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Chapter 12: Understanding Culture Change True/False Questions 1) Diachronic change occurs at the same general time across geographic space, and can be seen in the various environments, languages, economies, and cultures that exist in different places at that time. Answer: False Rationale: Diachronic change refers to changes that occur over time, not necessarily simultaneously across different geographic spaces. It is more about changes observed over different time periods rather than synchronously across different locations. 2) The introduction of the bow and arrow probably increased hunting efficiency. Answer: True Rationale: The bow and arrow provided hunters with a more efficient and accurate tool for hunting compared to earlier methods such as spear-throwing or trapping. This likely led to increased hunting success and efficiency. 3) Most archaeological models of change deal with relatively long-term processes of transformation. Answer: True Rationale: Archaeological models often focus on long-term processes of change, such as cultural evolution, social development, and technological innovation, which occur over extended periods of time rather than rapid, short-term changes. 4) When cultural differences disappear, syncretism has occurred. Answer: False Rationale: Syncretism refers to the blending or fusion of different cultural elements into a new, cohesive whole. It does not necessarily involve the disappearance of cultural differences but rather the creation of new cultural forms that incorporate elements from different traditions. 5) When a new ethnic group that moves into an area brings their culture with them, the archaeological record should reflect new organizations and technologies “suddenly” replacing earlier ones. Answer: True Rationale: The arrival of a new ethnic group with distinct cultural practices often leads to significant changes in the archaeological record, including the adoption of new technologies, settlement patterns, and material culture. These changes may appear sudden in the archaeological record relative to the existing cultural traditions of the region. 6) Bows and arrows are easy to make, but are less productive in terms of killing game. Answer: False Rationale: Bows and arrows are generally considered more efficient and productive hunting tools compared to earlier methods. They offer hunters greater range, accuracy, and lethality, which can increase hunting success rates and the amount of game harvested. 7) The association of proto-Indo-European with farming is disputed. Answer: True Rationale: The association of proto-Indo-European with farming is indeed disputed among linguists and archaeologists. While some researchers propose a connection between the spread of Indo-European languages and the expansion of farming practices, others argue for alternative explanations or suggest that the relationship is more complex than a simple correlation. 8) Proto-Polynesian is a constructed language that no one actually spoke. Answer: True Rationale: Proto-Polynesian is a reconstructed language hypothesized by linguists to be the ancestor of the Polynesian languages spoken in the Pacific Islands. Since it predates written records, it is a constructed language based on linguistic evidence and comparative analysis rather than direct documentation of spoken language. 9) It can be much more difficult to detect migrations of new people into areas already occupied by other people. Answer: True Rationale: Detecting migrations of new people into areas already occupied by other populations can be challenging for archaeologists. The archaeological evidence may be subtle, and distinguishing between indigenous cultural developments and external influences can require careful analysis of material culture, settlement patterns, and genetic data. 10) System theorists equate culture change with disequilibrium. Answer: True Rationale: System theorists view culture change as a response to disruptions or imbalances within a social system, which they conceptualize as a state of disequilibrium. According to this perspective, cultural change occurs as societies adapt to restore balance or achieve a new equilibrium in response to internal or external pressures. 11) Ceramics technology was developed independently in different regions of the world. Answer: True Rationale: Ceramics technology indeed emerged independently in various regions of the world, such as in East Asia, the Middle East, the Americas, and sub-Saharan Africa. Each region developed its own techniques and styles of pottery production based on local resources, needs, and cultural preferences. 12) Evolutionary archaeologists believe that cultural traits are subjected to selective pressures. Answer: True Rationale: Evolutionary archaeologists apply principles of natural selection to cultural traits, suggesting that certain cultural behaviors or practices may provide adaptive advantages in particular environments, leading to their persistence and spread over time. 13) Pyramids were invented in one place, and that architectural form diffused to different parts of the globe. Answer: False Rationale: Pyramids were independently developed in different parts of the world, such as in ancient Egypt, Mesoamerica (e.g., the Maya and Aztec civilizations), and Mesopotamia (e.g., the ziggurats). The architectural form of pyramids did not diffuse from a single origin but emerged separately in different cultural contexts. 14) Internal stimuli are rarely a source of culture change. Answer: False Rationale: Internal stimuli, such as population growth, environmental pressures, social dynamics, and technological innovation, can be significant drivers of culture change. Internal factors within societies often interact with external influences to shape the direction and pace of cultural transformations. 15) Short-term change is the easiest to recognize in the archaeological record. Answer: False Rationale: Short-term changes in the archaeological record can sometimes be difficult to recognize due to the limited preservation of ephemeral materials and the challenges of distinguishing between short-term fluctuations and long-term trends. Long-term changes may leave more pronounced and enduring traces in the archaeological record. 16) Contemporary languages can tell us nothing about the past. Answer: False Rationale: Contemporary languages can provide valuable insights into the past through linguistic analysis, including the reconstruction of proto-languages, the study of language families, and the tracing of language migrations and interactions. Languages can reflect historical relationships, cultural exchanges, and population movements over time. 17) When trying to reconstruct the movement of past populations, archaeologists look to the number of trait changes to determine the likelihood of population movement. Answer: True Rationale: Archaeologists use methods such as seriation, typology, and cladistics to analyze the distribution and variation of cultural traits (e.g., pottery styles, tool technologies) across different sites and regions. Changes in traits over time and space can help reconstruct the movement and interactions of past populations. 18) Recent comparative studies of blood groupings now suggest that there may have been four separate migrations into the New World. Answer: True Rationale: Genetic studies, including analyses of blood groupings and DNA markers, have provided evidence supporting multiple migration events into the New World, with some research suggesting the possibility of four distinct migration waves based on genetic diversity and population genetics. 19) Diffusion is but one of the possible explanations for the movement of materials and ideas. Answer: True Rationale: Diffusion, the spread of materials, technologies, or ideas from one culture to another, is indeed one possible explanation for cultural transmission and the movement of cultural traits. However, other factors such as independent invention, trade, migration, and conquest also contribute to the exchange and diffusion of cultural elements. 20) In some cases, lithic materials from completely different sites can be refitted and used to reconstruct the specific movements of people. Answer: True Rationale: Lithic refitting involves matching stone artifacts from different archaeological sites based on shared characteristics, such as raw material, manufacturing techniques, or use-wear patterns. Refitting can provide insights into the movement of people, exchange networks, and social interactions in prehistoric landscapes. 21) Cultural conflict most often has occurred between groups that compete for territory or access to other resources. Answer: True Rationale: Cultural conflicts frequently arise between groups competing for territorial control, access to resources such as land, water, or minerals, or due to differences in cultural practices, beliefs, or ideologies. These conflicts may manifest as competition over hunting grounds, agricultural land, trade routes, or political dominance. 22) To detect change over time, it is necessary to have information on the pattern being studied from at least three time periods. Answer: False Rationale: While having data from multiple time periods can enhance our understanding of change over time, it is not necessarily required to detect change. Archaeologists can still identify and interpret changes in material culture, settlement patterns, or other archaeological evidence with data from fewer time periods, although having multiple data points often provides a more nuanced understanding of temporal dynamics. 23) The dispersal of the Bantu language family is associated with the spread of iron metallurgy. Answer: True Rationale: The dispersal of the Bantu language family across sub-Saharan Africa is indeed associated with the spread of iron metallurgy. Ironworking technology played a significant role in Bantu migrations, facilitating agricultural expansion, population movements, and cultural interactions across the African continent. 24) Archaeologists universally accept the application of strict biological models of selection to the study of past cultures. Answer: False Rationale: Archaeologists do not universally accept the application of strict biological models of selection, such as those derived from evolutionary biology, to the study of past cultures. While some researchers may incorporate evolutionary principles into their interpretations of cultural change, others emphasize the importance of social, cultural, and environmental factors in shaping human behavior and cultural evolution. 25) Determining when the first colonists of a region arrived, where they came from, and why they moved into the region is rarely difficult. Answer: False Rationale: Determining the timing, origins, and motivations of the first colonists of a region can be challenging for archaeologists due to limited archaeological evidence, ambiguities in dating methods, and complex historical processes such as migration, colonization, and cultural interaction. These questions often require interdisciplinary approaches combining archaeological, genetic, linguistic, and environmental data to provide more comprehensive answers. Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Change that occurs at the same general time across geographic space, and can be seen in the various environments, languages, economies, and cultures that exist in different places at that time is called __________. A) synchronic B) diachronic C) atemporal D) universal E) none of the above Answer: A Rationale: Synchronic refers to phenomena occurring simultaneously across different locations or at the same time. This term is appropriate for describing change that happens concurrently across various environments, cultures, and languages. 2) Contact between cultures can lead to __________. A) acculturation B) diffusion C) syncretism D) all of the above Answer: D Rationale: Contact between cultures can result in various outcomes, including acculturation (the adoption of cultural traits from one group by another), diffusion (the spread of cultural elements from one society to another), and syncretism (the blending or fusion of different cultural elements). 3) __________ is the breaking up of a population into smaller segments that then disperse into different areas without replacing the existing population. A) Decentralization B) Migration C) Diaspora D) Innovation E) Invention Answer: C Rationale: Diaspora refers to the dispersion or scattering of a population from its original homeland into different areas, often without completely replacing the existing population in those areas. 4) The Maya town of Ceren was buried by __________. A) a tsunami B) a flood C) an avalanche D) a volcanic eruption E) an earthquake Answer: D Rationale: The archaeological site of Ceren in El Salvador was buried by a volcanic eruption from the nearby Loma Caldera around AD 600. This catastrophic event preserved the town remarkably well under layers of volcanic ash. 5) __________ involves the actual movement of a population of people from one locality to another. A) Exchange B) Diffusion C) Diaspora D) Innovation E) Migration Answer: E Rationale: Migration specifically refers to the movement of people from one place to another, often involving the relocation of a population from their original homeland to a new area. 6) The archaeological record at Puerto Escondito suggests __________. A) that agriculture was never invented there B) that the Olmec people colonized the Puerto Escondito area C) that the people were likely involved in a long distance trading network with the Olmec D) that obsidian was prized for ritual purposes E) that feathers were being traded for fish from the Olmec coast Answer: C Rationale: The archaeological evidence at Puerto Escondito indicates that the inhabitants were likely engaged in long-distance trade with the Olmec civilization, as suggested by the presence of Olmec-style artifacts and materials not locally available. 7) The exchange of cultural features between two groups or societies in which parts of both cultures change, but each group remains distinct, is called __________. A) adaptation B) acculturation C) diffusion D) assimilation E) syncretism Answer: B Rationale: Acculturation involves the exchange of cultural elements between two distinct groups or societies, resulting in changes in both cultures while allowing each group to maintain its distinct identity. 8) Linguistic data can be most productively integrated into archaeological analysis in __________. A) dating B) vocabulary comparison C) A and B D) none of the above Answer: C Rationale: Linguistic data, particularly vocabulary comparison and linguistic patterns, can be integrated with archaeological analysis to provide insights into cultural connections, migrations, and historical relationships, as well as to refine dating methods through linguistic dating techniques. 9) The presence of pyramids in both the Old and New Worlds is an example of __________. A) hyper-diffusion B) diffusion C) independent invention D) innovation E) none of the above Answer: C Rationale: The presence of pyramids in both the Old and New Worlds suggests independent invention rather than diffusion or hyper-diffusion. It implies that different cultures independently developed similar architectural forms due to similar cultural needs or environmental factors. 10) Research on __________ has led to new theories about migrations into the New World. A) skeletons B) linguistics C) ceramics D) lithics E) blood groupings Answer: E Rationale: Research on blood groupings and genetic markers has provided valuable insights into the migrations and population movements into the New World, contributing to the development of new theories and hypotheses about the peopling of the Americas. 11) The dispersal of the Bantu language family is associated with __________. A) iron metallurgy and sorghum farming B) just iron metallurgy C) only sorghum farming D) the development of writing E) the extinction of megafauna Answer: A Rationale: The dispersal of the Bantu language family is associated with both iron metallurgy and sorghum farming. These technological and agricultural innovations facilitated the Bantu migrations and expansion across sub-Saharan Africa. 12) All of the following were buried by a volcanic eruption except __________. A) Puerto Escondito B) Pompeii C) Herculaneum D) Ceren Answer: A Rationale: Puerto Escondido was not buried by a volcanic eruption. Instead, it is an archaeological site believed to have been involved in long-distance trade with the Olmec civilization. The other options—Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Ceren—were indeed buried by volcanic eruptions. 13) Change that can be observed through time is called __________. A) diachronic B) synchronic C) temporal D) long range E) none of the above Answer: A Rationale: Diachronic refers to change observed over time, allowing us to track developments and transformations across different periods. This contrasts with synchronic, which refers to phenomena observed at a specific point in time. 14) The globalization of technologies like vaccines is an example of __________. A) capitalism B) diachronic change C) synchronic change D) change that happened in the distant past E) none of the above Answer: C Rationale: The globalization of technologies like vaccines represents synchronic change, as it involves the simultaneous adoption and spread of these technologies across different regions or countries at a particular point in time. 15) Thinking up new ways of doing things using already established methods, systems of organization, or technologies is called __________. A) creativity B) invention C) diffusion D) innovation E) migration Answer: D Rationale: Innovation involves the development of new methods, systems, or technologies based on existing knowledge or practices. It represents a creative process of generating novel solutions to challenges or needs. 16) The creation of a new type of technology, often in response to a need to accomplish some task, is called __________. A) reaction B) invention C) diffusion D) migration E) innovation Answer: B Rationale: Invention refers to the creation of entirely new technologies or methods to address specific needs or challenges. It represents a fundamental aspect of cultural and technological development. 17) __________ states that as conditions change, the way a particular cultural subsystem operates may change also, disrupting the equilibrium and necessitating changes in the other subsystems, to reach a new equilibrium. A) Diffusionism B) Evolutionary archaeology C) Innovation theory D) Synchronic theory E) Systems theory Answer: E Rationale: Systems theory posits that cultural systems are interconnected and that changes in one subsystem can lead to adjustments in other subsystems to maintain equilibrium. It emphasizes the dynamic nature of cultural systems and their adaptation to changing conditions. 18) __________ attempts to explain cultural change as the result of direct selective processes on the variation of artifact types and frequencies, resulting in the change of those types and frequencies over time. A) Diffusionism B) Systems theory C) Evolutionary archaeology D) A diachronic approach E) Synchronic theory Answer: C Rationale: Evolutionary archaeology focuses on explaining cultural change through selective processes acting on artifact variation and frequencies over time. It seeks to understand the patterns and mechanisms of cultural evolution and adaptation. 19) When groups in direct contact are disproportionate in size or are very different culturally, the __________ tends to prevail. A) more flexible B) smaller and less complex C) group with the most trade routes D) larger and more complex E) most violent Answer: D Rationale: In situations of contact between culturally dissimilar or disproportionate groups, the larger and more complex group often has greater influence and tends to prevail due to its resources, social organization, and capacity for exerting power. Short Answer Questions 1) What is the difference between invention and innovation? Give an archaeological example of each. Answer: Invention refers to the creation of entirely new technologies or methods, while innovation involves the adaptation or improvement of existing technologies or methods. An archaeological example of invention would be the development of pottery, while an example of innovation would be the refinement of pottery-making techniques, such as the introduction of the potter's wheel. 2) How does genetics contribute to the study of population movement? Answer: Genetics contributes to the study of population movement by providing insights into patterns of migration, genetic relatedness among populations, and the origins of specific populations. Through techniques such as DNA analysis, researchers can trace migration routes, identify genetic markers associated with particular population groups, and reconstruct population histories based on genetic data. 3) What are some of the different ways that population shifts can show up in the archaeological record? Answer: Population shifts can manifest in the archaeological record through changes in settlement patterns, the presence of new material culture or architectural styles, shifts in artifact distribution patterns, evidence of intergroup interaction through trade or warfare, and the introduction of new subsistence strategies or technologies. Additionally, genetic studies of ancient populations can provide direct evidence of population movements and migrations. 4) What is the difference between acculturation and assimilation? Answer: Acculturation refers to the exchange and adoption of cultural traits between different cultural groups, where both groups retain their distinct identities. Assimilation, on the other hand, involves the process by which individuals or groups adopt the cultural norms, practices, and identity of another dominant culture, often resulting in the loss of their original cultural identity. Acculturation typically involves more mutual exchange and interaction, while assimilation implies a more one-sided adoption of culture. 5) How does evolutionary archaeology explain cultural change? Answer: Evolutionary archaeology explains cultural change by applying principles of evolution to cultural phenomena. It suggests that cultural change occurs through mechanisms such as variation, selection, and transmission of cultural traits over time. This perspective emphasizes the adaptive nature of cultural behavior, where certain traits or practices may confer advantages in specific environments, leading to their persistence and spread within a population. 6) What is the difference between migration and diffusion? Answer: Migration involves the movement of people from one place to another, often resulting in the transfer of culture along with the migrating population. Diffusion, on the other hand, refers to the spread of cultural traits or practices from one group to another through contact and interaction, without necessarily involving physical movement of people. 7) What is systems theory? Answer: Systems theory is a theoretical framework used in archaeology to understand cultural systems as interconnected and dynamic entities composed of various subsystems. It emphasizes the relationships and interactions between different components of a culture, such as technology, economy, social organization, and ideology, and how changes in one subsystem can affect others within the system. 8) What is the relationship between migration and diaspora? Answer: Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another, while diaspora refers to the dispersion or scattering of a population from their original homeland into different areas. Migration can lead to diaspora when groups of people relocate to new regions, often resulting in the establishment of diasporic communities with connections to their ancestral homeland. 9) What are the three basic approaches available to archaeologists interested in studying cultural change? Answer: The three basic approaches available to archaeologists interested in studying cultural change are: 1. Processual Approach: Focuses on understanding cultural change through environmental, economic, and technological factors, often emphasizing the role of adaptive strategies and responses to external stimuli. 2. Post-processual Approach: Emphasizes the importance of social factors, ideology, and individual agency in cultural change, challenging deterministic explanations and highlighting the diversity of human experiences and interpretations. 3. Comparative Approach: Involves comparing different societies or regions to identify patterns of cultural change, similarities, and differences, and to infer underlying processes of cultural transformation. 10) What does colonization look like in the archaeological record? Answer: Colonization in the archaeological record can be identified through various indicators, including the establishment of new settlements or colonies in previously uninhabited areas, the introduction of new material culture or architectural styles associated with the colonizing group, evidence of resource exploitation or land use changes, and the presence of defensive structures or fortifications designed to secure colonial territories against indigenous resistance. Additionally, colonization may leave traces of cultural assimilation or conflict between colonizers and indigenous populations in the archaeological record. Essay Questions 1) How has archaeology contributed to our understanding of proto-Polynesian, protoIndo-European, and proto-Bantu? Answer: Archaeology has contributed to our understanding of proto-Polynesian, protoIndo-European, and proto-Bantu by providing evidence of material culture, settlement patterns, and subsistence strategies associated with these ancestral cultures. Through the analysis of archaeological sites, artifacts, and linguistic data, researchers have been able to reconstruct aspects of their societies, migration patterns, and cultural interactions, shedding light on their origins, dispersal, and cultural developments over time. 2) What role can historical linguistics play in the archaeological investigation of Polynesia? Answer: Historical linguistics can play a significant role in the archaeological investigation of Polynesia by providing insights into the linguistic relationships, migrations, and cultural interactions among Polynesian-speaking populations. By tracing language similarities and changes over time, linguists can identify potential migration routes, settlement patterns, and contact between different Polynesian groups, which can be corroborated and further investigated through archaeological evidence such as settlement patterns, material culture, and genetic studies. 3) What are the possible results of culture contact, and how can they be seen archaeologically? Answer: Culture contact can result in various outcomes, including acculturation, assimilation, cultural hybridization, conflict, and the exchange of goods and ideas. These outcomes can be seen archaeologically through changes in material culture, such as the adoption of new technologies, architectural styles, and art forms; shifts in settlement patterns and social organization; evidence of trade networks and exchange of exotic goods; as well as the presence of defensive structures, fortifications, and evidence of conflict or warfare between interacting groups. 4) What are the ways that trade shows up in the archaeological record? Give specific examples. Answer: Trade can manifest in the archaeological record through the presence of exotic or foreign goods, such as pottery, metals, or luxury items, that are not locally available. Archaeologists can identify trade networks and exchange systems through the distribution patterns of these traded goods across different regions. For example, the presence of Chinese ceramics in ancient Mediterranean sites like Pompeii indicates long-distance trade routes linking East Asia and the Roman Empire. Similarly, the spread of obsidian artifacts across Mesoamerica suggests extensive trade networks among ancient civilizations. 5) How does evidence of warfare show up in the archaeological record? Answer: Evidence of warfare can be identified in the archaeological record through various indicators, including the presence of defensive structures such as walls, ramparts, and fortified settlements; the discovery of weapons, armor, and military equipment; skeletal trauma indicative of violence, such as projectile injuries or blade wounds; mass graves containing individuals with signs of violent death; and depictions of battle scenes or war-related iconography on artifacts, murals, or pottery. These archaeological findings provide insights into the prevalence, nature, and consequences of warfare in ancient societies. Test Bank for Archaeology : The Science of the Human Past Mark Q. Sutton 9780205895311

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