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This Document Contains Chapters 9 to 10 Chapter 09 Psychoanalytic Approaches to Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. The case of Ross Cheit (who had forgotten, and later remembered, being abused at a camp) is an example of A. denial. B. repression. C. sublimation. D. reaction formation. Answer: B. repression. 2. Freud lived most of his life in A. London. B. Munich. C. Vienna. D. New York. Answer: C. Vienna. 3. Before psychoanalysis, Freud did research in the field of A. neurology. B. spiritualism. C. geology. D. philosophy Answer: A. neurology. 4. Freud published his first book, "The Interpretation of Dreams," in A. 1900. B. 1885. C. 1910. D. 1925. Answer: A. 1900. 5. The Freudian idea of _______________ is basic to most psychotherapies. A. dream analysis B. the talking cure C. free association D. case studies Answer: B. the talking cure 6. José spends most of his time thinking about Sheila, the love of his life. This had led to José neglecting his course work. From a Freudian perspective José's neglect of his school work most likely is due to A. his very strong libido. B. sublimation of his aggressive thoughts. C. his lack of interest in the courses. D. his fixed amount of psychic energy. Answer: D. his fixed amount of psychic energy. 7. The death instinct is also called A. Eros. B. thanatos. C. wham. D. Zeus. Answer: B. thanatos. 8. The life instincts are typically called A. libido. B. Eros. C. lustatos. D. catharsis. Answer: A. libido. 9. The _______________ is the part of the mind about which the conscious mind has no awareness. A. ego B. superego C. conscious D. unconscious Answer: D. unconscious 10. According to Freud, the amount of psychic energy in a person A. changes when personality changes. B. increases with age. C. decreases with age. D. always remains constant. Answer: D. always remains constant. 11. Freud's idea of instincts was probably most influenced by A. Darwin. B. Galileo. C. Jung. D. Helmholtz. Answer: A. Darwin. 12. Freud's two basic instincts are _______________ and _______________. A. yin; yang B. ego; id C. sex; aggression D. love; sex Answer: C. sex; aggression 13. _______________ refers to the instinct for aggression and destruction. A. The unconscious B. Libido C. Thanatos D. The superego Answer: C. Thanatos 14. If a man invests most of his death instinct in a socially acceptable behavior (like football), Freud would expect that person to be A. less aggressive in other ways. B. more aggressive in other ways. C. fixated in the oral stage. D. fixated in the anal stage. Answer: A. less aggressive in other ways. 15. Which of the following is NOT part of Freud's model of the mind? A. Conscious mind B. Preconscious mind C. Unconscious mind D. Metacognitive mind Answer: D. Metacognitive mind 16. According to Freud, the _______________ mind is the part of the mind that contains thoughts and feelings of which you are currently aware. A. conscious B. preconscious C. unconscious D. metacognitive Answer: A. conscious 17. According to Freud, the _______________ mind is the part of the mind that contains all the information that you are not currently thinking about, but could easily bring to mind. A. conscious B. preconscious C. unconscious D. metacognitive Answer: B. preconscious 18. You are answering this question. Therefore, Freud would say the information is in the _______________ (mind.) A. conscious B. preconscious C. unconscious D. metacognitive Answer: A. conscious 19. I ask you to recall your mother's maiden name. This information resides in the _______________ mind, according to Freud. A. conscious B. preconscious C. unconscious D. metacognitive Answer: B. preconscious 20. Freud used the metaphor of a(n) _______________ to describe the three parts of the mind. A. glacier B. iceberg C. forest D. mountain Answer: B. iceberg 21. According to Freud, the _______________ mind is the part of the mind that contains unacceptable information that can only be brought into awareness with great effort. A. conscious B. preconscious C. unconscious D. metacognitive Answer: C. unconscious 22. Freudian slips are A. a motivated loss of coordination. B. a result of the motivated unconscious. C. true accidents that are usually socially unacceptable. D. only observed in heterosexual men. Answer: B. a result of the motivated unconscious. 23. Freud believed that _______________ occurred by accident. A. nothing B. everything C. superego development D. embarrassing things usually Answer: A. nothing 24. As unconscious thoughts, feelings, and urges can take on a life of their own, Freud called this part of the mind the _______________ unconscious. A. collective B. motivated C. universal D. emotional Answer: B. motivated 25. Freud believed that when his female patients reported being sexually seduced as children, the patients were probably A. telling the truth. B. repressing the truth. C. fulfilling unconscious wishes with fantasies. D. engaged in sublimation. Answer: C. fulfilling unconscious wishes with fantasies. 26. Which of the following would most likely be an indicator of the id operating on an individual's behavior? A. David has to have it, and have it right now. B. Andrew knows he has to wait for his turn. C. Mike will wait to have twice as much later. D. James will wait to find out what his parents think. Answer: A. David has to have it, and have it right now. 27. If the id cannot find the external object to satisfy its desires, it will A. search until finds the appropriate object. B. create a fantasy object to replace the object. C. use reason and logic to substitute an alternate object. D. delegate finding the appropriate object to the superego. Answer: B. create a fantasy object to replace the object. 28. The most primitive part of the mind is the A. ego. B. preconscious mind. C. id. D. superego. Answer: C. id. 29. Which part of the mind operates on the pleasure principle? A. Ego B. Preconscious C. Id D. Superego Answer: C. Id 30. Thinking without the logical rules of conscious thought is known as A. primary process thinking. B. secondary process thinking. C. moral reasoning. D. defense mechanisms. Answer: A. primary process thinking. 31. The process whereby an image of something unavailable is used to satisfy an urge is known as A. the id. B. secondary process thinking. C. wish fulfillment. D. projection. Answer: C. wish fulfillment. 32. Which part of personality redirects energy from potentially problematic and unacceptable outlets into more appropriate outlets? A. Id B. Ego C. Superego D. Sublimator Answer: B. Ego 33. The ego operates A. on the pleasure principle. B. on the reality principle. C. on the anxiety principle. D. with primary process thinking. Answer: B. on the reality principle. 34. Which part of the mind engages in secondary process thinking? A. Id B. Ego C. Superego D. Conscious Answer: B. Ego 35. _______________ involves developing strategies for problem solving and satisfying urges. A. Secondary process thinking B. Primary process thinking C. The phallic stage D. The superego Answer: A. Secondary process thinking 36. The _______________ is concerned with making a person do what is morally right. A. id B. ego C. superego D. preconscious Answer: C. superego 37. Which of the following parts of the mind is bound by reality? A. Id B. Ego C. Superego D. Conscious Answer: B. Ego 38. Which of the following statements about the id, ego, and superego is true? A. The id, ego, and superego are always interacting. B. The id, ego, and superego operate completely independently. C. The superego must manage the demands of both the ego and the id. D. The ego is always subservient to both the id and superego. Answer: A. The id, ego, and superego are always interacting. 39. According to Freud, _______________ is unpleasant and indicates that the control of the ego is threatened. A. projection B. anxiety C. reality D. sublimation Answer: B. anxiety 40. A person who has a well-balanced mind, one that is free from anxiety, will typically have a A. strong superego. B. weak collective unconscious. C. strong ego. D. very weak id. Answer: C. strong ego. 41. According to Freud, anxiety is typically the result of the control of the _______________ being threatened. A. id B. ego C. superego D. archetype Answer: B. ego 42. Which of the following is NOT a type of anxiety described by Freud? A. Objective B. Moral C. Neurotic D. Inferiority Answer: D. Inferiority 43. You are walking down the street and encounter a large, angry dog that growls and bares its teeth at you. You are experiencing _______________ anxiety. A. objective B. canine C. traumatic D. neurotic Answer: A. objective 44. Yang is lost in a major city and will likely be late for an important job interview. He is most likely experiencing _______________ anxiety. A. geographic B. objective C. neurotic D. moral Answer: B. objective 45. A conflict between the superego and the ego is experienced as _______________ anxiety. A. objective B. neurotic C. moral D. social Answer: C. moral 46. Jessica tries to be the perfect business woman. She works extraordinarily long hours, is extremely conscientious, and tries to be a good role model to her employees. However, no matter how many kudos she earns, raises she receives, and professional awards she earns Jessica feels _______________ anxiety about her performance and is constantly worried about getting fired. A. objective B. moral C. social D. neurotic Answer: D. neurotic 47. Mark is a deacon at his church, but feels guilty that he is setting a bad example for the congregation by enjoying an occasional beer. He is suffering from _______________ anxiety. A. objective B. neurotic C. moral D. histrionic Answer: C. moral 48. A conflict between the id and the ego results in _______________ anxiety. A. objective B. neurotic C. moral D. social Answer: B. neurotic 49. Anxiety that is experienced in response to an external threat was called _______________ anxiety by Freud. A. objective B. neurotic C. moral D. histrionic Answer: A. objective 50. The _______________ is responsible for balancing the demands of reality and the other parts of the mind. A. superego B. ego C. id D. Oedipal conflict Answer: B. ego 51. The ego uses _______________ to deal with anxiety. A. fantasy B. reality C. defense mechanisms D. wish fulfillment Answer: C. defense mechanisms 52. Defense mechanisms have all of these properties EXCEPT they A. operate unconsciously. B. require psychic energy. C. are the result of ego functioning. D. are secondary processes. Answer: D. are secondary processes. 53. _______________ is the defense mechanism that prevents unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and urges from reaching consciousness. A. Repression B. Projection C. Denial D. Sublimation Answer: A. Repression 54. Diana refuses to believe that her boyfriend broke up with her. From a Freudian perspective what defense mechanism may be operating? A. Repression B. Denial C. Projection D. Reaction formation Answer: B. Denial 55. A person who ignores some unpleasant part of his or her environment is exhibiting A. repression. B. denial. C. projection. D. reaction formation. Answer: B. denial. 56. Daydreaming can be an expression of A. repression. B. denial. C. sublimation. D. projection Answer: B. denial. 57. _______________ describes channeling an unacceptable impulse to a more acceptable target. A. repression B. denial C. projection D. displacement Answer: D. displacement 58. A person has no memory of a horrible accident. What defense mechanism may be at work? A. repression B. reaction formation C. regression D. projection Answer: A. repression 59. An 8-year-old girl's hatred of a mean teacher would most likely be _______________ to a toy. A. projected B. rationalized C. displaced D. regressed Answer: A. projected 60. If a woman consciously redirected anger she felt toward her boss to the family dog, it would be an example of A. projection. B. displacement. C. reaction formation. D. sublimation. Answer: D. sublimation. 61. Making excuses or acceptable explanations for unacceptable behavior is an example of A. reaction formation. B. displacement. C. rationalization. D. projection. Answer: C. rationalization. 62. A person sitting next to you in class gets a low grade on this exam. When you discuss the exam results, the person blames their performance on the difficulty of the material, their lack of belief in psychoanalytic theory, lack of the necessity to have this knowledge in the future, belief that the material is irrelevant, etc. This student may be using the Freudian defense mechanism of _______________ to explain his or her poor behavior. A. repression B. reaction formation C. regression D. rationalization Answer: D. rationalization 63. A man who crusades against pornography even though his id loves pornography demonstrates A. sublimation. B. reaction formation. C. projection. D. repression. Answer: B. reaction formation. 64. Recent empirical studies of repression have defined repressors as _______________ in anxiety and _______________ in defensiveness. A. low; low B. high; high C. high; low D. low; high Answer: B. high; high 65. Recent studies of repression have shown that repressors report _______________ levels of subjective anxiety and _______________ levels of physiological arousal when exposed to sexual or aggressive phrases. A. low; low B. high; high C. high; low D. low; high Answer: D. low; high 66. Recent studies of repression have been _______________ Freud's ideas. A. unrelated to B. generally inconsistent with C. generally consistent with D. in complete agreement Answer: C. generally consistent with 67. Repressors tend to have _______________ memories of emotional events compared to nonrepressors. A. better B. worse C. similar D. more detailed Answer: B. worse 68. Curtis is romantically infatuated with his favorite pop singer. He has all of her recordings, has made his apartment into a shine for her, and reads everything he can about her. One day he happens to see her on the street and he tries to talk to her, only to be coldly rebuffed by her. Curtis goes home and throws out everything having to do with her. The defense mechanism Curtis is experiencing is A. displacement. B. projection. C. reaction formation. D. denial. Answer: C. reaction formation. 69. Someone replaces one impulse with its opposite (e.g., love for hate). What defense mechanism may be at work? A. Repression B. Reaction formation C. Projection D. Sublimation Answer: B. Reaction formation 70. When we see negative qualities that we possess in others, it could be the result of A. displacement. B. projection. C. reaction formation. D. denial. Answer: B. projection. 71. Freud might explain people engaging in anti-homosexual campaigns as an example of A. moral anxiety. B. projection. C. sublimation. D. denial. Answer: B. projection. 72. Miasha looks around her apartment and sees her clothes scattered about, her lunch dishes sitting in the sink, and her bed unmade. When her roommates complain about her lack of cleanliness, she calls them all slobs and leaves quite angry. Miasha is using the defense mechanism of A. sublimation. B. reaction formation. C. projection. D. repression. Answer: C. projection. 73. Jerry loves to party and thinks everyone else enjoys partying as much as he does. He is demonstrating the _______________ effect. A. Zeigarnik B. false consensus C. social facilitation D. object relations Answer: B. false consensus 74. According to Freud, the most adaptive defense mechanism is A. sublimation. B. reaction formation. C. projection. D. repression. Answer: A. sublimation. 75. _______________ refers to the channeling of unacceptable urges into socially desirable activities. A. subcortical B. subjugation C. sublimation D. substitution Answer: C. sublimation 76. Freud thought that the skyscrapers of New York City might be the result of A. sublimation. B. reaction formation. C. projection. D. repression. Answer: A. sublimation. 77. A defense mechanism is probably a problem if it A. exists at all. B. interferes with one's relationships or ability to be productive. C. uses psychic energy. D. is in the conscious mind. Answer: B. interferes with one's relationships or ability to be productive. 78. According to Freud, if a child does not fully resolve a conflict in the oral stage, that child will become A. repressed. B. fixated at the oral stage. C. especially messy in adulthood. D. excessively cleanly Answer: B. fixated at the oral stage. 79. The term _______________ refers to getting stuck in a given stage of development. A. "identification" B. "symbolism" C. "fixation" D. "displacement" Answer: C. "fixation" 80. According to Freud, which stage focuses on the sexual gratification on the mouth, lips, and tongue? A. Oral B. Anal C. Phallic D. Latency Answer: A. Oral 81. The main conflict during the _______________ stage is excessive pleasure versus dependency. A. Oral B. Anal C. Phallic D. Latency Answer: A. Oral 82. According to Freud, a person who smokes and overeats is probably fixated at the _______________ stage. A. Oral B. Anal C. Phallic D. Latency Answer: A. Oral 83. According to Freud, a child who is fixated at the biting part of the oral stage will be _______________ as an adult. A. dependent B. messy C. hostile D. stingy Answer: C. hostile 84. During the _______________ stage, a child receives pleasure from expelling or retaining feces. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. latency Answer: B. anal 85. The psychosexual stage most associated with control is the _______________ stage. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. genital Answer: B. anal 86. Max is very messy and refuses to clean up after himself. He may be fixated at the _______________ stage of development, according to Freud. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. latency Answer: B. anal 87. In which stage does a child discover that he has, or she does not have, a penis? A. Oral B. Anal C. Phallic D. Genital Answer: C. Phallic 88. According to Freud, children first begin to direct sexual desire outward during the _______________ stage? A. Oral B. Anal C. Phallic D. Genital Answer: C. Phallic 89. During the phallic stage, little _______________ fall in love and want to have sex with their _______________. A. boys; mothers B. girls; mothers C. boys; fathers D. All of these. Answer: A. boys; mothers 90. According to Freud, the main reason little boys give up on their sexual desire for their mother is A. identification. B. castration anxiety. C. that Oedipus did too. D. a sexual attraction to the father. Answer: B. castration anxiety. 91. _______________ is the process in which boys imitate and take on the values of their father. A. Identification B. Castration anxiety C. Fixation D. Penis envy Answer: A. Identification 92. According to Freud, little girls blame _______________ for the fact that they do not have a penis. A. Oedipus B. Electra C. their mothers D. their fathers Answer: C. their mothers 93. According to Freud, girls are _______________ to resolve their conflict in the phallic stage. A. more motivated than boys B. less motivated than boys C. equally motivated to boys D. more or less motivated than boys depending on penis envy Answer: B. less motivated than boys 94. Freud believed that _______________ occurred during the latency period. A. very little B. superego development C. ego development D. the Electra complex Answer: A. very little 95. Puberty begins about the same time as the _______________ stage. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. genital Answer: D. genital 96. The _______________ stage is unique in that it is not accompanied by a specific conflict. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. genital Answer: D. genital 97. If a person is fixated at a particular stage, he or she A. has less psychic energy for other activities. B. will resolve that stage in adulthood. C. will be schizophrenic. D. will be better adjusted as an adult. Answer: A. has less psychic energy for other activities. 98. The goal of psychoanalysis is A. to make people happy. B. to make the unconscious conscious. C. to regress patients to the phallic stage. D. dream analysis. Answer: B. to make the unconscious conscious. 99. Which of the following is NOT a technique for revealing unconscious conflict? A. Free association B. Dream analysis C. The inkblot test D. Identification Answer: D. Identification 100. _______________ involves letting one's mind wander and saying everything that comes to mind without censorship. A. Free association B. Dream analysis C. The inkblot test D. Identification Answer: A. Free association 101. Freud called _______________ the royal road to the unconscious. A. free association B. the inkblot test C. dreams D. the id Answer: C. dreams 102. In dream analysis, Freud would interpret the _______________ for the hidden _______________. A. latent content; manifest content B. manifest content; latent content C. latent content; id impulses D. free association; projective hypothesis Answer: B. manifest content; latent content 103. Tracey dreams that a giant panda bear is chasing her through the mall. The giant panda bear is part of the _______________ content of the dream. A. manifest B. latent C. projective D. maladaptive Answer: A. manifest 104. According to Freud, dreams function to A. reduce anxiety. B. allow a person to release unconscious tension. C. fulfill unconscious desires. D. clarify preconscious thoughts. Answer: B. allow a person to release unconscious tension. 105. _______________ is the idea that people reveal their personalities by their responses to ambiguous stimuli. A. Insight B. Projection C. The projective hypothesis D. Thanatos Answer: C. The projective hypothesis 106. All of these are goals of projective techniques EXCEPT to A. bypass conscious censorship. B. reveal unconscious motives. C. assess personality. D. unleash pent up psychic energy. Answer: D. unleash pent up psychic energy. 107. When a patient in psychoanalytic therapy understands his or her unconscious conflicts, that person has A. libido. B. insight. C. transference. D. secondary process thinking. Answer: B. insight. 108. _______________ is a psychoanalytic therapist's attempts to describe a patient's unconscious conflict. A. Interpretation B. Transference C. Projection D. Insight Answer: A. Interpretation 109. According to Freud, when patients hamper their own therapy, they demonstrate A. transference. B. insight. C. resistance. D. reaction formation. Answer: C. resistance. 110. A patient in psychoanalytic therapy may avoid understanding their unconscious conflicts by engaging in the process of A. resistance. B. projective techniques. C. insight. D. sublimation. Answer: A. resistance. 111. _______________ occurs when a patient in psychoanalysis treats the therapist as someone in the patient's life. A. Resistance B. Insight C. Transference D. Primary process thinking Answer: C. Transference 112. In psychoanalysis, transference A. is counterproductive to psychoanalysis. B. can reveal a patient's unconscious. C. is unethical. D. reduces psychic energy. Answer: B. can reveal a patient's unconscious. 113. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of psychoanalysis? A. Little current research relates directly to psychoanalysis. B. Psychoanalysis relies too much on the case study method. C. The emphasis on childhood sexuality is inappropriate. D. Freud's writings influenced sociology, literature, and the arts. Answer: D. Freud's writings influenced sociology, literature, and the arts. Chapter 10 Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues Multiple Choice Questions 1. Holly Ramona's memories of being abused as a child were A. most likely implanted in her memory by her therapist. B. considered accurate by memory researchers. C. were thought to be misinterpretations of childhood fantasies. D. based on the manifest content of her dreams. Answer: A. most likely implanted in her memory by her therapist. 2. According to the text, Holly Ramona was A. the victim of childhood sexual abuse. B. a famous psychoanalyst. C. probably induced to have false memories. D. All of these answers. Answer: C. probably induced to have false memories. 3. Hypnosis and sodium amytal usually lead to A. distorted memories. B. more accurate memories of childhood. C. more accurate memories of all time periods. D. forgetting or repression. Answer: A. distorted memories. 4. The Ramona case discussed in the test demonstrates that A. repression never occurs. B. repression occurs often. C. child abusers can be brought to justice based on recovered memories. D. therapists can be held accountable for inducing false memories. Answer: D. therapists can be held accountable for inducing false memories. 5. Memory research conducted by Loftus suggests that false memories can be created A. with leading questions. B. through head trauma. C. by child abuse. D. by subliminal prompts. Answer: A. with leading questions. 6. Which of the following statements would a modern psychoanalyst most likely agree with? A. Most behavior is the result of unconscious conflict. B. The unconscious plays an important role in human functioning. C. Childhood sexuality is more important than childhood relationships. D. Childhood is unimportant in development. Answer: B. The unconscious plays an important role in human functioning. 7. The neo-analytic view places _______________ emphasis on relating to others and _______________ emphasis on sexual urges than Freud did. A. more; more B. more; less C. less; more D. less; less Answer: B. more; less 8. Westen defines all of these as fundamental postulates of modern psychoanalytic theory EXCEPT A. the unconscious still plays a large role in life, although not as important as Freud believed. B. behavior often reflects compromises in conflicts between motives, emotions, and thoughts. C. childhood plays a relatively minor role, irrelevant for studying adult relationship styles. D. mental representations of the self and relationships guide interactions with others. Answer: C. childhood plays a relatively minor role, irrelevant for studying adult relationship styles. 9. One of the main factors influencing people to report false memories is A. advances in psychoanalytic therapy. B. the many books on the topic in the popular press. C. new types of memory enhancing drugs. D. recent findings in hypnosis research. Answer: B. the many books on the topic in the popular press. 10. A study on false memories by psychologist Elizabeth Loftus demonstrated that A. false memories can occur only in brain damaged individuals. B. individuals find it impossible to bring forth false memories when hypnotized. C. asking leading questions could implant false memories in individuals. D. individuals remembered only salient cues when under the influence of sodium amatol. Answer: C. asking leading questions could implant false memories in individuals. 11. If individuals are directed to imagine something that did not happen them it might lead to what Loftus and her colleagues called the _______________ effect. A. intellect enhancement B. imagination inflation C. directed retention D. thematic apperception Answer: B. imagination inflation 12. Without telling you that I have used photo-editing software to create a photo, I show you a picture of yourself next to a flying saucer. Later I ask you if you ever had an encounter with a flying saucer in your childhood. You most likely will report that you A. probably are more confident that you had seen a flying saucer when a child than you would have been before seeing the picture. B. do not have any more confidence that you have seen a flying saucer than before you saw the obviously edited picture. C. will readily be able to recall an alien abduction in a past life while under hypnosis after seeing the picture. D. will be prompted to have a dream about an alien encounter in the near future. Answer: A. probably are more confident that you had seen a flying saucer when a child than you would have been before seeing the picture. 13. The _______________ bias is the tendency to only look for evidence that confirms a previous hunch. A. confirmatory B. repression C. priming D. regression Answer: A. confirmatory 14. Experimental procedures developed by Henry Roediger and Kathleen McDermott can create false memories in _______________ percent of research participants. A. 20 B. 35 C. 55 D. 80 Answer: D. 80 15. _______________ refers to a model of memory that suggests that information is stored with associations to other related elements in memory. A. Cognitive unconscious B. Confirmatory bias C. Spreading activation D. Internalized objects Answer: C. Spreading activation 16. The idea that memory influences what people recall is known as A. the motivated unconscious view. B. priming. C. constructive memory. D. confirmatory bias. Answer: C. constructive memory. 17. You are assigned to learn the following list of words: bagel, bread, pie, cake, and turnover. I then ask you to tell me what words on a second list you remember from the first list. You add the word "donut" to the list. This is an example of A. the imagination inflation effect. B. spreading activation model of memory. C. the confirmatory bias hypothesis. D. the unconscious collusion hypotheses. Answer: B. spreading activation model of memory. 18. A behaviorist is certain that the problem one is her clients is facing must be due to bad learning. She may be suffering from the _______________ bias. A. priming B. constructiveness C. confirmatory D. imaginative Answer: C. confirmatory 19. The _______________ view holds that information in our unconscious mind operates mostly the same as information in our conscious mind. A. id psychology B. Freudian C. social power D. cognitive unconscious Answer: D. cognitive unconscious 20. Research participants who are subliminally primed with the word "candy" would probably A. have an unexplainable urge to eat candy. B. recognize that they were being manipulated, but still desire candy. C. be quicker to recognize the word candy a few minutes later. D. be slower to recognize the word candy a few minutes later. Answer: C. be quicker to recognize the word candy a few minutes later. 21. _______________ is a procedure that makes associated material more accessible to conscious awareness. A. Priming B. Constructive memory C. Fixation D. Attachment Answer: A. Priming 22. Research on subliminal perception suggests that A. it can usually influence people's motivations. B. information can enter memory unconsciously. C. subliminal perception is impossible. D. it can lead to important changes in personality. Answer: B. information can enter memory unconsciously. 23. Joey listens to the song "kill, beat, slaughter, and hurt" by his favorite group, In Pain. Research on subliminal research indicates that Joey will A. become increasing violent by listening to this song. B. not become more violent by listening to this song. C. primed to be more violent when listening to this song. D. emulate the actions of the musicians more then the lyrics of the song. Answer: B. not become more violent by listening to this song. 24. Joan constantly listens to music by her favorite musical group, Gotta Be Good. This group is known for its positive, upbeat, message of love and altruism. From the cognitive unconscious perspective Joan will mostly A. be a better person for listening to that music. B. remain the same as if she never heard of the group. C. start attending religious services more often. D. tap into her primitive religious archetype. Answer: B. remain the same as if she never heard of the group. 25. The _______________ view holds that the unconscious mind causes behaviors. A. motivated unconscious B. cognitive unconscious C. priming D. confirmatory bias Answer: A. motivated unconscious 26. Which of the following best represents Freud's ideas? A. The cognitive unconscious B. Ego psychology C. Id psychology D. Object relations psychology Answer: C. Id psychology 27. Many psychoanalysts think that Freud placed too much emphasis on the _______________ and now focus more on the _______________. A. ego; superego B. id; superego C. superego; id D. id; ego Answer: D. id; ego 28. Erikson is credited with starting A. id psychology. B. ego psychology. C. superego psychology. D. psychoanalysis. Answer: B. ego psychology. 29. People who feel uncertain about who they are and what they value are probably undergoing A. hypnosis. B. false memories. C. an identity crisis. D. attachment problems. Answer: C. an identity crisis. 30. Freud and Erikson mostly disagreed that A. people go through stages. B. each stage involves a developmental crisis. C. people can get fixated. D. personality development continues throughout life. Answer: D. personality development continues throughout life. 31. According to Erikson, each stage of development A. does not involve a crisis. B. could only be resolved either adaptively. C. was more sexual than social. D. could result in fixation and arrested development. Answer: D. could result in fixation and arrested development. 32. Erikson believed that each stage of development was marked by a _______________ conflict. A. psychosexual B. libidinal C. psychosocial D. thanatatic Answer: C. psychosocial 33. According to Erikson, the first developmental stage is A. trust versus mistrust. B. initiative versus guilt. C. generativity versus stagnation. D. the oral stage. Answer: A. trust versus mistrust. 34. If infants do not receive the love and care they need, Erikson would predict that they will A. become violent and aggressive in later life. B. develop a deep sense of shame and guilt about themselves. C. develop a strong inferiority complex in adulthood. D. be suspicious and mistrust others throughout their lives. Answer: D. be suspicious and mistrust others throughout their lives. 35. A good outcome of the _______________ stage is that a child feels a sense of mastery and control. A. initiative versus guilt B. autonomy versus shame and doubt C. trust versus mistrust D. identity versus role confusion Answer: B. autonomy versus shame and doubt 36. According to Erikson, overprotective parents can contribute to a child's sense of A. guilt. B. stagnation. C. doubt. D. mistrust. Answer: C. doubt. 37. Three-year-old Christian follows his father around with his toy tools while his father is making some home repairs and mimics his father's tool use. Christian is accomplishing tasks associated with Erikson's _______________ stage of development. A. initiative versus guilt B. autonomy versus shame and doubt C. trust versus mistrust D. identity versus role confusion Answer: B. autonomy versus shame and doubt 38. A poor outcome of the _______________ stage can lead to lack of ambition and failure to pursue goals. A. initiative versus guilt B. autonomy versus shame and doubt C. trust versus mistrust D. identity versus role confusion Answer: A. initiative versus guilt 39. A child successfully completing Erikson's stage of industry versus inferiority would A. play games that imitate and practice adult tasks. B. compare their success and failure to that of children their own age. C. start to develop a sense of their role in life. D. begin to prepare for coming-of-age rituals. Answer: B. compare their success and failure to that of children their own age. 40. Erikson used the word "industry" to describe A. his first developmental stage. B. a sense of low self-esteem. C. the feeling of failure. D. the feeling that one can achieve what he or she wants. Answer: D. the feeling that one can achieve what he or she wants. 41. Erikson's fifth stage is identity versus A. inferiority. B. stagnation. C. role confusion. D. isolation. Answer: C. role confusion. 42. A person deals with the question "Who am I?" in the _______________ stage. A. initiative versus guilt B. autonomy versus shame and doubt C. trust versus mistrust D. identity versus role confusion Answer: D. identity versus role confusion 43. Justin is trying to find his place in the world. He tries a variety of sports, part-time jobs, and is starting to explore what his college major might be next year. He is in Erikson's _______________ stage of development. A. intimacy versus isolation B. integrity versus despair C. identity versus role confusion D. generativity versus stagnation Answer: C. identity versus role confusion 44. Joshua has chosen to return to his hometown after graduating from college and join the family business. He is a very talented musician and his friends are encouraging him to join a band. Joshua shrugs off their suggestions and says going home is the right thing to do. From Erik Erikson's perspective, Joshua most likely is experiencing A. identity foreclosure. B. a conventionality press. C. identity certainty. D. an inferiority complex. Answer: A. identity foreclosure. 45. Sheri is taking off a year after college to travel throughout Europe. Erikson would believe she is experiencing _______________ in the development of her identity. A. an identity confusion B. a moratorium C. a delay D. fixation Answer: B. a moratorium 46. Rites of passage usually occur during Erikson's stage of A. intimacy versus isolation. B. integrity versus despair. C. identity versus role confusion. D. generativity versus stagnation. Answer: C. identity versus role confusion. 47. Connecting with others, both as friends and romantically, is the focus of the _______________ stage. A. intimacy versus isolation B. integrity versus despair C. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt D. generativity versus stagnation Answer: A. intimacy versus isolation 48. Divorce is a poor resolution at the _______________ stage. A. intimacy versus isolation B. integrity versus despair C. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt D. generativity versus stagnation Answer: A. intimacy versus isolation 49. During the _______________ stage people are concerned with whether or not they have created something they really care about in life. A. intimacy versus isolation B. integrity versus despair C. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt D. generativity versus stagnation Answer: D. generativity versus stagnation 50. A professor enters the lecture hall with notes that look like they were written by candlelight. He is not very interested in what he is doing. From Erikson's perspective this professor is not progressing very well through the _______________ stage of development. A. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt B. generativity versus stagnation C. integrity versus despair D. identity versus role confusion Answer: B. generativity versus stagnation 51. Dr. Winters is considered one of the most prominent obstetricians in town. She has just delivered her one thousandth baby. Dr. Winters feels that this delivery is just as emotionally satisfying as the first. She is successfully progressing through the _______________ stage of development in Erikson's model of development. A. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt B. generativity versus stagnation C. integrity versus despair D. identity versus role confusion Answer: B. generativity versus stagnation 52. In adulthood, people are usually in the generativity versus _______________ stage. A. mistrust B. guilt C. stagnation D. role confusion Answer: C. stagnation 53. Erikson's last developmental stage is A. intimacy versus isolation. B. integrity versus despair. C. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt. D. generativity versus stagnation. Answer: B. integrity versus despair. 54. A person who would choose to live their life over again in exactly the same way has resolved the _______________ stage in a positive way. A. integrity versus despair B. identity versus role confusion C. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt D. initiative versus guilt Answer: A. integrity versus despair 55. Grandpa Charlie sits with his grandchildren recounting his life. He tells them that if he had it do all over again he would not change a thing. Grandpa Charlie is successfully negotiated the _______________ stage of development. A. intimacy versus isolation B. integrity versus despair C. autonomy versus shame and self-doubt D. generativity versus stagnation Answer: B. integrity versus despair 56. Karen Horney made her feminist critiques of psychoanalysis from A. 1910 to 1930. B. 1930 to 1950. C. 1950 to 1970. D. 1970 to 1990. Answer: B. 1930 to 1950. 57. Horney thought that the penis was A. important in the understanding development in boys. B. not important to understanding the development in girls. C. a symbol of social power. D. even more important then Freud believed. Answer: C. a symbol of social power. 58. Horney believed that girls A. had an unconscious desire to become boys. B. wanted a penis unconsciously. C. wanted the social power boys possessed. D. unconsciously believed that boys are inferior. Answer: C. wanted the social power boys possessed. 59. As an early feminist, Horney believed that A. culture affects men and women differently. B. men and women behave similarity across cultures. C. Freud's views about women were fundamentally correct. D. culture affects both genders in a similar manner. Answer: A. culture affects men and women differently. 60. According to Horney, most differences between boys and girls can be attributed to A. genes. B. hormones. C. differences in resolving the phallic stage. D. cultural influences. Answer: D. cultural influences. 61. According to Horney, _______________ is a term that describes a set of shared standards for many behaviors. A. culture B. gender C. cognitive unconscious D. social power Answer: A. culture 62. Horney argued that girls may avoid achievement because they have A. poor attachments. B. low social power. C. high levels of narcissism. D. an unconscious fear of success. Answer: D. an unconscious fear of success. 63. The terms "feminine" and "masculine" refer to A. sex. B. personality disorders. C. traits or roles assigned to women and men in a particular culture. D. All of these. Answer: C. traits or roles assigned to women and men in a particular culture. 64. _______________ refer to differences in culturally ascribed roles and traits that we view as "masculine" and "feminine." A. Sex differences B. Gender differences C. Confirmatory biases D. Collectivism Answer: B. Gender differences 65. The distinction between "sex" and "gender" can be traced back to A. Horney. B. Freud. C. Erikson. D. Bowlby. Answer: A. Horney. 66. Jenny decides to stay at home and go to the local community college rather than going away to a prestigious university. Karen Horney would say that she A. is fixated at a stage of development. B. is off time due to chronic shyness. C. has very strong a fear of success. D. needs to be a stronger feminist. Answer: C. has very strong a fear of success. 67. Karen Horney believed that A. biological processes were the primary determinants of behavior. B. social influence was a more important factor then biological processes. C. separate psychological theories were needed for men and women. D. culture imposed similar standards on both men and women. Answer: B. social influence was a more important factor then biological processes. 68. Will received an "A" on his personality test and a "D" on his history test. He blames on the "D" on the difficulty of history textbook and the "A" on his mastery of personality psychology. Will is engaging in _______________ bias. A. confirmatory B. selective memory C. narcissist D. self-serving Answer: D. self-serving 69. Inflated self-admiration and constant attempts to draw attention to oneself are signs of an individual's A. self esteem. B. narcissism. C. grandiosity. D. dominance. Answer: B. narcissism. 70. Alexia studies the fashion magazines and copies the looks of the supermodels. She gets lots of attention for her fashion sense and all the girls praise her as a fashion leader. However, when Gwen criticizes her for wearing last year's shoes, Alexia runs to the bathroom and cries. This best demonstrates A. fragile self-esteem. B. the confirmatory bias. C. over-inflated ego. D. the narcissistic paradox. Answer: D. the narcissistic paradox. 71. A person with an inflated sense of self-admiration who constantly attempts to draw attention to his or her self can be described as A. narcissistic. B. fixated in the trust versus mistrust stage. C. securely attached. D. ambivalently attached. Answer: A. narcissistic. 72. Narcissism is A. always pathological. B. the result of an oral fixation. C. adaptive at moderate levels. D. the result of the narcissistic paradox. Answer: C. adaptive at moderate levels. 73. The narcissistic paradox is that narcissists A. appear to have high self-esteem, but it is fragile. B. have high self-esteem, but are aggressive. C. act modestly, but actually have very high self-esteem. D. act violently, but deny these actions. Answer: A. appear to have high self-esteem, but it is fragile. 74. Research suggests that when criticized, a narcissist may tend to A. ignore it. B. behave aggressively. C. congratulate themselves quietly. D. boast loudly to everyone who will listen. Answer: B. behave aggressively. 75. Research discussed in the text found that people who scored low, compared to high, on narcissism A. used more first-person pronouns in essays. B. do not punish opponents in video games when insulted. C. spent more time looking at themselves on videos. D. rated their performance more positively than other observers. Answer: B. do not punish opponents in video games when insulted. 76. Object relations theory stresses the importance of _______________ in determining adult relationships. A. the oral stage B. childhood relationships C. the cognitive unconscious D. fear of success Answer: B. childhood relationships 77. According to the object relations theory, relationships with _______________ are especially important. A. parents B. peers C. siblings D. teachers Answer: A. parents 78. According to the object relations theory, children _______________ the mother in an unconscious representation. A. repress B. internalize C. fixate D. project Answer: B. internalize 79. In the object relations theory, the objects are A. real people. B. the id, ego, and superego. C. mental representations of people. D. features of the environment. Answer: C. mental representations of people. 80. The first social attachments an infant develops become _______________ for all meaningful relationships in the future in object relations theory. A. objects B. templates C. archetypes D. forms Answer: B. templates 81. Eva's mother left her on her own quite often and did not care for her needs when she was a child. If Eva internalizes this image of her mother she may, from an object relations perspective, A. have difficulty trusting people later in life. B. search for acceptance in later life. C. become a poor mother herself in later life. D. become an overly cautious mother in later life. Answer: A. have difficulty trusting people later in life. 82. Which of the following is NOT true about what Harlow learned that baby monkeys in his experiment? Baby monkeys A. prefer real mothers to fake mothers. B. need a responsive mother to develop normally. C. prefer cloth to wire fake mothers. D. prefer fake mothers who provided food. Answer: D. prefer fake mothers who provided food. 83. The strange situation procedure assesses A. attachment style. B. ego conflict. C. object relations. D. neurotic anxiety. Answer: A. attachment style. 84. Some children experience _______________ anxiety, or in other words, cannot be calmed when removed from their mothers' care. A. moral B. neurotic C. objective D. separation Answer: D. separation 85. Bowlby suggested that _______________ anxiety indicates a problem with a child's attachment to the mother. A. moral B. neurotic C. objective D. separation Answer: D. separation 86. The name most associated with attachment research is A. Horney. B. Freud. C. Erikson. D. Bowlby. Answer: D. Bowlby. 87. While little Mandy is playing her mother leaves the room for a few minutes. When her mother returns, Mandy hardly noticed that she had been gone. Ainsworth and her colleagues would probably label Mandy as being _______________ attached. A. securely B. avoidantly C. independently D. ambivalently Answer: B. avoidantly 88. Toddler Roberto is left with a stranger for a few minutes. He was quite upset and hard to calm down while his mother was away, but did not really seem happy when she returned. According to Ainsworth's theory, Roberto is probably _______________ attached. A. securely B. avoidantly C. independently D. ambivalently Answer: D. ambivalently 89. Who created the "strange situation procedure"? A. Erikson B. Ainsworth C. Horney D. Roediger Answer: B. Ainsworth 90. More infants fall into the _______________ category than the other categories. A. securely attached B. avoidantly attached C. ambivalently attached D. separation anxiety Answer: A. securely attached 91. In the "strange situation procedure," _______________ infants are happiest when the mother returns. A. securely attached B. avoidantly attached C. ambivalently attached D. separation anxiety Answer: A. securely attached 92. Which of the following terms does NOT describe an attachment style identified by Ainsworth? A. Secure B. Avoidant C. Ambivalent D. Separated Answer: D. Separated 93. Ambivalently attached infants _______________ when the mothers left in the strange situation procedure. A. cried the most B. cried the least C. were indifferent D. were calm Answer: A. cried the most 94. In the strange situation procedure, when do ambivalently attached infants act ambivalently? A. When the mother returns. B. When the mother cuddles the infant. C. When the stranger enters. D. When a stranger cuddles the infant. Answer: A. When the mother returns. 95. Mothers of _______________ attached infants provide the most affection and stimulation to their babies. A. securely B. avoidantly C. ambivalently D. symbiotically Answer: A. securely 96. Mothers who are very responsive to their baby's crying in its early months of life will find that when their baby is about 1-year-old the baby will A. be ambivalently attached to the mother. B. cry just as much as it did as an infant. C. be securely attached to the mother. D. cry substantially less then when it was an infant. Answer: D. cry substantially less then when it was an infant. 97. Bowlby's "working models" for adult relationships are A. based on the externalized projections of parental objects. B. internalized in the form of unconscious expectations about relationships. C. based on the identification with the same-gendered parent. D. based on aeries of trial and error learning experiences. Answer: B. internalized in the form of unconscious expectations about relationships. 98. Hazan and Shaver believe the _______________ relationship style is characterized by difficulty in trusting other people. A. secure B. avoidant C. paranoid D. ambivalent Answer: B. avoidant 99. A person who feels vulnerable and uncertain in relationships has Hazan and Shaver's _______________ relationship style. A. secure B. avoidant C. ambivalent D. defensive Answer: C. ambivalent 100. Which relationship style do Hazan and Shaver characterize as having the fewest problems? A. Secure B. Avoidant C. Ambivalent D. Separated Answer: A. Secure 101. Deidre is always suspicious of the nice things Barbara tries to do for her. She worries that Barbara will end up letting her down. Hazen and Shaver would say that Deidre has a(n) _______________ relationship style. A. insecure B. avoidant C. ambivalent D. paranoid Answer: B. avoidant 102. Your good friend Frederick's girlfriend, Elizabeth, is very high maintenance and demands far more from Frederick then he can possibly give. As a good student of personality you, tell Frederick that Elizabeth most likely has a(n) _______________ relationship style. A. insecure B. jealous C. ambivalent D. possessive Answer: C. ambivalent 103. Adults with a(n) _______________ relationship style shun romance, and believe that love never lasts. secure A. avoidant B. ambivalent C. independent Answer: B. ambivalent 104. Most people who study attachment and relationship styles would agree that A. there is little correspondence between childhood and adult styles. B. a childhood style cannot be changed in adulthood. C. a positive relationship in adulthood can compensate for a negative childhood. D. a negative childhood predicts a strong motive to form deep attachments in adult relationships. Answer: C. a positive relationship in adulthood can compensate for a negative childhood. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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