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Chapter 10
1. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Proposals are persuasive documents used to solve problems, provide services, or sell
products.
b. Proposals are always solicited.
c. Proposals are informative documents used to share problems, identify emerging issues, and
categorize available resources for resolution.
d. Proposals are developed for external audiences only.
Answer: a
Rationale:
Proposals, which can be solicited or unsolicited, are persuasive, not informative, documents
used to solve problems, provide services, or sell products. They are also written for internal
and external audiences.
2. All proposals should show the value and benefits of the product or services being
recommended and
a. include free prizes or other gimmicks.
b. use easy-to-understand language.
c. be organized indirectly.
d. be organized directly.
Answer: b
Rationale:
All types of proposals share two significant characteristics: (a) they use easy-to-understand
language, and (b) they show the value and benefits of the product or services being
recommended.
3. A business would most likely write a request for proposal to
a. advertise openings for two sales positions.

b. attract new clients.
c. renovate offices.
d. interview job candidates.
Answer: c
Rationale:
The renovation of offices would most likely result in the writing of a request for proposal
(RFP). An RFP specifies the service, equipment, or problem-solving needs of an organization
or business and solicits competitive bids.
4. An effective proposal should do all of the following except
a. showcase the writer's expertise and build credibility.
b. emphasize how the writer's methods and products will benefit the reader.
c. get the reader's attention.
d. analyze findings, draw conclusions, and make recommendations intended to solve a
problem.
Answer: d
Rationale:
Proposals must get the reader's attention, emphasize how your methods and products will
benefit the reader, showcase your expertise and build credibility, and present ideas clearly and
logically. Formal reports, not proposals, analyze findings, draw conclusions, and make
recommendations intended to solve a problem.
5. You can make the introduction of a proposal more persuasive if you
a. explain in great detail how much better you are than your competitors.
b. hint at the problem you will solve but avoid explaining the reasons for the proposal.
c. remain as vague as possible to keep the reader intrigued.
d. provide a "hook" such as mentioning a remarkable resource available exclusively to the
writer.

Answer: d
Rationale:
Effective proposal openers are persuasive if they "hook" readers by mentioning a remarkable
resource available exclusively to the writer. Other effective "hooks" include promises of
solutions with details revealed later, key benefits of the proposal, and a promise of low costs
or speedy results.
6. In which part of a solicited proposal would you most likely convince your reader that you
understand the problem completely?
a. Introduction
b. Background
c. Authorization
d. Budget
Answer: b
Rationale:
The background section of an informal proposal is where you identify the problem, discuss
the goals of the project, and convince your reader that you understand the problem
completely.
7. In which section of an informal proposal would you most likely include a timetable for a
project to be completed?
a. Staffing
b. Authorization
c. Budget
d. Proposal
Answer: d
Rationale:
Most writers include in the proposal section a schedule of activities or timetable showing
when events will take place.

8. What should be included in the staffing section of an informal proposal?
a. Credentials and expertise of project leaders
b. List of projected costs
c. Copy of the RFP
d. Schedule or timetable of activities
Answer: a
Rationale:
The staffing section of a proposal describes the credentials and expertise of the project
leaders. It may also identify the size and qualifications of the support staff and other
resources.
9. The budget in a proposal should
a. reflect careful research because a proposal is a legal contract.
b. provide only rough estimates so that you can raise the price later if costs increase.
c. never itemize hours and costs, but offer only a total sum.
d. include a disclaimer to ensure that the budget is not legally binding.
Answer: a
Rationale:
Because a proposal is a legal contract, the budget must be carefully researched.
10. Jeremy has decided to include a deadline for acceptance in his proposal to install energyefficient workstations for a local manufacturer. In which section should Jeremy place the
deadline?
a. Introduction
b. Background
c. Conclusion and authorization
d. Proposal

Answer: c
Rationale:
The closing section is often the authorization request, which includes a deadline for
acceptance.
11. Although formal reports are similar to formal proposals, a primary difference is that
a. formal reports represent the end product of thorough research and data analysis.
b. formal reports use a more conversational tone.
c. formal reports are longer than formal proposals.
d. formal reports are organized indirectly.
Answer: a
Rationale:
Formal reports are similar to formal proposals in length, organization, and tone. However,
instead of solving problems, proposing changes, or responding to an RFP, formal reports
represent the end product of thorough research and data analysis.
12. What is the first step in writing a formal report?
a. Selecting an appropriate layout and format
b. Researching primary and secondary data
c. Writing a purpose statement
d. Determining the length of the report
Answer: c
Rationale:
When writing a formal report, you should begin by constructing a purpose statement that
defines the focus of the report and provides a standard that keeps the project on target.
13. What is the best advice when writing a statement of purpose for a formal report?
a. Write a statement of purpose only for external formal reports.

b. Omit limitations to avoid a negative tone.
c. Use action verbs that tell what you intend to do.
d. Use vague language to allow for flexibility.
Answer: c
Rationale:
In writing useful statements of purpose, choose action verbs telling what you intend to do
(analyze, investigate, compare, justify, evaluate, explain, establish, determine, and so on).
14. A work plan for a formal report should
a. be written after conducting primary or secondary research.
b. define terminology to be used in the report.
c. include a clear problem statement, a purpose statement, and a description of the research
methods to be used.
d. identify the credentials of the report writer.
Answer: c
Rationale:
Because a work plan is a tentative plan that guides the investigation, it should include a clear
problem statement, a purpose statement, and a description of the research methods to be used.
It should also include a tentative outline of the report's major sections and a logical work
schedule for completion of major tasks.
15. Chronological organization arranges ideas by
a. time.
b. order of importance.
c. physical location.
d. simple to complex.
Answer: a
Rationale:

Information sequenced along a time frame is arranged chronologically. This plan is effective
for presenting historical data or for describing a procedure.
16. Tanika must prepare a formal report detailing the findings of a year-long study of her
company's new wellness program. In this report she must discuss employee absenteeism
before and after the program's implementation. What type of organizational pattern will she
likely use?
a. Chronological
b. Spatial
c. Compare/Contrast
d. Importance
Answer: c
Rationale:
Tanika should write her report using a compare and contrast pattern. This pattern works well
for "before and "after" scenarios or for problems with clear alternatives.
17. Tyler is writing a report that analyzes the GlobalCom, Inc., market share of cell phone
subscriptions worldwide by region. He will probably organize his report
a. chronologically by the date the cell phone subscriptions reached their maximums.
b. around extensive secondary data to assure the reader that he conducted adequate research
before he wrote the report.
c. using a functional arrangement to show types of subscriptions globally.
d. geographically with sections representing each region's market share.
Answer: d
Rationale:
Since Tyler's purpose is to analyze market share by region, he would most likely arrange his
report geographically.
18. Logan has just completed the writing of a report on e-waste generated by his company.
What should he do next?

a. Submit the report to his supervisor.
b. Analyze his audience.
c. Edit and proofread the report.
d. Celebrate for completing the report.
Answer: c
Rationale:
After a report has been written, it must be edited and proofread carefully for format,
consistency, graphics, headings, accuracy, and mechanics.
19. Primary research data can be defined as
a. information that comes from reading what others have experienced and observed.
b. information gained from firsthand experience and observation.
c. statistics collected during the first stage of research.
d. data received from the World Wide Web.
Answer: b
Rationale:
Primary data result from firsthand experience and observation; secondary data come from
reading what others have experienced and observed.
20. Your boss asks you to write a formal report on the impact of smoking on employee
healthcare costs. Like nearly every writer of a research project, you should begin your
research by
a. reviewing secondary data in the library or on the Internet.
b. interviewing your colleagues to solicit their input and feelings.
c. preparing a questionnaire to distribute to your colleagues.
d. conducting a field experiment.
Answer: a

Rationale:
Nearly every research project should begin by reviewing secondary data because this can
save time and effort and prevent you from "reinventing the wheel."
21. Although researchers are increasingly using electronic data, you should learn to also use
print resources because
a. electronic sources are never considered as reliable as books and magazines.
b. print sources provide primary data and electronic sources provide secondary data.
c. some data is available only in print.
d. audiences respect only writers who include data from print sources.
Answer: c
Rationale:
Although researchers have moved from print to electronic data, you must learn about print
resources because some data appears only in print.
22. What type of print resource provides excellent in-depth, historical data?
a. Periodicals
b. Bibliographic indexes
c. Databases
d. Books
Answer: d
Rationale:
Although quickly outdated, books provide excellent historical, in-depth data. You can locate
books through print or online catalogs.
23. Many researchers today begin by looking in electronic databases because
a. they know that all data found in electronic databases are valid and reliable.
b. electronic databases are always a free resource.

c. it is easy to cite sources found in an electronic database.
d. electronic databases are fast and convenient to use.
Answer: d
Rationale:
A database is a collection of information stored digitally so that it accessible by computers or
mobile electronic devices, making this secondary research resource fast and easy to use.
24. What is the best advice for assessing the credibility of a Web page?
a. Review the Web page for accuracy in facts, spelling, grammar, usage, references, and
external links.
b. Determine the publishers or sponsors of the Web page to verify their credentials.
c. Evaluate the overall content of a Web page and see how it compares with other resources
on the same topic.
d. Perform all these tasks when assessing the credibility of a Web page.
Answer: d
Rationale:
Because information found on the Web can be published by anyone, you must assess the
credibility of a Web page by examining its currency, authority, content, and accuracy.
25. Which of the following is a primary data source?
a. Periodicals
b. Electronic databases
c. Blogs
d. Experimentation
Answer: d
Rationale:

Providing answers to business problems often means generating primary data through
surveys, interviews, observation, or experimentation. All other answer choices are means to
generate secondary data.
26. Surveys, which are used to collect firsthand data, have many advantages. One advantage
is that
a. those who respond to mailed or online surveys exactly represent the overall population.
b. respondents can be relied on to respond openly and truthfully to anonymous surveys.
c. data can be gathered economically and efficiently.
d. return rates for online and mailed surveys are typically over 90 percent.
Answer: c
Rationale:
Surveys gather data economically and efficiently, but response rates may be very low,
respondents may distort the truth, and those who respond may not represent an accurate
sample of the general population.
27. Brittany is writing a business report about protecting workplace data and will be
conducting an interview with a data security expert. What is the best advice you can give her?
a. Call before the interview to confirm the arrangements, and then arrive on time.
b. Learn about the individual she is interviewing, and research the background and
terminology of the topic.
c. Use open-ended questions rather than yes-or-no questions to draw out the responses from
the expert.
d. Brittany should complete all these steps.
Answer: d
Rationale:
Brittany should follow all these tips. She should also bring what she needs to take notes, dress
professionally, use her body language to convey respect, adopt a courteous and respectful

attitude, watch the time, end graciously, and send a thank-you note a day or two after the
interview.
28. Which of the following statements about documenting data is not accurate?
a. Documenting data can strengthen your argument.
b. Documenting data protects you from charges of plagiarism.
c. Documenting data is not necessary if you put the information in your own words.
d. Documenting data helps the reader pursue the topic further and make use of the
information.
Answer: c
Rationale:
Documenting data can strengthen your argument, protect you from charges of plagiarism, and
help the reader pursue the topic further. Even if you paraphrase (put the information in your
own words), you must document your information.
29. Plagiarism
a. involves using good data from reputable sources to increase your credibility and to enhance
the logic of your reasoning.
b. happens in only academic settings.
c. is the act of using others' ideas without proper documentation or by paraphrasing poorly.
d. occurs when writers acknowledge the sources of their researched information.
Answer: c
Rationale:
Plagiarism is the act of using others' ideas without documenting properly or by paraphrasing
poorly. It happens in both academic and business settings. However, you can avoid charges of
plagiarism by knowing what to document and by developing good research habits.
30. Which of the following statements would need to be documented in a report?
a. Tornadoes caused extensive loss of property and lives in Missouri.

b. You can get an idea of how dangerous a tornado is by its rating.
c. Damaging winds, common in strong tornadoes, caused problems for the residents of
Missouri.
d. The Fujita-Pearson tornado scale rates tornadoes with wind speeds of 261 to 318 miles per
hour as F5 storms.
Answer: d
Rationale:
You must document information that is not common knowledge. The statement that is not
common knowledge is "The Fujita-Pearson tornado scale rates tornadoes with wind speeds of
261 to 318 miles per hour as F5 storms."
31. Paraphrasing is
a. restating an original passage in your own words.
b. repeating the grammatical structure of the original passage.
c. replacing original words with appropriate synonyms.
d. indicating the source of the original work.
Answer: a
Rationale:
Paraphrasing is restating an original passage in your own words and in your own style
through different grammatical structure and wording.
32. Which of the following is not a purpose for a direct quotation?
a. To duplicate exact wording before criticizing an idea
b. To repeat identical phrasing because of its precise wording
c. To add length to a researched document
d. To provide objective background information
Answer: c
Rationale:

Use quotations only to provide objective background data, to cite experts, to repeat precise
phrasing, or to duplicate exact wording before criticizing.
33. Which of the following is the best advice about the use of direct quotations in a report?
a. Beware of overusing quotations because you may appear as if you have no ideas of your
own.
b. If you use a direct quotation, don't dilute its impact by summarizing it or introducing it in
your own words.
c. Place the direct quotation in quotation marks, but change a few words to show you have
your own ideas.
d. Avoid using any direct quotations in a report.
Answer: a
Rationale:
You should beware of overusing quotations because readers may think that you have few
ideas of your own. In addition, always summarize a direct quote before you present it and
keep its exact wording.
34. All of the following are tests to determine fair use except
a. nature of the copyrighted work.
b. notoriety of author.
c. amount of material copied.
d. effect of the use on the potential market.
Answer: b
Rationale:
Although individuals have limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission,
courts use four tests to determine fair use disputes: intended purpose of the information,
nature of the copyrighted work, amount and substantiality of the portion used, and effect of
the use on the potential market.
35. To avoid charges of copyright infringement, you should

a. include a footnote to all information.
b. use information only from Internet sites.
c. ask permission only when using information from a legal publication.
d. assume that all intellectual property is copyrighted.
Answer: d
Rationale:
To avoid charges of copyright infringement, assume that all intellectual property is
copyrighted, realize that Internet items and resources are not in the public domain, observe
fair-use restrictions, and ask for permission. Also, remember that including a footnote will
prevent charges of plagiarism but not copyright infringement.
36. Smart writers incorporate visuals and graphics in a report because they know that visuals
and graphics can
a. clarify data.
b. make complex data easy to understand.
c. add visual interest.
d. All answer choices are correct.
Answer: d
Rationale:
Visuals and graphics clarify data, add visual interest, and make complex data easy to
understand.
37. Which of the following is the most important element to consider when selecting an
appropriate graphic for a report?
a. Your communication channel
b. Your word processing abilities
c. Your report's organizational pattern
d. Your objective

Answer: d
Rationale:
When selecting a graphic for a report, you must consider your objective, and then select a
graphic that will convey this information most effectively.
38. Yolanda must include a long table in a report she is preparing on employee Internet use.
What advice should she follow when creating the table?
a. Avoid distracting her readers with shading.
b. Place the table as close as possible to its text discussion.
c. Leave missing data blank.
d. Because the emphasis is on the data, avoid the use of headings for each row.
Answer: b
Rationale:
Yolanda should place the table as close as possible to its text discussion. She should also use
"N/A" to note missing data, use clear headings for each row and column, and shade alternate
lines in longer tables.
39. What type of graphic illustrates changes in data over time?
a. Line chart
b. Flowchart
c. Pie chart
d. Table
Answer: a
Rationale:
Line charts are useful for demonstrating changes in quantitative data over time.
40. The major advantage of line charts is that they
a. compare related items.

b. present large amounts of data.
c. show the proportion of parts to a whole.
d. demonstrate trends.
Answer: d
Rationale:
The major advantage of line charts is that they can demonstrate trends.
41. Which statement about pie charts is most accurate?
a. Pie charts are most useful for technical audiences.
b. Pie charts are most appropriate for showing percentages.
c. Pie charts are more flexible than bar or line charts.
d. Pie charts can be confusing to readers because of the use of multiple colors.
Answer: b
Rationale:
Pie charts, or circle graphs, enable readers to see a whole and the proportion of its
components. Although less flexible than bar or line charts, pie charts are useful for showing
percentages.
42. In her letter to policyholders, Min Yi needs a graphic depicting the procedure a
policyholder follows when filing a claim. Which of these would be most appropriate?
a. Organizational chart
b. Flowchart
c. Illustration
d. Table
Answer: b
Rationale:
Use a flowchart to depict a series of steps.

43. Which of the following is the best advice when using graphics in reports?
a. Use colored graphics to add visual interest.
b. Don't introduce a graphic; a good graphic should communicate clearly itself.
c. Avoid summarizing the main point of the graphic.
d. Avoid the use of headings on a graphic.
Answer: a
Rationale:
The best advice is to use colored graphics to add visual interest. However, use some restraint
with color. Too much color or decorations can be confusing to readers.
44. All of the following are front matter components of a formal report except the
a. letter or memo of transmittal.
b. list of figures or tables.
c. appendix.
d. executive summary.
Answer: c
Rationale:
Although some front matter components of a formal report are optional, these components
typically appear in the following order when they are included within a formal report: report
cover, title page, letter or memo of transmittal, table of contents, list of figures or tables, and
executive summary.
45. What is the purpose of a letter or memo of transmittal?
a. To announce the topic of the report
b. To provide a list of sources used within the report
c. To introduce the writer of the report
d. To designate the parts of the report

Answer: a
Rationale:
A letter or memo of transmittal announces the topic of the report and tells how it was
authorized; briefly describes the project; highlights the report's findings, conclusions, and
recommendations; and closes with appreciation for the assignment or instruction for followup actions.
46. What advice should you follow when preparing a table of contents?
a. Avoid leaders (spaced dots) on a table of contents to avoid confusing the reader.
b. Include only the front matter components and the main body headings and subheadings.
c. Center all major headings.
d. Title the page Contents or Table of Contents.
Answer: d
Rationale:
Label this page "Contents" or "Table of Contents" and include all front matter components,
the body section's main headings and subheadings, and any back matter sections. In addition,
left-align all major headings, and include leaders to help the reader locate the appropriate
page numbers.
47. The purpose of an executive summary is to
a. announce the topic of the report and tell how it was authorized.
b. secure funding.
c. present an overview of a longer report for people who may not have time to read the entire
document.
d. show the main sections of a report.
Answer: c
Rationale:
The purpose of an executive summary is to present an overview of a longer report for people
who may not have time to read the entire document.

48. What information should be included in the introduction of a formal report?
a. Copies of surveys
b. A discussion of the report findings
c. Conclusions and recommendations
d. Explanation of the problem
Answer: d
Rationale:
The introduction of a formal report typically includes an explanation of the problem, relevant
background information, the significance and scope of the report, and an organizational
preview. It may also incorporate the name of the individual who commissioned the report, a
literature review, a definition of terms, and a description of primary and secondary sources
49. The body of a formal report should
a. define important and unfamiliar terms.
b. identify the individuals responsible for commissioning the report.
c. discuss, analyze, interpret, and evaluate the research findings or solution to the problem.
d. include a description of all secondary and primary data collected during the research phase
of writing the report.
Answer: c
Rationale:
The body of a formal report should discuss, analyze, interpret, and evaluate the research
findings or solution to the problem.
50. What is the best advice to follow when developing a bibliographic list of sources for a
formal report?
a. Include only published sources within your bibliographic list.
b. Label the page "Works Cited" when using either the APA or MLA format.
c. List the sources in alphabetical order.

d. Avoid developing a bibliographic list of sources because the in-text citations will identify
each source used within the report.
Answer: c
Rationale:
When developing a bibliographic list of sources, arrange all published and unpublished
sources in alphabetical order. In addition, title the page "Works Cited" when using the MLA
format or "References" when using the APA format. Regardless of the documentation format,
include the author, title, publication, date of publication, page number, and other significant
data for all ideas or quotations used in the report.
51. Proposals are informative documents used to educate readers.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Proposals are persuasive offers to solve problems, provide services, or sell products.
52. All proposals should use easy-to-understand language and show the value and benefits of
the product or services being recommended.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
All proposals share two significant characteristics: they use easy-to-understand language, and
they show the value and benefits of the product or services being recommended.
53. Proposals are always written for only external audiences.
a. True
b. False

Answer: False
Rationale:
Proposals, whether formal or informal, may be written for internal or external audiences.
They may also be solicited or unsolicited.
54. To make the introduction of your proposal persuasive, include a "hook" that focuses on
the audience's specific needs and benefits.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Effective proposal openers state the reasons for the proposal and highlight the writer's
qualifications. They also "hook" readers by focusing on the audience's specific needs and
benefits through hints of extraordinary results, promises of low costs or speedy results, or
references to remarkable resources available exclusively to the writer.
55. In a solicited proposal, your goal is to convince the reader that a problem exists.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
In an unsolicited proposal, your goal is to convince the reader that a problem exists. In a
solicited proposal, your aim is to persuade the reader that you understand the reader's issues
and that you have a realistic solution.
56. In the proposal, plan, and schedule section of a business proposal, your goal is to explain
your plan for solving the problem.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True

Rationale:
In the proposal, plan, and schedule section of a business proposal, your goal is to explain
your plan for solving the problem. This section may also include an implementation plan that
specifies research methods and a schedule or timetable of activities.
57. Proposal writers should avoid mentioning staff qualifications and credentials in a formal
proposal.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
A proposal should include a staffing section that describes the qualifications, credentials, and
expertise of the project leaders. This information not only promotes the writer's staff but also
proves to the potential client that qualified people will be on board to implement the project.
58. A proposal represents a legal contract.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Because a proposal is a legal contract, the budget must be carefully researched; you can't
raise the price later even if your costs increase.
59. The conclusion of a proposal should remind the reader of the proposal's key benefits and
make it easy for the reader to respond.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:

The closing section of a proposal should remind the reader of the proposal's key benefits and
make it easy for the reader to respond. It may also include a project completion date as well
as a deadline date beyond which the proposal offer will no longer be in effect.
60. Unlike a business proposal, a formal business report presents findings and
recommendations based on research and data analysis.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Formal business reports are similar to formal proposals in length, organization, and tone.
However, formal business reports present findings and recommendations based on research
and data analysis.
61. The first step in preparing a report is to conduct research.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
The first step of every report should begin with the writing of a purpose statement that
defines the focus of the report and provides a standard that keeps the project on target.
Purpose statements include action verbs that tell the reader what you intend to do.
62. Writers should avoid constructing a work plan for a business report because it may
become too restrictive to them and to their audience.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:

Writers should construct a work plan when they are writing a report. A work plan provides a
tentative plan that guides the investigation and provides a logical work schedule for
completion of tasks. It also includes a clear problem statement, purpose statement, and
description of the research methods to be used.
63. Formal report writers conduct most of their research using primary sources.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Formal report writers conduct most of their research using secondary, not primary, sources.
Secondary information has been previously analyzed and compiled in books, articles, Web
documents, podcasts, correspondence, and annual reports.
64. A report discussing the correct procedure to process customer complaints should be
organized using a chronological order.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Information sequenced along a time frame is arranged chronologically. This plan is effective
for presenting historical data or for describing a procedure such as the process for handling
customer complaints.
65. Unlike a business proposal, a formal business report does not need to be edited or
proofread.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:

The final step in preparing a formal business report involves editing and proofreading the
report for format, consistency, graphics, headings, accuracy, and mechanics.
66. Secondary data come from reading what others have published, experienced, or observed.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Data fall into two broad categories, primary and secondary. Primary data result from firsthand
experience and observation. Secondary data come from reading what others have published,
experienced, or observed.
67. An advantage of secondary data over primary data is that secondary data are easier and
cheaper to develop.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Secondary data sources are easier and cheaper to gather than primary data sources.
68. Books can provide historical, in-depth data.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Although quickly outdated, books provide excellent historical, in-depth data on a large
variety of subjects.
69. A database is a collection of information stored digitally so that it is accessible by
computers and mobile electronic devices.

a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
A database is a collection of information stored digitally so that it is accessible by computers
and mobile electronic devices. Databases provide bibliographic information and full-text
documents.
70. If you find information on the Web, you can be assured that it is reliable.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Web content isn't always reliable. Anyone posting a website is a publisher without any quality
control or guarantee. Therefore, you should always evaluate the currency, authority, content,
and accuracy of a Web page.
71. Surveys can generate primary data economically and efficiently from large groups of
people.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Surveys can generate primary data economically and efficiently from large groups of people.
However, a survey must be constructed carefully to produce useful and accurate information.
72. When you conduct an interview, prepare closed-ended questions to make the interviewee
feel relaxed and at ease.
a. True

b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Using open-ended questions will produce more useful report data than yes-or-no questions.
73. The only reason to document sources in a report is to avoid charges of plagiarism.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Although documenting sources in a report will likely prevent charges of plagiarism, you
should also document sources to strengthen your argument and credibility and to help readers
learn more about the topic. Documenting sources is also important to provide proper credit in
an ever-changing world where words and ideas are often borrowed.
74. The only item that you must document in a report is a quotation of another person's actual
spoken or written words.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
You must document the quotations and paraphrases of another person's actual spoken or
written words. However, you must also document another person's ideas, opinions, examples,
or theories; any facts, statistics, graphs, and drawings that are not common knowledge; and
visuals, images, and any kind of electronic media.
75. Information that is common knowledge requires no documentation.
a. True
b. False

Answer: True
Rationale:
Information that is common knowledge requires no documentation. However, you must cite
sources for proprietary information such as statistics organized and reported by another
source, direct quotations, and summarized ideas.
76. If you are worried about plagiarizing, you can avoid the problem if you use the
grammatical structure of the original and just replace words with synonyms.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
To paraphrase effectively, read the original to comprehend its full meaning; then write your
own version without looking at the original. Don't repeat the grammatical structure, and don't
merely replace words with synonyms.
77. Direct quotations are often useful to provide objective data and to establish the severity of
a problem as seen by experts.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Effective communicators use direct quotations for three purposes only: to provide objective
data and establish the severity of a problem as seen by experts; to repeat identical phrasing
because of its precision, clarity, or aptness; or to duplicate exact wording before making
critical statements.
78. You should assume that all intellectual property is copyrighted.
a. True
b. False

Answer: True
Rationale:
You should assume that all intellectual property is copyrighted because nearly everything
created privately and originally after 1989 is copyrighted and protected whether or not it has
a copyright notice.
79. Avoid the use of graphics in a report because graphics usually confuse readers.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Graphics clarify data, create visual interest, and make numerical data meaningful. By
simplifying complex ideas and emphasizing key data, well-constructed graphics make key
information more understandable and easier to remember.
80. Probably the most frequently used visual aid in reports is the table.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
The most frequently used visual aid in reports is the table. Because a table presents
quantitative or verbal information in systematic columns and rows, it can clarify large
quantities of data in small spaces.
81. The major advantage of line charts is that they show changes over time, thus indicating
trends.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True

Rationale:
Use line charts when you want to show changes over time or trends.
82. Pie charts are an effective visual to demonstrate a procedure.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Flowcharts, not pie charts, are effective visuals to explain procedures. Pie charts are useful in
showing percentages.
83. Avoid referencing graphics in the text of your report; the visual should speak for itself.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
Every graphic should be meaningfully introduced in the text and placed next to the point it is
mentioned. In addition, help the reader understand the significance of the graphic by telling
your audience what to look for or by summarizing the main point of the graphic.
84. Report graphics should include a caption or title.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
You should choose an appropriate caption or title for each graphic. The caption or title may
be a talking title that tells the reader what to think or a functional title that makes general
references using nouns without interpreting data.

85. The front matter of a formal report refers to the preliminary sections before the body
section.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
The front matter of a formal report refers to the preliminary sections before the body section.
Some front matter components are optional, but they typically appear in this order when they
are included: report cover, title page, letter or memo of transmittal, table of contents, list of
figures or tables, and executive summary.
86. If included with a report, a letter or memo of transmittal should be written using the
indirect strategy.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
A transmittal letter or memo follows the direct strategy and is usually less formal than the
report itself.
87. The purpose of a table of contents is to present an overview of the report for people who
may not have time to read the entire report.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
The purpose of an executive summary, not the table of contents, is to present an overview of
a longer report for people who may not have time to read an entire report. The purpose of a
table of contents is to show the main sections in a report and their page numbers.

88. The introduction should be the principal section of a formal report.
a. True
b. False
Answer: False
Rationale:
The body is the principal section in a formal report. It discusses, analyzes, interprets, and
evaluates the research findings or solution to the problem. It also contains the evidence that
justifies the conclusion.
89. The most important section of a report to a reader is the conclusions and
recommendations.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
The conclusions and recommendations section is important to a reader because this section
explains what the findings mean.
90. Regardless of the documentation format used, sources should be alphabetized in the
bibliographic section of a report.
a. True
b. False
Answer: True
Rationale:
Always alphabetize all sources within the bibliographic section of a report.
91. A(n) ____________________ is a written offer to solve problems, provide services, or
sell products.
Answer: proposal

Rationale:
A proposal is a written offer to solve problems, provide services, or sell products.
92. When government organizations or businesses have a specific need, they prepare a(n)
____________________, a document that specifies their requirements and solicits
competitive bids from vendors.
Answer: RFP
request for proposal
Rationale:
When government organizations or businesses have a specific need, they prepare a request
for proposal (RFP), a document that specifies their requirements and solicits competitive bids
from vendors.
93. A formal ____________________ is a document that analyzes findings, draws
conclusions, and makes recommendations intended to solve a problem.
Answer: report
Rationale:
A formal report may be defined as a document in which a writer analyzes findings, draws
conclusions, and makes recommendations intended to solve a problem.
94. The planning of every report begins with a statement of ____________________ that
describes the goal, significance, and limitations of a formal report.
Answer: purpose
Rationale:
The statement of purpose, developed in the planning stage, defines the focus of a report and
provides a standard that keeps the project on target.
95. The gathering of information is called ____________________.
Answer: research
researching
Rationale:

Research, or the gathering of information, is one of the most important steps in writing a
report. Because a report is only as good as its data, you will want to spend considerable time
collecting data before you begin writing.
96. A(n) ____________________ is a collection of information stored digitally so that it is
accessible by computers and mobile electronic devices.
Answer: database
Rationale:
A database is a collection of information stored digitally so that it is accessible by computers
and mobile electronic devices. Databases provide bibliographic (titles of documents and brief
abstracts) and full-text documents.
97. Using the ideas of someone else without giving credit is called ____________________
and is unethical.
Answer: plagiarism
Rationale:
Using the ideas of someone else without giving credit is plagiarism and is unethical. Even if
you paraphrase, the ideas must be documented.
98. ____________________ involves restating an original passage in your own words and in
your own style.
Answer: Paraphrasing
Rationale:
Paraphrasing involves restating an original passage in your own words and in your own style.
99. Commonly shared in online environments, a(n) ___________________ is a type of visual
aid that combines images and graphic elements to present complex information in a format
that is easy to understand.
Answer: infographic
Rationale:

An infographic is a visual representation of complex information in a format that is easy to
understand. Effective infographics tell a story by combining images and graphic elements.
Because these data visualizations tend to be long, they are commonly shared in online
environments.
100. A(n) ____________________ presents an overview of a longer report for people who
may not have time read the entire report.
Answer: executive summary
Rationale:
The purpose of an executive summary is to present an overview of a longer report for people
who may not have time to read an entire document. An executive summary should summarize
a report's major sections.

Test Bank for Essentials of Business Communication
Mary Ellen Guffey, Dana Loewy
9781285858913, 9781337386494, 9781111821227, 9781285858890, 9780176473358, 9780176531409

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