involvement C. routine response D. convenience E. high-involvement Answer: E Rationale: Involvement refers to the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior. 137. Refer to Day Care. The process Fiona went through in selecting a day care facility for Kate is best described as which type of consumer buying decision? A. Routine response behavior B. Limited decision making C. Extensive decision making D. Impulse buying E. Motivational response behavior Answer: C Rationale: Consumers practice extensive decision making when purchasing products that are extremely important to them. 138. Refer to Day Care. Shannon, Fiona’s best friend, recommended PerfectCare because she takes her daughter there. Shannon was acting as a(n): A. family member B. opinion leader C. dissociative reference D. busybody E. gatekeeper Answer: B Rationale: An opinion leader is an individual who influences the opinions of others. Interface Interface, a manufacturer of floor covering products, has recently entered into an agreement with Cargill, Inc. and Dow Chemical Company to develop a carpet manufactured from corn fiber rather than the traditional nylon. Interface hopes to develop a biodegradable carpet tile that will be sold to the public at prices only slightly higher than nylon carpet tiles. Interface’s CEO has repeatedly said the mission of his company is to look for manufacturing materials that are renewable and not petroleum dependent. 139. Refer to Interface. A consumer who was in the market for floor covering would be most likely to locate information on the biodegradable floor tiles during which stage of the consumer decision-making process? A. Evaluation of alternatives B. Internal information search C. External information search D. Need recognition E. Post purchase behavior Answer: C Rationale: The information would come from an outside source since it is a new product. 140. Refer to Interface. Which of the following is the BEST example of a nonmarketing-controlled information source for floor tiling? A. A store display showing the various colors of tiles available B. An ad in Better Homes & Gardens for floor tiles C. A salesperson at a store that specializes in floor coverings D. A brochure explaining why the corn-based floor tiles are superior to nylon ones E. A discussion with coworkers about the best floor tiles to buy Answer: E Rationale: Any kind of word-of-mouth communication or discussion about a product would be an example of nonmarketing-controlled information sources. 141. Refer to Interface. To reduce potential _____, Interface could include a letter in every box of corn-fiber carpet tiles congratulating the buyer on helping to protect the environment. A. cognitive dissonance B. buyer repentance C. consumer affectation D. affective dissonance E. consumer cognition Answer: A Rationale: Post purchase messages are one way marketing managers can reduce cognitive dissonance. 142. Refer to Interface. Which of the following is an example of a cultural influence on consumer buying decisions? A. Personality of the buyer B. How much the buyer knows about actions he or she can take to save the environment C. Lifestyle of the buyer D. The buyer’s motivation for buying the corn-fiber carpet tile E. The acceptance of green marketing among a society Answer: E Rationale: Culture is a set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and the artifacts, or products, of that behavior. Personality and lifestyle are examples of individual factors. Knowledge and motivation are examples of psychological factors. 143. Refer to Interface. Influencing consumers that petroleum-based carpeting is bad for the environment and that the new fibers are better for the environment will involve which attitude-change strategy by marketers? A. Change the belief about all other attributes but this one B. Change the relative importance on beliefs about this attribute C. Change the product D. Use comparative ads E. Get consumers to recognize a need Answer: B Rationale: The three attitude-change strategies are changing beliefs about attributes, changing the importance of beliefs, and adding new beliefs. This is an example of changing the importance of beliefs about petroleum-based carpeting. College Decision Juan is a senior in high school and is deciding which university to go to after he graduates. He has received several pieces of mail from local universities with information on scholarship opportunities because he has a good GPA and a high ACT score. He and his parents have visited several schools and have talked to advisors regarding his chosen major of marketing. Juan is thinking about going to the local community college where all of his friends are planning to go, but his parents want him to go to a more prestigious school because they think he will get a better education there. 144. Refer to College Decision. The direct mail pieces with scholarship information that schools are sending to Juan are examples of which type of information sources? A. Marketing-controlled B. Nonmarketing-controlled C. Service-oriented D. Internal E. Selective Answer: A Rationale: Marketing-controlled information sources are a product information source that originates with marketers promoting the product. 145. Refer to College Decision. Juan has narrowed his decision down to three schools. These schools comprise Juan’s _____ set. A. primary B. elite C. exclusive D. awareness E. evoked Answer: E Rationale: An evoked, or consideration, set is a group of brands, resulting from an informant search, from which a buyer can choose. 146. Refer to College Decision. Juan’s parents and friends would be classified as _____ factors influencing his decision. A. cultural B. social C. individual D. psychological E. primary Answer: B Rationale: Social factors influencing the consumer decision-making process include reference groups (which friends would be part of), opinion leaders, and family. 147. Refer to College Decision. Juan’s friends might influence him to go to the local community college. What type of reference group characterizes his friends? A. Indirect B. Primary C. Secondary D. Aspirational E. Non-aspirational Answer: B Rationale: Primary reference groups, a type of direct reference group, include all groups with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends, and coworkers. 148. Refer to College Decision. One person from whom Juan has sought advice is his school guidance counselor, Mr. More. Mr. More is respected by students and parents alike and knows a lot about the schools Juan is considering. Mr. More can be considered a(n): A. influencer B. decider C. opinion leader D. gatekeeper E. market maven Answer: C Rationale: An opinion leader is an individual who influences the opinions of others. 149. Refer to College Decision. Juan’s parents’ opinion that he will get a better education if he attends a prestigious school rather than a community college is an example of: A. selective distortion B. selective retention C. selective exposure D. selective bias E. selective attitude Answer: A Rationale: Selective distortion is a process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs. ESSAY 1. Why do marketers study consumer behavior? Answer: Consumers’ product and service preferences are constantly changing. Marketing managers must understand these desires in order to create a proper marketing mix for a well-defined market. So it is critical that marketing managers have a thorough knowledge of consumer behavior, which describes how consumers make purchase decisions and how they use and dispose of the purchased goods or services. The study of consumer behavior also includes factors that influence purchase decisions and product use. 2. You have decided to work all summer to save money for the ultimate $2,000 HD television with surround sound. Trace the steps of your decision process for purchasing your new television. Answer: For this high-involvement decision process, you would use extensive decision making and go through the following steps: 1. NEED RECOGNITION. Your present television has wavy lines and poor sound quality, and you desire a new television set. 2. INFORMATION SEARCH. You check both internal and external sources of information, such as your own knowledge, opinions of peers, information from magazines, and the advice of television sales personnel. 3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES. You consider product attributes of various television brands and models in an evoked set. These attributes might include sound quality, looks, price, warranty, brand name reputation, components, and so on. 4. PURCHASE. You buy the HD television after judging alternatives. 5. POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR. You are satisfied with your purchase, which was the result of extensive decision making. Alternatively, you are dissatisfied with your purchase, return the television, and begin the process again. 3. Assume that you have decided to purchase a new automobile. Describe your internal information search. Then name the two types of external information sources. For each source, give two specific examples of information sources you might use. Answer: An internal information search is the process of recalling past information stored in memory. This stored information would come from previous experience with automobiles. By searching your memory, you could remember good and bad features––such as gas mileage, style, reliability, and so one––that you have experienced. MARKETING-CONTROLLED information sources could include mass media advertising (radio, television, newspaper, or direct mail); sales promotion (e.g., rebates); salespeople at dealerships; and finally, product characteristics like warranties. NONMARKETING-CONTROLLED information sources could include personal experience, personal sources (family, friends, acquaintances, and coworkers), and public sources (Consumer Reports or other consumer rating organizations). 4. Define cognitive dissonance and describe how can consumers and marketers can reduce it. Answer: Cognitive dissonance is the inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions. Consumers can take steps to reduce dissonance by justifying their decision, seeking new information, avoiding contradictory information, or returning the product. Marketers can help consumers reduce dissonance by sending a postpurchase thank you or letter, displaying product superiority in ads, and offering guarantees. 5. Assume that you have gone to the corner convenience store to pick up your usual brand of potato chips. What type of decision making will take place? How would this differ from the decision making that would take place if the store was out of your regular brand? Answer: With a low-involvement product such as potato chips, routine response behavior would take place because the product is low priced and the same brand is frequently purchased. The purchase would be habitual. If the store was out of the regular brand, limited decision making, or acquiring information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category (such as chips), would take place. Some effort would have to be expended on evaluating alternatives or comparing prices if the consumer were price sensitive. 6. What is extensive decision making? Discuss the purchase of a product in which you would use extensive decision making when purchased for the first time and would require limited decision making in subsequent purchases. Answer: Extensive decision making is the most complex type of consumer decision making and is used when buying an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item. Such decision making requires the use of several criteria for evaluating options and much time for seeking information. Buying a car, an appliance, a stereo system, or other expensive, durable item would require extensive decision making for the first purchase. However, as the purchase is repeated, the buyer may feel experienced in decision making and may step back to limited decision making. For example, a person who has bought several cars may resort to the heuristic, “I have always bought Fords and have been satisfied, so my next car will be a Ford.” 7. Assume that you have been invited to join a social club whose members typically wear leather bombardier jackets. You have never bought or worn a leather jacket before. List and briefly describe four factors that could influence your level of involvement in the purchase of the leather jacket. How involved will you be in this purchase and why? Answer: The factors that affect involvement level are previous experience, interest, perceived risk of negative consequences, situation, and social visibility. PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE. Because there is no previous experience with the product, the level of involvement will be higher because of unfamiliarity with the product. INTEREST. Areas of interest vary by individual. The student may or may not be interested in leather jackets. However, purchasing the leather jacket indicates an interest in the social group and probably a high level of involvement. PERCEIVED RISK OF NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES. Several types of risks are involved in the purchase. With an expensive jacket, loss of purchasing power and opportunity costs result in financial risk. A social risk is taken because wearing a leather jacket may cause a positive or negative reaction from other peer groups. For example, animal rights activists might criticize the purchase of a leather jacket, or other peer groups might view the purchase as frivolous. Finally, there is a psychological risk involved in the form of anxiety or concern about whether the “right” jacket has been purchased and is acceptable to other members of the social club. SITUATION. The circumstances of the social club make the leather jacket a high-involvement purchase. SOCIAL VISIBILITY. Because a leather jacket is a social and public display, wearing the jacket makes a statement about the individual. This would also make the purchase one of high involvement. 8. What is the difference between culture and subculture? Why do marketing managers need to understand culture and subculture? Answer: CULTURE is the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and the artifacts, or products, of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is environmentally oriented and dynamic. It also gives order to society by establishing common expectations. SUBCULTURES are subdivisions of culture on the basis of such things as demographic characteristics, geographic regions, national and ethnic background, political beliefs, and religious beliefs. Subcultures are homogeneous groups that share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements. Within subcultures, there are even greater similarities in people’s attitudes, values, and actions than within the broader culture. Without understanding culture, a firm has little chance of effectively penetrating the market. As more companies expand their operations globally, the need to understand the cultures of foreign countries becomes more important. Marketers should become familiar with the culture and adapt to it, or marketers can attempt to bring their own culture to other countries. Marketers should also identify subcultures and then design special marketing programs to serve their needs. 9. Marketers are interested in social class for two main reasons. What are they? Give a real-world example for each. Answer: First, social class often indicates which medium to use for advertising. For example, an insurance company seeking to sell its policies to middle-class families might advertise during the local evening news because middle-class families tend to watch more television than other classes. Second, knowing what products appeal to which social class can help marketers determine where to best distribute their products. For example, affluent Americans spend nearly twice as much on restaurants, alcohol, and sporting events than less-affluent Americans. 10. For marketers, reference groups have three important implications. Describe them. Answer: Reference groups serve as information sources and influence perceptions; they affect an individual’s aspiration levels; and their norms either constrain or stimulate consumer behavior. Reference groups are crucial for marketers as they influence consumer behavior through norms and values, provide comparison and aspiration benchmarks, and can validate product choices, thereby shaping brand perception and purchasing decisions significantly. 11. List and briefly describe the five different roles various family members can play to influence the purchase decision-making process when deciding on a family vacation. Answer: INITIATOR. The person who initiates or suggests the purchase process. INFLUENCER. The person whose opinion is valued in the decision-making process. DECISION MAKER. The person who actually makes the decision to buy. PURCHASER. The individual who actually exchanges money for the product. CONSUMER. The person who actually uses the product. 12. Define self-concept. Choose a product (i.e., a good, service, or idea), and use that product to illustrate how a marketer would apply the idea of self-concept to market the product. Answer: Self-concept is how an individual perceives himself or herself in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evaluations. Through self-concepts, consumers define their identity, which in turn provides for consistent and coherent behavior. Self-concept is a combination of the ideal self-image and the real self-image. For any product chosen, the marketer would promote the product as a match to the real self-image or a support for attaining the ideal self-image. The concept of self is important to marketers because it helps explain the relationship between individuals’ perceptions of themselves and their consumer behavior as expressed through their personalities. For examples, marketers of deodorant develop promotional ads linking use of the product with success and popularity. 13. Define perception and describe the three types of selective perception. Use personal examples in your discussion. Answer: Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture. There are three types of selective perception: SELECTIVE EXPOSURE is the process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others. The consumer is exposed only to those messages he or she wishes to process. SELECTIVE DISTORTION occurs when consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. SELECTIVE RETENTION is the process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports personal feelings or beliefs. 14. Define each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. For each of the five levels, briefly describe a marketing message appealing to the need level. Answer: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS are the most basic level of human needs. These needs include food, water, and shelter. Text examples include thirst-quenching Gatorade or satisfying hunger by eating a hamburger. SAFETY NEEDS include security and freedom from pain and discomfort. Text examples include health screenings to relieve consumer fears and anxieties and an image campaign to reassure consumers about the safety of air travel. SOCIAL NEEDS involve a sense of belonging and love. Examples could include any messages advertising that the use of the product will bring love. These products might include clothes, cosmetics, and vacation packages. ESTEEM NEEDS include self-respect, feelings of accomplishment, prestige, fame, and recognition. Text examples include Mont Blanc pens, Mercedes-Benz automobiles, and Neiman Marcus stores. SELF-ACTUALIZATION is the highest human need. It refers to self-fulfillment and self-expression. Text examples include American Express ads, Microsoft, and the U.S. Army slogan. 15. Define stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination and give an example of how each is used. Answer: Stimulus generalization is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first. Any product line extension will be a satisfactory example. Stimulus discrimination is a learned ability to differentiate among similar products. There are many examples of stimulus discrimination. Students’ examples should indicate how superficial differences are emphasized in promotions. 16. Compare and contrast beliefs and attitudes. Answer: Beliefs and attitudes are closely linked to values. A belief is defined as an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world. Consumers form beliefs about products based on knowledge, faith, or hearsay. Sets of beliefs form the basis for an attitude. An attitude is a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object. Attitudes tend to be more enduring and complex than beliefs. Attitudes also encompass an individual’s value system, which represents personal standards of good and bad, right and wrong, and so forth. 17. Apply the three methods of changing attitudes or beliefs about brands to possibilities for the marketing activities of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes (or another breakfast cereal you are more familiar with). Answer: CHANGING BELIEFS ABOUT ATTRIBUTES. Kellogg’s could work to promote the image of a family cereal by changing consumers’ beliefs about children’s cereals. Any negative beliefs or misconceptions should also be changed. For example, consumers may believe the cereal is high in sugar, when actually it is not. CHANGING THE IMPORTANCE OF BELIEFS. Kellogg’s could start emphasizing certain attributes that already exist. These might include environmental concerns (a package made of 100 percent recycled materials) or consumer preferences (the favorite choice of all consumers).ADDING NEW BELIEFS. Kellogg’s could try to expand the consumption habits of consumers by stating, “Corn flakes are not just for breakfast anymore.” Kellogg’s could also emphasize additional attributes to the ones already in use, such as more nutrients (100 percent of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance), cancer prevention (high fiber), or patriotism (the American family and a red, white, and blue package). Test Bank for MKTG Charles W. Lamb, Jr. Hair, Joseph F., Carl McDaniel 9781285091860

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