Preview (12 of 39 pages)

Preview Extract

This Document Contains Chapters 7 to 8 Chapter 07 Physiological Approaches to Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. After Elliot's brain tumor was removed his _______________ changed. A. personality B. intelligence C. memories D. language skills Answer: A. personality 2. A small bit of Elliot's brain that transmitted _______________ information to the higher reasoning centers of the brain was destroyed when his tumor was removed. A. spatial B. emotional C. reasoning D. memory Answer: B. emotional 3. The idea that personality characteristics could be related to biology dates back to A. the 1950s. B. 1892. C. the 1400s. D. 170 A.D. Answer: D. 170 A.D. 4. One of the first people to suggest that biological differences could be responsible for personality differences was A. Eysenck. B. Pavlov. C. Galen. D. Sheldon. Answer: C. Galen. 5. The _______________ theory of personality suggests that differences in sociability are caused by differences in the amount of blood an individual has present in his or her body compared to other substances. A. arousal B. bodily fluid C. reinforcement sensitivity D. circadian rhythm Answer: B. bodily fluid 6. According to Galen's theory of bodily fluids, if a person is passive, calm, and thoughtful they had a greater abundance of _______________ than other fluids in their bodies. A. phlegm B. black bile C. blood D. yellow bile Answer: A. phlegm 7. If a person is unstable, aggressive, and excitable they would have an abundance of _______________, according to Galen's theory of bodily fluids. A. black bile B. phlegm C. yellow bile D. blood Answer: C. yellow bile 8. Galen believed that a person who was happy, outgoing, and lively could be described as being A. phlegmatic. B. melancholic. C. choleric. D. sanguine. Answer: D. sanguine. 9. Individuals with an abundance of black bile were described by Galen as being A. sanguine. B. choleric. C. melancholic. D. phlegmatic. Answer: C. melancholic. 10. Which of the following was NOT a part of the bodily-fluid theory of personality? A. Phlegm B. Black bile C. Blood D. Green bile Answer: D. Green bile 11. Phineas Gage's personality became _______________ after his brain was penetrated by an iron rod in an accident. A. agreeable and conscientious B. obstinate and capricious C. extraverted and neurotic D. extraordinarily conventional Answer: B. obstinate and capricious 12. Following his accident, Phineas Gage A. returned to his job and led a fairly normal life. B. became a circus side show curiosity. C. held a variety of farm jobs. D. died of complications due to his injury. Answer: C. held a variety of farm jobs. 13. An advantage of the physiological approach to personality is that physiology A. is easy to measure. B. can be measured mechanically and reliably. C. is the most important part of personality. D. is the same for all people. Answer: B. can be measured mechanically and reliably. 14. Most physiological psychologists would agree that A. physiology is destiny. B. physiology does not change over time. C. physiology is one cause of personality. D. physiology determines behavior Answer: C. physiology is one cause of personality. 15. Most physiological personality psychologists today focus on A. body types. B. physiological systems. C. the four humors. D. telemetry. Answer: B. physiological systems. 16. Sensors placed on the surface of the skin can be used to measure A. brain waves, cardiovascular measures, and electrodermal activity. B. neurotransmitters. C. dopamine. D. telemetry. Answer: A. brain waves, cardiovascular measures, and electrodermal activity. 17. Electrodermal activity measures A. alpha waves. B. how much sweat is present on the skin. C. cardiovascular activity. D. actual biological substrates of personality. Answer: B. how much sweat is present on the skin. 18. Measuring the amount of electricity that passes between two electrodes placed on a person's skin measures A. cardiovascular reactivity. B. electrocardiogram activity. C. electrodermal activity. D. electroencephalogram activity. Answer: C. electrodermal activity. 19. Some individuals have spontaneous electrodermal responses even when in a resting state in a quiet room. The personality traits most consistently associated with these nonspecific electrodermal responses are A. extroversion and openness to experience. B. anxiety and neuroticism. C. sensation seeking and aggression. D. impulsivity and psychoticism. Answer: B. anxiety and neuroticism. 20. Which of the following best indicates cardiovascular activity? A. Skin conductance B. Alpha waves C. Electrodermal activity D. Blood pressure Answer: D. Blood pressure 21. To obtain an accurate measure of cardiovascular activity researchers typically A. measure the number of heartbeats per minute. B. measure skin conductance between heartbeats. C. measure the intervals between heartbeats. D. measure the average systolic blood pressure. Answer: C. measure the intervals between heartbeats. 22. The increase in blood pressure observed in response to stress is an indication of A. cardiovascular reactivity. B. alpha waves. C. skin conductance. D. hormonal activity Answer: A. cardiovascular reactivity. 23. People with Type A personality show A. lower levels of cardiovascular reactivity. B. higher levels of cardiovascular reactivity. C. higher levels of electrodermal activity. D. lower levels of electrodermal activity. Answer: B. higher levels of cardiovascular reactivity. 24. Carlos is very competitive, hostile, impatient, and has a strong level of cardiac reactivity. Carlos most likely has a _______________ personality. A. mesomorphic B. Type A C. impulsive D. reactive Answer: B. Type A 25. Terry, a Type A personality, suffers from chronic cardiovascular activity. He should be careful as these behaviors may contribute to A. cancer proneness. B. coronary artery disease. C. chronic diabetes. D. Crohn's disease. Answer: B. coronary artery disease. 26. Electrical activity in the brain is measured with A. cardiovascular reactivity. B. the electrocardiogram. C. skin conductance. D. the electroencephalogram or EEG. Answer: D. the electroencephalogram or EEG. 27. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used by psychologists to study A. the portions of the brain that are active while performing a task. B. vascular system in humans during stress. C. how much magnetic activity can be measured on a person's skin. D. assess how quickly blood flows through the bloodstream. Answer: A. the portions of the brain that are active while performing a task. 28. Monica is shown some pictures with very negative content. Activity in the frontal brain would indicate that she may have the personality trait of A. extroversion. B. neuroticism. C. quarrelsomeness. D. sensation seeking. Answer: B. neuroticism. 29. According to Eysenck, _______________ is related to low physiological arousal. A. extraversion B. introversion C. the Behavioral Activation System D. the Behavioral Inhibition System Answer: A. extraversion 30. A person who is sociable, outgoing, venturesome, and easily bored A. has a Type A personality. B. is an introvert. C. is an extravert. D. would score high on harm avoidance. Answer: C. is an extravert. 31. Which of the following physiological mechanisms is thought to control overall cortical arousal? A. Parasympathetic nervous system B. Ascending reticular activating system or ARAS C. Behavioral activation system or BAS D. Behavioral inhibition system or BIS Answer: B. Ascending reticular activating system or ARAS 32. According to Hebb's theory, there is a(n) _______________ state of arousal for every task that will lead to the highest level of performance for each individual. A. marginal B. optimal C. maximal D. progressive Answer: B. optimal 33. Which of the following is NOT part of Hebb's theory about "optimal levels of arousal"? A. A person can be too aroused to perform well. B. A person has the same optimal level of arousal for all stimuli. C. A person can perform poorly because they are not sufficiently aroused. D. Different activities have different optimal levels of arousal. Answer: B. A person has the same optimal level of arousal for all stimuli. 34. According to Eysenck, introverts avoid social situations because A. they do not like people. B. they also score high on measures of anxiety. C. they have too much monoamine oxidase. D. they are likely to become over aroused in social situations. Answer: D. they are likely to become over aroused in social situations. 35. According to Eysenck, extraverts seek out social situations and stimulation as they A. need the arousal of social situations. B. have high levels of anxiety when alone. C. have overactive ascending reticular activating systems. D. have greater impulse control when in social situations. Answer: A. need the arousal of social situations. 36. Eysenck's revised theory of extraversion suggests that introverts and extraverts differ in A. baseline level of arousal. B. their arousal response. C. maximal level of arousal. D. behavioral activating systems. Answer: B. their arousal response. 37. The following were all findings of Russell Geen's study of introverts and extraverts EXCEPT A. introverts preferred lower levels of arousal than extraverts. B. extraverts and introverts had different levels of baseline arousal. C. introverts performed better under conditions of low arousal. D. extraverts performed better when they chose their own level of arousal. Answer: D. extraverts performed better when they chose their own level of arousal. 38. Which name is most associated with the reinforcement sensitivity theory? A. Pavlov B. Eysenck C. Gray D. Zuckerman Answer: C. Gray 39. According to Gray, _______________ is responsive to cues for incentives, rewards, and approach behavior. A. the behavioral activation system B. the behavioral inhibition system C. dopamine D. frontal brain asymmetry Answer: A. the behavioral activation system 40. According to Gray, _______________ is responsive to cues for punishment, frustration, and uncertainty resulting in a personality dimension assessing anxiety. A. the behavioral activation system B. the behavioral inhibition system C. dopamine D. frontal brain asymmetry Answer: B. the behavioral inhibition system 41. Gray thought that _______________ was responsible for avoidance behavior. A. reward dependence B. the behavioral inhibition system C. monoamine oxidase D. a strong nervous system Answer: B. the behavioral inhibition system 42. In Gray's model of personality, individuals with a reactive behavioral inhibition system are very sensitive to A. positive emotions. B. punishment or frustration. C. incentives and rewards. D. changes in MAO levels. Answer: B. punishment or frustration. 43. Individuals with a reactive behavioral activating system may be very A. extraverted. B. impulsive. C. conscientious. D. psychopathic. Answer: B. impulsive. 44. According to Gray, a person who scores high on extraversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck's model will also score high on A. anxiety. B. Type A personality. C. cardiovascular reactivity. D. impulsivity. Answer: D. impulsivity. 45. According to Gray, a person who scores high on introversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck's model will also score high on A. anxiety. B. Type A personality. C. cardiovascular reactivity. D. impulsivity. Answer: A. anxiety. 46. Most of Gray's research has A. been done on the brains of animals. B. used questionnaires. C. used measures of electrodermal activity. D. been done on college sophomores. Answer: A. been done on the brains of animals. 47. In Gray's theory of personality, anxiety and impulsivity are related to A. emotional stability and openness to experience. B. psychoticism and extraversion. C. sensation seeking and liberalism. D. reinforcement and punishment. Answer: D. reinforcement and punishment. 48. Individuals with high scores on the behavioral activating scale perform better when they are working A. to obtain a reward. B. to avoid a punishment. C. working alone on a task. D. working in a group on a task. Answer: A. to obtain a reward. 49. According to Gray's theory, people in jails probably A. score high on measures of anxiety. B. lack sufficient levels of dopamine. C. have strong behavioral activation systems. D. have strong behavioral inhibition systems. Answer: C. have strong behavioral activation systems. 50. Sheri wants to get her husband, Carlos, to finish waxing the car before they go out for the evening. Being a student of Jeffery Gray's theory of personality Sheri knows that the best way get her impulsive husband to complete the task is to A. go about her business because she knows Carlos will finish waxing the car on his own. B. promise to reward him with his favorite dinner if he finishes waxing the car. C. threaten to not make dinner if he does not complete the wax job. D. yell at Carlos every time he starts to slack off from working on the wax job. Answer: B. promise to reward him with his favorite dinner if he finishes waxing the car. 51. _______________ tend to take more risks and engage in more exciting activities. A. People who score high on introversion B. People who score high on sensation seeking C. People who score high on Type A personality D. People with weak nervous systems Answer: B. People who score high on sensation seeking 52. Bored people may seek out mild stimulation to A. invigorate their nervous systems. B. reach an optimal level of arousal. C. avoid a much higher level of stimulation. D. to reduce tension in their systems. Answer: B. reach an optimal level of arousal. 53. Hebb's theory of an optimal level of arousal was controversial as it hypothesized that individuals A. seek out tension and stimulation as well as try to reduce tension in the body. B. seek out higher levels of tension without a means for reducing that tension in the body. C. cannot maintain an optimal low arousal for significant period of time. D. are punished when the individual is not in a state of optimal arousal. Answer: A. seek out tension and stimulation as well as try to reduce tension in the body. 54. Zuckerman found that people _______________ found sensory deprivation particularly unpleasant. A. who score on introversion scales B. with more activation in the left hemisphere C. who were sensation seekers D. who scored high on harm avoidance Answer: C. who were sensation seekers 55. There is a _______________ correlation between scores for Zuckerman's sensation seeking scale and Eysenck's trait of extraversion. A. very low positive B. marginally negative C. moderately strong positive D. very strong negative Answer: C. moderately strong positive 56. Research has found that _______________ tend to score lower on sensation seeking scales. A. people who enjoy skydiving B. people who have more sexual partners C. students who volunteer for unconventional psychology experiments D. endure sensory deprivation conditions for long periods of time Answer: D. endure sensory deprivation conditions for long periods of time 57. The enzyme monoamine oxidase works by A. blocking too many neurotransmitters from entering the synaptic cleft. B. acting as a conductor to facilitate the transmission of neurotransmitters between neurons. C. manufacturing neurotransmitters inside of the neuron. D. breaking down neurotransmitters after a nerve impulse has passed. Answer: D. breaking down neurotransmitters after a nerve impulse has passed. 58. If there is too little monoamine oxide present A. too much transmission will take place between the nerves. B. not enough neurotransmitters will be produced in the nervous system. C. the neurons will fire at a slow rate, inhibiting behavior. D. the lack of oxides will damage the nervous system. Answer: A. too much transmission will take place between the nerves. 59. Monoamine oxidase acts upon the nervous system by _______________ neurotransmission. A. maximizing B. inhibiting C. optimizing D. moderating Answer: B. inhibiting 60. Monoamine oxidase A. breaks down neurotransmitters. B. facilitates nerve transmissions. C. is linked to cardiovascular reactivity. D. holds neurons together. Answer: A. breaks down neurotransmitters. 61. According to Zuckerman, _______________ have _______________ levels of monoamine oxidase. A. sensation seekers; low B. introverts; low C. sensation seekers; high D. extraverts; low Answer: A. sensation seekers; low 62. The neurotransmitter _______________ is associated with feeling pleasure. A. norepinepherine B. serotonin C. dopamine D. monoanamine oxide Answer: C. dopamine 63. Drugs such as Prozac and Zoloft act to block the reuptake of A. norepinepherine. B. serotonin. C. dopamine. D. monoamine oxidase. Answer: B. serotonin. 64. Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved in activating the sympathetic nervous system for fight-or-flight responses? A. Serotonin B. Dopamine C. Norepinephrine D. Monoamine oxide Answer: C. Norepinephrine 65. Who of the following associated specific neurotransmitters with personality traits? A. Eysenck B. Pavlov C. Gray D. Cloninger Answer: D. Cloninger 66. Which of the following is NOT a trait in Cloninger's tridimensional personality model? A. Harm avoidance B. Sensation seeking C. Novelty seeking D. Reward dependence Answer: B. Sensation seeking 67. According to Cloninger, the trait of novelty seeking is related to low levels of A. norepinepherine. B. serotonin. C. dopamine. D. monoamine oxidase. Answer: C. dopamine. 68. Initially increased levels of serotonin may result in _______________, but over time may lead to _______________. A. high levels of anxiety; decreased vulnerability to overreacting to stress B. strong euphoric states; generally increased happiness C. high levels of depression; modal levels of euphoria D. low sensation seeking; high vulnerability to stress Answer: A. high levels of anxiety; decreased vulnerability to overreacting to stress 69. Individuals who score high on harm avoidance can be described as A. energetic, outgoing, and optimistic. B. cautious, inhibited, and apprehensive. C. shy, paranoid, and tense. D. happy, positive, and extroverted. Answer: B. cautious, inhibited, and apprehensive. 70. People who score high on the trait of _______________ are persistent and continue to work in situations in which others would likely give up. A. extraversion B. novelty seeking C. reward dependence D. sensation seeking Answer: C. reward dependence 71. Recent work in the area of genetics and personality has led researchers to conclude that A. there is a one-to-one correspondence between genes and personality traits. B. there are a large number of genes involved in the creation of any single personality trait. C. only genes associated with neurotransmitters are responsible for the creation of personality traits. D. genes appear to exist in bipolar hairs on the chromosomes and affect behavior in opposing ways. Answer: B. there are a large number of genes involved in the creation of any single personality trait. 72. Cloninger's model of personality has much in common with all of these models of personality EXCEPT A. Wiggins' circumplex model of personality. B. Eysenck's three-dimensional model of personality. C. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory. D. Zuckerman's model of sensation seeking. Answer: A. Wiggins' circumplex model of personality. 73. Which of the following traits is most related to biological rhythms? A. Extraversion B. Sensation seeking C. Morningness-eveningness D. Impulsivity Answer: C. Morningness-eveningness 74. A person who is deprived of time cues in his or her environment to influence behaviors or biology is said to be _______________ in time. A. showing frontal asymmetry B. free running C. off track D. symmetrical Answer: B. free running 75. Which of the following has been shown to fluctuate with a circadian rhythm? A. Body temperature B. Extraversion C. Frontal asymmetry D. Serotonin Answer: A. Body temperature 76. A person with a circadian rhythm that is longer than 24 hours will score higher on _______________ scales. A. evening-ness B. sensation-seeking C. harm avoidance D. morning-ness Answer: A. evening-ness 77. The trait of morningness-eveningness A. often changes over time. B. remains stable over time. C. has been studied only in America. D. is correlated with anxiety. Answer: B. remains stable over time. 78. A study discussed in the text showed that roommates who scored similarly on the trait of _______________ liked each other more than roommates who were mismatched on this trait. A. extraversion B. anxiety C. morningness-eveningness D. achievement motivation Answer: C. morningness-eveningness 79. Drinking caffeinated coffee in the morning will provide a greater performance boost to this group than if they drink coffee in the evening. A. People with greater left-hemisphere activation B. People with a greater right-hemisphere activation C. People scoring high on morning-ness D. People scoring high on evening-ness Answer: D. People scoring high on evening-ness 80. Mike flies non-stop from San Francisco to London. He finds he has little trouble with the time change. Most likely Mike is a(n) A. novelty-seeking type. B. evening type. C. extraverted type. D. diurnal type. Answer: B. evening type. 81. Disruptions in sleep-wake cycles due to long airline flights that pass through many time zones are best tolerated by A. Morning types, if the flights are eastbound. B. Evening types, if the flights are westbound. C. Morning types, regardless of the direction of the flight. D. Evening types, regardless of the direction of the flight. Answer: D. Evening types, regardless of the direction of the flight. 82. The greater the alpha wave activity in the brain, the A. greater the level of harm avoidance is present at a given time. B. less amount of symmetrical brain activity is present at a given time. C. greater amount of norepinepherine is present at a given time. D. less brain activity is present at a given time. Answer: D. less brain activity is present at a given time. 83. An electroencephalograph measures A. alpha waves. B. skin conductance. C. cardiovascular reactivity. D. morningness-eveningness. Answer: A. alpha waves. 84. People who have higher levels of activation in the _______________ hemisphere of the brain tend to have more _______________. A. right; positive emotions B. right; sexual partners C. left; positive emotions D. left; sexual partners Answer: C. left; positive emotions 85. A study by Fox and Davidson showed that infants who reacted more strongly to bitter solutions placed in their mouths A. had more activation in the left hemispheres than in the right hemispheres of their brains. B. had more activation in the right hemispheres than in the left hemispheres of their brains. C. were more likely to be morning types than evening types. D. tended to score lower on activity scales than less sensitive infants did. Answer: A. had more activation in the left hemispheres than in the right hemispheres of their brains. 86. Test-retest correlations of frontal asymmetry have been shown to be A. weak and positive. B. strong and positive. C. weak and negative. D. strong and negative. Answer: B. strong and positive. 87. If a person responds to an amusing film with more positive emotions than average, that person is likely to A. be a morning type. B. be an evening type. C. have more activation in the right hemisphere. D. have more activation in the left hemisphere. Answer: D. have more activation in the left hemisphere. 88. Increased activation of the right hemisphere of the brain has been found to be related to increased levels of _______________ in both monkeys and 6-month-old children. A. cortisol B. norepinepherine C. serotonin D. dopamine Answer: A. cortisol 89. A person who has greater right than left hemispheric activation would likely score high on a measure of A. BAS or behavioral activation system. B. BIS or behavioral inhibition system. C. morningness. D. sensation seeking. Answer: B. BIS or behavioral inhibition system. Chapter 08 Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. We are all the products of a long line of ancestors that successfully _______________ and _______________. A. evolved to near perfection; were physically fit B. survived to old age; were strong C. left a long list of ancestors; mate guarded D. survived to reproductive age; reproduced Answer: D. survived to reproductive age; reproduced 2. Darwin is credited as the first to A. notice that changes in species occur over time. B. notice that species were adapted to their environments. C. propose the process by which species adapt to their environments. D. use the term "survival of the fittest." Answer: C. propose the process by which species adapt to their environments. 3. _______________ refers to the idea that more adaptive variants of a organism replace less adaptive variants of a organism over time. A. Natural selection B. Xenophobia C. Effective polygyny D. Functionality Answer: A. Natural selection 4. The process called natural selection is sometimes also called survival selection as individuals must overcome the A. hostile forces of nature. B. impediments to survival. C. paleontological obstacles. D. natural adaptations. Answer: A. hostile forces of nature. 5. Food shortages, disease, and extreme weather are all examples of A. adaptations. B. domain specificity. C. byproducts of adaptation. D. hostile forces of nature. Answer: D. hostile forces of nature. 6. _______________ are inherited solutions to survival and reproductive problems. A. Hostile forces of nature B. Adaptations C. Mate competition D. Adaptive problems Answer: B. Adaptations 7. Darwin proposed the theory of sexual selection to account for A. how organisms respond to the hostile forces of nature. B. genetic diversity. C. traits that seem to impede survival. D. Freudian theory. Answer: C. traits that seem to impede survival. 8. Traits that lead to mating benefits rather than survival benefits are probably A. the result of sexual selection. B. the result of survival selection. C. byproducts of adaptation. D. evolutionary noise. Answer: A. the result of sexual selection. 9. Sheila is going out to a baby shower with her girlfriends. Even though there will not be any men around she goes out of her way to make herself as attractive as she possibly can. This is an example of competition based on _______________ selection. A. intersexual B. intrasexual C. innersexual D. inertsexual Answer: B. intrasexual 10. Donald competes to make more money than the rest of his male friends. When he picks the most attractive woman as his spouse, this is an example of _______________ selection. A. intersexual B. intrasexual C. natural D. mate Answer: B. intrasexual 11. Shauna knows that men appreciate a woman with very attractive legs. She works out frequently to keep her body in shape and before she goes out for the evening puts on a dress and pair of shoes that accentuate her attractive legs. Shauna is reacting to the _______________ pressure exerted by men on women. A. sexual B. intersexual selection C. adaptive D. intrasexual selection Answer: B. intersexual selection 12. A peacock's elaborate plumage is probably the result of _______________ selection. A. intersexual B. intrasexual C. natural D. adaptive Answer: A. intersexual 13. Biff works out for hours on end since he knows that women like muscular guys. He is reacting to the _______________ selection pressure exerted by human females on males. A. intersexual B. intrasexual C. innersexual D. inertsexual Answer: A. intersexual 14. _______________ occur(s) when members of one sex choose mates based on their preferences for particular characteristics in the opposite sex. A. Intersexual selection B. Intrasexual selection C. Reactive heritabilities D. Adaptive byproducts Answer: A. Intersexual selection 15. _______________ are the smallest intact unit that can be inherited by offspring. A. DNA molecules B. Adaptations C. Genes D. Byproducts of adaptations Answer: C. Genes 16. Differential gene production is defined as A. the number of different genes an individual passes on to their offspring. B. an individual's reproductive success relative to that of other individuals of the species. C. the total number of different genes produced by a species in the gene pool. D. the ability of an individual to produce different genes in different environments. Answer: B. an individual's reproductive success relative to that of other individuals of the species. 17. These are all components of differential gene reproduction EXCEPT A. successful mate competition. B. success at being chosen as a mate. C. successful group selection. D. successful survival skills. Answer: C. successful group selection. 18. Survival is only important inasmuch as it is necessary for A. fitness. B. adaptation. C. senescence. D. reproduction. Answer: D. reproduction. 19. Evolutionary theorists speculate that the mechanism of altruism may have developed to increase A. altruism. B. reproductive value. C. inclusive fitness. D. adaptive alliance formation. Answer: C. inclusive fitness. 20. According to the inclusive fitness theory, the probability that you will help people depends most on A. whether or not they are wealthy. B. how genetically related they are to you. C. whether or not they are physically attractive. D. whether or not they are potential mates. Answer: B. how genetically related they are to you. 21. Which of the following is probably not an adaptation? A. Desire for fatty foods. B. Mate preferences. C. Variations in the shape of human ears. D. Fear of snakes. Answer: C. Variations in the shape of human ears. 22. Anything that impedes survival or reproduction is a(n) A. evolutionary block. B. adaptive problem. C. evolutionary byproduct. D. systematic variation. Answer: B. adaptive problem. 23. _______________ emerge from and interact with recurrent structures of the world in a manner that solves adaptive problems and aids in reproductive success. A. Strategies B. Adaptations C. By-products D. Dimorphisms Answer: B. Adaptations 24. Which of the following is an example of an adaptation that is probably NOT adaptive in today's environments? A. Social anxiety B. Xenophobia C. Sexual selection D. Sexual desire Answer: B. Xenophobia 25. The incidental effects produced by adaptations are called A. evolutionary byproducts. B. random variations. C. domain specific adaptations. D. functional adaptations. Answer: A. evolutionary byproducts. 26. To determine whether something is an adaptation or a byproduct requires knowledge of A. the range of functioning for the adaptation. B. the reproductive success gained by the adaptation. C. the adaptation and a description of its nature. D. all possible by-products of the adaptation. Answer: C. the adaptation and a description of its nature. 27. Characteristics such as the shape of the human earlobe are most likely A. auxiliary adaptations. B. random variations. C. evolutionary byproducts. D. functional adaptations. Answer: B. random variations. 28. The idea that adaptations solve specific, as opposed to general, adaptive problems is known as A. domain specificity. B. functionality. C. numerousness. D. species typicality Answer: A. domain specificity. 29. If we successfully selected our mates based on our food preferences the mechanism of _______________ would NOT be functioning. A. cognitive complexity B. domain specificity C. species typicality D. prototypicality Answer: B. domain specificity 30. The idea of _______________ implies/imply that we have mechanisms that are specialized in solving certain adaptive problem an individual encounters. A. cognitive complexity B. domain specificity C. evolutionary niches D. prototypicality Answer: B. domain specificity 31. The idea that adaptive problems accomplish specific adaptive goals is known as A. specificity. B. functionality. C. specialization. D. attenuation. Answer: A. specificity. 32. The "top down" approach or theory driven method of empirical research is also called the _______________ approach. A. inductive reasoning B. analysis of variance C. deductive reasoning D. regression analysis Answer: C. deductive reasoning 33. Researchers using the _______________ approach observe a phenomenon, and then develop a theory. A. inductive reasoning B. deductive reasoning C. experimental D. correlational Answer: A. inductive reasoning 34. _______________ is probably the result of the human evolutionary history of living in social groups. A. Sexual desire B. Our "sweet tooth" C. The need to belong D. Sexual dimorphism Answer: C. The need to belong 35. _______________ may have evolved as a mechanism that functions as a species-typical mechanism that prevents individuals from being socially excluded from a group. A. Altruism B. Inclusive fitness C. Social anxiety D. Psychopathology Answer: C. Social anxiety 36. Research showing that group cohesion increases when resources or survival depend on group membership help support the idea A. of sexual selection. B. that humans have a need to belong. C. of survival selection. D. that humans have evolved universal emotions. Answer: B. that humans have a need to belong. 37. Harry is very loyal to his old army unit. They have reunions and regularly keep in touch with each other. Membership in Harry's army unit most likely has elicited _______________ in that group of war veterans. A. a strong need to belong B. strong memory biases C. strong altruistic tendencies D. strong militaristic bonds Answer: A. a strong need to belong 38. Evolutionary theorists believe the need to belong is at the _______________ level of analysis. A. human nature B. individual nature C. individual differences D. sex differences uniqueness Answer: A. human nature 39. Research on helping and altruism suggest that people A. help anyone in real need regardless of genetic relatedness. B. help others by how closely they are genetically related to them. C. help all genetically relatives roughly the same. D. always help assist genetically related relatives when asked. Answer: B. help others by how closely they are genetically related to them. 40. Research on altruism has found that younger individuals are helped _______________ than 45-year-old relatives and older individuals are helped _______________ than 45-year-old relatives in everyday tasks. A. less; less B. more; less C. more; more D. less; more Answer: C. more; more 41. In life or death situations the primary variable that predicts helping behavior is the _______________ of the person in need of assistance. A. age B. sex C. ethnicity D. environment Answer: A. age 42. Research suggests that in a famine situation, _______________ are most likely to receive help. A. infants B. older children C. adults D. elderly adults Answer: B. older children 43. Research by Paul Ekman and his colleagues has demonstrated that emotional expression A. differs widely across cultures. B. can be identified by people in diverse cultures. C. can be identified by people in similar cultures only. D. serve no adaptive function. Answer: B. can be identified by people in diverse cultures. 44. Which of the following is NOT an adaptive problem faced by women? A. Finding a good mate B. Securing resources C. Parental uncertainty D. Mate guarding Answer: C. Parental uncertainty 45. George shows off his new baby to the neighbors. The baby looks more like George's mailman than George. George could be doubting his A. child's attachment. B. certainty of paternity. C. parenting skills. D. neighbor's judgment. Answer: B. certainty of paternity. 46. From an evolutionary perspective, women will most generally prefer males who A. are extremely attractive, even if they are not wealthy. B. accrue resources and invest them in a particular woman. C. are assertive and aggressive towards other males. D. have large-sized sexual cells (gametes). Answer: B. accrue resources and invest them in a particular woman. 47. Research on homicides indicates that _______________ are most likely to kill _______________. A. men; women B. men; men C. women; men D. women; women Answer: B. men; men 48. More homicides can be explained by _______________ than any of the other evolutionary phenomenon. A. intrasexual competition B. intersexual competition C. frequency dependent selection D. the human need to belong Answer: A. intrasexual competition 49. If the sex ratios between males and females are about the same and one man has several mates the other men must, by default, be without a mate. This is an example of _______________ polygyny. A. strategic B. effective C. selective D. differential Answer: B. effective 50. The idea that some males will have more offspring than others is best described as A. intersexual selection. B. intrasexual selection. C. survival selection. D. effective polygyny. Answer: D. effective polygyny. 51. Which species has the greatest degree of effective polygyny? A. Elephant seals B. Chimpanzees C. Humans D. Dogs Answer: A. Elephant seals 52. Evolutionary theory predicts sex differences in jealousy due to A. sexual dimorphism. B. effective polygyny. C. paternal uncertainty. D. intrasexual competition. Answer: C. paternal uncertainty. 53. Buss and his colleagues found that when men imagined that their partner's were committing sexual infidelity A. they became very aggressive and physically violent. B. they began plotting their revenge on their partners. C. their heart rates and skin conductance levels increased. D. they had increased activity in the parasympathetic nervous system. Answer: C. their heart rates and skin conductance levels increased. 54. According to evolutionary theory, a man would be most upset by his female mate's _______________. A. sexual fantasies B. emotional infidelity C. sexual dimorphism D. sexual infidelity Answer: D. sexual infidelity 55. According to evolutionary theory, which of the following is most important to a woman? That her mate is A. physically attractive. B. emotionally faithful. C. conscientious. D. sexually faithful. Answer: B. emotionally faithful. 56. According to the "double-shot" hypothesis of sex differences in jealousy, A. men are more upset by sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity. B. women are more upset by emotional infidelity than sexual infidelity. C. men and women have different beliefs about infidelity. D. women usually are twice as upset at second instance of infidelity Answer: C. men and women have different beliefs about infidelity. 57. These are all components of the "double-shot" hypothesis EXCEPT A. men and women are equally upset by sexual infidelity. B. men assume that sexual infidelity by a woman implies emotional infidelity. C. women assume that emotional infidelity by a man implies sexual infidelity. D. women made jealous by males will take a "shot" at men by making them jealous. Answer: D. women made jealous by males will take a "shot" at men by making them jealous. 58. Cross-cultural studies of jealousy have found A. jealousy is more pronounced in Western cultures than in Asian cultures. B. the double-shot hypothesis shows cross cultural consistency. C. women in Asian cultures are more upset by sexual infidelity than men. D. there is strong evidence for universal sex differences in jealousy across cultures. Answer: D. there is strong evidence for universal sex differences in jealousy across cultures. 59. When asked how many sexual partners they desired over their lifetimes, women A. wanted more sexual partners compared to men. B. wanted fewer sexual partners compared to men. C. wanted an equal number of sexual partners as men. D. usually refused to answer the question. Answer: B. wanted fewer sexual partners compared to men. 60. A study conducted by Clark and Hatfield found that about _______________ percent of men agreed to have sex with an attractive stranger of the opposite sex. A. 0 B. 25 C. 75 D. 100 Answer: C. 75 61. Research on sex differences in interest in sexual variety finds that A. women would be much more interested in casual sex if they felt it was safe. B. most women refuse casual sex even if a friend ensures that the man is trustworthy. C. men and women do not differ in the amount of sexual fantasy. D. men and women do not differ in the content of their sexual fantasies. Answer: B. most women refuse casual sex even if a friend ensures that the man is trustworthy. 62. According to research, which variable is most predictive of interest in casual sex? A. Gender, i.e., male versus female B. Safety concern C. Relationship status (single or not) D. The manner in which the question is asked Answer: A. Gender, i.e., male versus female 63. Men and women value _______________ equally in potential mates, but men place more value on _______________. A. physical attractiveness; earning potential B. physical attractiveness; a good personality C. a good personality; physical attractiveness D. earning potential; physical attractiveness Answer: C. a good personality; physical attractiveness 64. Buss and his colleagues have found that women place more importance on earning potential in potential mates than men do A. in the majority of the 37 cultures that were studied. B. only in the individualistic western cultures that were studied. C. in cultures where men control more resources than women. D. in the traditionally paternalistic cultures that were studied. Answer: A. in the majority of the 37 cultures that were studied. 65. The "structural powerless hypothesis" states that A. men prefer women that have fewer resources then they do so that can structure the relationship to make the women powerless. B. women value men with resources as they are shut out of the capacity to acquire their own resources. C. low status men will be shut out of the mating pool by males with high status and great resources. D. women are attracted to men that they can manipulate to be powerless over them. Answer: B. women value men with resources as they are shut out of the capacity to acquire their own resources. 66. Evolutionary psychologists have placed comparatively little emphasis in their research efforts upon _______________. A. the human nature level of analysis. B. sex differences in behavior. C. individual differences in behavior. D. species typical phenomenon. Answer: C. individual differences in behavior. 67. An explanation for individual differences in behavior from an evolutionary perspective is that A. individual differences are genetic errors across individuals. B. they are the result of environmental differences that affect species-typical mechanisms. C. they are the result of differential intersexual selection in the environment. D. they are random variations in species-typical psychological mechanisms. Answer: B. they are the result of environmental differences that affect species-typical mechanisms. 68. The presence or absence of a father during early childhood is an example of _______________ that is associated with individual differences. A. an environmental effect B. an adaptive self-assessment C. frequency dependent strategy D. sex role effect Answer: A. an environmental effect 69. Research suggests that girls who grew up in father-absent homes A. are less sexually promiscuous. B. began menstruating earlier than girls whose fathers had lived in their homes. C. are shorter in height. D. have more children. Answer: B. began menstruating earlier than girls whose fathers had lived in their homes. 70. Something that is _______________ is a secondary consequence of a heritable trait. A. intersexually selected B. intrasexually selected C. reactively heritable D. an adaptation Answer: C. reactively heritable 71. The idea that a man might decide on a particular social strategy based on how he views himself is an example of A. an environmental effect. B. an adaptive self-assessment. C. a frequency-dependent alternative strategy. D. xenophobia. Answer: B. an adaptive self-assessment. 72. In some contexts two or more heritable variants evolve in a population. This is called A. frequency-dependent selection. B. adaptive self-assessment. C. xenophobia. D. the double-shot hypothesis. Answer: A. frequency-dependent selection. 73. Some women prefer mates who will invest in their offspring, while other women prefer mates with good genes. This suggests A. an environmental effect that influences personality. B. an adaptive self-assessment. C. frequency-dependent selection strategies. D. sex differences in jealousy. Answer: C. frequency-dependent selection strategies. 74. Competition that tends to be very intense among individuals using the same strategy may lead to the development of A. adaptive self-assessments. B. frequency-dependent alternative strategies. C. double-shot hypotheses. D. variant competitive strategies. Answer: B. frequency-dependent alternative strategies. 75. Women who pursue an unrestricted mating strategy prefer men _______________ than women who pursue a restricted mating strategy. A. who will invest significantly more in their children B. who are significantly more physically attractive C. who have a much better set of personality traits D. who will make strong commitments to their relationship Answer: B. who are significantly more physically attractive 76. Rhonda only dates men that she finds to be extremely physically attractive. She is not as concerned about having a man who will commit to a relationship with her, or much about the man's past relationships. Rhonda is most likely pursuing a(n) _______________ mating strategy. A. restricted B. unrestricted C. shallow D. independent Answer: B. unrestricted 77. Alma believes in long-term relationships. She will not date divorced men and does not believe in premarital sexual intercourse. She is most likely pursuing a(n) _______________ mating strategy. A. restricted B. indiscriminate C. unrestricted D. coy Answer: C. unrestricted 78. The theory of frequency-dependent selection would state that as a the number of women in the population use a restricted mating strategy for attracting men the A. number of sexy sons in the population will increase. B. number of men willing to invest in their children will increase. C. average success of the restricted mating strategy will decline. D. restricted mating strategy will become a human nature level characteristic. Answer: C. average success of the restricted mating strategy will decline. 79. Psychopathy may be an effective strategy for some people in the population to be reproductively successful based on the _______________ theory. A. frequency-dependent B. mental health C. double shot D. individual differences Answer: A. frequency-dependent 80. Humans may have evolved _______________, so that they may notice and remember those individual differences that are most relevant for solving social-adaptive problems. A. difference detecting mechanisms B. individual differences C. unrestricted mate competition D. the five factor model of personality Answer: D. the five factor model of personality 81. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of the evolutionary approach? A. Lack of knowledge about conditions during human evolution. B. Selective pressures today may be different than during most of human history. C. Different evolutionary explanations can be used to explain the same phenomenon. D. Using an inductive method to generate evolutionary based hypotheses. Answer: D. Using an inductive method to generate evolutionary based hypotheses. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right