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Chapter 6 - Consumer Buying Behavior 1. What can marketers do to reduce cognitive dissonance in a consumer who has just purchased an expensive product? Answer: Cognitive dissonance is the doubts in the buyer’s mind about whether purchasing the product was the right decision. Marketers sometimes attempt to reduce cognitive dissonance by having salespeople call or e-mail recent customers to make sure they are satisfied with their new purchases. Salespeople may send recent buyers results of studies demonstrating that other consumers are very satisfied with the brand. 2. List the five stages of the consumer buying decision process and mention the numerous influences that can affect this process. Answer: The consumer buying decision process includes five stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post purchase evaluation. This process can be affected by numerous influences, which are categorized as situational, psychological, and social. 3. Why is it important for marketers to understand the consumer buying behavior? Answer: It is important for marketers to understand the buying behavior of consumer’s for several reasons. First, customers’ overall opinions and attitudes toward a firm’s products have a great impact on the firm’s success. Second, the marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a marketing mix that meets customers’ needs. To find out what satisfies consumers, marketers must examine the main influences on what, where, when, and how they buy. Third, by gaining a deeper understanding of the factors that affect buying behavior, marketers are better positioned to predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies. 4. How does the level of involvement affect the type of consumer problem-solving process that a person uses? Answer: A major determinant of the type of decision making process employed depends on the customer’s level of involvement. High-importance issues, such as health care, are also associated with high levels of involvement. Low-involvement products are much less expensive and have less associated social risk, such as grocery or drugstore items. A person’s interest in a product or product category that is ongoing and long-term is referred to as enduring involvement. Most consumers have an enduring involvement with only a very few activities or items—these are the product categories in which they have the most interest. Many consumers, for instance, have an enduring involvement with Apple products, a brand that inspires loyalty and trust. In contrast, situational involvement is temporary and dynamic and results from a particular set of circumstances, such as the sudden need to buy a new bathroom faucet after the current one starts leaking and will not stop. 5. Identify and describe the five major categories of situational influences. Answer: Situational factors can be classified into five categories: physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, reason for purchase, and the buyer’s momentary mood and condition. Physical surroundings include location, store atmosphere, scents, sounds, lighting, weather, and other factors in the physical environment in which the decision making process occurs. Social surroundings include characteristics and interactions of others who are present during a purchase decision, such as friends, relatives, salespeople, and other customers. The time dimension influences the buying decision process in several ways. It takes varying amounts of time to progress through the steps of the buying decision process, including learning about, searching for, purchasing, and using a product. Time also plays a role when consumers consider the frequency of product use, the length of time required to use it, and the overall product life. The reason for purchase involves what the product purchase should accomplish and for whom. The buyer’s moods like anger, anxiety, or contentment or conditions like fatigue, illness, or having cash on hand may also affect the consumer buying decision process. Such moods or conditions are momentary and occur immediately before the situation where a buying decision will be made. 6. In what ways can the buyer’s moods or conditions affect the consumer buying decision process? Answer: The buyer’s moods like anger, anxiety, or contentment; or conditions like fatigue, illness, or having cash on hand can affect the consumer buying decision process. Such moods or conditions are momentary and occur immediately before the situation where a buying decision will be made. They can affect a person’s ability and desire to search for or receive information, or seek and evaluate alternatives. Moods can also significantly influence a consumer’s post purchase evaluation. If a person is happy immediately after purchase, he may be more likely to attribute the mood to the product and will judge it favorably. 7. Discuss how perceptual processes may influence the consumer buying decision process. Answer: A consumer’s perceptual process may influence the consumer buying decision process in many ways. First, a consumer’s perceptual process may operate such that a seller’s information never reaches the target. For example, a buyer may entirely block out and not notice an advertisement in a magazine. Second, a buyer may receive information but perceive it differently than was intended, as occurs in selective distortion. For instance, when a toothpaste producer advertises that “35 percent of the people who use this toothpaste have fewer cavities,” a customer could infer that 65 percent of users have more cavities. Third, a buyer who perceives information inputs to be inconsistent with prior beliefs is likely to forget the information quickly, as is the case with selective retention. 8. What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs? List the five levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Answer: Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, conceived a theory of motivation based on a hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, humans seek to satisfy five levels of needs, from most to least basic to survival. This pyramid is known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The five levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. 9. Describe a few methods that help marketers gauge consumer attitudes. Answer: Several methods help marketers gauge consumer attitudes. One of the simplest ways is to question people directly. The Internet and social networking sites are useful tools for marketers seeking to garner information on attitudes directly from consumers. Using sites like Facebook, companies can ask consumers for feedback and product reviews. Marketers also evaluate attitudes through attitude scales. An attitude scale usually consists of a series of adjectives, phrases, or sentences about an object. Respondents indicate the intensity of their feelings toward the object by reacting to the adjectives, phrases, or sentences. 10. Describe personality and mention a possible reason for the weak association between personality and consumer buying behavior. Answer: Personality is a set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior in certain situations. An individual’s personality is a unique combination of hereditary characteristics and personal experiences. Personalities typically are described as having one or more characteristics, such as compulsiveness, ambition, gregariousness, dogmatism, authoritarianism, introversion, extroversion, and competitiveness. The weak association between personality and buying behavior can be the result of unreliable measures to study the link between the two, rather than a true lack of a relationship. 11. Discuss how reference groups and opinion leaders influence purchase behavior. Answer: A reference group is a group, either large or small, with which a person identifies so strongly that he or she adopts the values, attitudes, and behavior of group members. Reference groups can affect whether a person does or does not buy a product at all, buys a type of product within a product category, or buys a specific brand. The extent to which a reference group affects a purchase decision depends on the product’s conspicuousness and on the individual’s susceptibility to reference group influence. An opinion leader is a member of an informal group who provides information about a specific topic, such as smartphones, to other group members seeking information. An opinion leader is likely to be most influential when consumers have high product involvement but low product knowledge, when they share the opinion leader’s values and attitudes, and when the product details are numerous or complicated. 12. How does an individual's social class influence the products he or she buys? Answer: A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social rank. To some degree, individuals within social classes develop and assume common behavioral patterns. They may have similar attitudes, values, language patterns, and possessions. Because people most frequently interact with others within their own social class, people are more likely to be influenced by others within their own class than by those in other classes. Social class also influences people’s spending, saving, and credit practices. It can determine the type, quality, and quantity of products a person buys and uses. Behaviors within a social class can influence others as well. Most common is the “trickle­down” effect, in which members of lower classes attempt to emulate members of higher social classes, such as purchasing desirable automobiles, large homes, even selecting certain names for their children. Social class also affects an individual’s shopping patterns and types of stores patronized. 13. Why is it important for marketers to understand the cultural and subcultural influences that may affect the consumer buying decision process? Answer: Culture is the accumulation of values, knowledge, beliefs, customs, objects, and concepts that a society uses to cope with its environment and passes on to future generations. Culture permeates most things that a person does and the objects he interacts with, from the style of buildings in his town, to the education he receives, to the laws governing his country. Culture also includes society-specific core values and the degree of acceptability of a wide range of behaviors. Culture influences buying behavior because it saturates our daily lives. Our culture determines what we wear and eat and where we reside and travel. Culture also influences how we buy and use products and the satisfaction we derive from them. A subculture is a group of individuals whose characteristics, values, and behavioral patterns are similar within the group and different from those of people in the surrounding culture. Within subcultures, greater similarities exist in people’s attitudes, values, and actions than within the broader culture. Relative to other subcultures, individuals in one subculture may have stronger preferences for specific types of clothing, furniture, food, or consumer electronics. Subcultures can play a significant role in how people respond to advertisements, particularly when pressured to make a snap judgment. 14. List the three major ethnic subcultures in the United States that the U.S. marketers focus on. Answer: U.S. marketers focus on three major ethnic subcultures: African American, Hispanic, and Asian American. 15. Marketers attempt to understand _________ because customers’ overall opinions and attitudes toward a firm’s products have a great impact on the firm’s success. A. buying motive B. buying behavior C. consumer socialization D. response behavior E. consumer perception Answer: B 16. People who purchase products for personal or household use and do not buy products for business purposes are called the: A. ultimate consumers. B. initiators. C. organizational buyers. D. commercial consumers. E. gatekeepers. Answer: A 17. The five major stages of the consumer buying decision process, in order, are A. information search, establishment of product criteria, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post purchase evaluation. B. problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post purchase evaluation. C. problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, pre purchase evaluation and purchase. D. information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, trial adoption period, and post purchase evaluation. E. problem recognition, purchase, evaluation of alternatives, post purchase evaluation, and rebuy. Answer: B 18. Which of the following statements about the consumer buying decision process is true? A. Consumers progress through the five stages of this process for all limited problem-solving decisions. B. Although all of the steps in the process are used in all decision processes, the order tends to depend on the customer's level of involvement. C. The key element of the process that exists in all consumer buying decision processes is the purchase of the product. D. Once the purchase of a product has been made, the consumer buying decision process is complete. E. The buying decision process can be affected by situational, social, and psychological influences. Answer: E 19. Problem recognition occurs when a consumer: A. searches for information to resolve a problem. B. becomes aware that there is a difference between a desired state and an actual condition. C. recognizes a need. D. evaluates her or his purchase. E. is exposed to a television advertisement. Answer: B 20. When Julia goes for the first class of her Operations Management course, she finds out that in addition to the textbook she already purchased, she also needs a copy of the book The Goal. Julia is in the ________ stage of the consumer buying decision process. A. purchase B. evaluation of alternatives C. problem recognition D. information search E. pre purchase evaluation Answer: C 21. Stefanie is shopping for groceries at her local supermarket. As she picks up laundry detergent, she sees the display of bathroom cleaners and remembers that she is about to run out of it at home. Stefanie tries to remember the specific brand that she used last time, because she thought that was the best in terms of performance and value. In terms of the consumer buying decision process, Stefanie’s trying to remember what brand she last used is an example of ________. A. internal information search B. evaluation of alternatives C. post purchase evaluation D. evaluation of alternatives E. post purchase evaluation Answer: A 22. Within the information search step of the consumer buying decision process, the two primary aspects that exist are: A. consideration and evoked sets. B. personal information and non-personal information. C. selective retention and selective distortion. D. internal search and external search. E. company-produced information and internal information. Answer: D 23. Jeff needs to buy his textbooks for the coming semester of college. It is only two weeks before the first day of class, and he still has not made a purchase. Jeff wants to buy them somewhere other than the bookstore since he is still living at his parents’ home and won’t be on campus until the day before class. Jeff goes online and looks for sites that sell the textbook. Then he remembers that one of his friends had said something earlier about finding the book for a great price. Jeff then calls his friend to get the name of the site. In terms of Jeff’s buying decision process, his calling a friend was ________. A. problem recognition B. internal informational search C. external information search D. cognitive dissonance E. evaluation of alternatives Answer: C 24. When Trevor realizes his liquor cabinet supply is exhausted due to last weekend's party, he thinks about all the types of liquor he would like and also seeks suggestion from the clerk at the store. Trevor then considers each possible alternative. In doing so, Trevor has placed the types of liquor in a(n): A. evaluative set. B. alternative set. C. evoked set. D. routinized set. E. internal set. Answer: C 25. When, in their information search, consumers focus on communication with friends and relatives, they are utilizing ________ sources. A. internal B. personal C. marketer-dominated D. direct E. organizational Answer: B 26. In the consumer buying decision process, the information search stage: A. yields a group of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives. B. involves a buyer becoming aware of the need for a product. C. is not necessary when the buyer is involved in extensive decision making. D. occurs immediately after evaluation of alternatives. E. is lengthy for routine response buying behavior. Answer: A 27. During which stage of the consumer buying decision process does a consumer finally decide the seller from whom he will buy the product? A. Internal search B. External search C. Post purchase evaluation D. Purchase E. Problem recognition Answer: D 28. When shopping for a detergent, Josh looks at Tide, Fresh Start, Surf, and All; and chooses the one that is on sale. These four brands make up his ________ set. A. alternate B. purchase C. consideration D. problem E. imposed Answer: C 29. In shopping for a new laptop computer for her master’s degree program, Jocelyn has narrowed the alternatives to four brands. She is considering Dell, Toshiba, Sony, and Hewlett-Packard. These four brands make up Jocelyn's: A. awareness set. B. evoked set. C. framing set. D. external search. E. inert set. Answer: B 30. A group of brands that a consumer views as alternatives for possible purchase is called a(n): A. evoked set. B. awareness set. C. inert set. D. external source. E. evaluation criteria. Answer: A 31. Evaluative criteria for brands within the consideration set are both: A. selective and expansive. B. objective and subjective. C. internal and external. D. extended and routinized. E. perceptive and selective. Answer: B 32. A customer shopping for a fax machine tells a salesperson that it is important for the fax machine to have several attributes. It must use plain paper, be able to make copies, be compatible with all other fax machines, and not require a separate phone line. The buyer has expressed his or her: A. cognitive dissonance. B. service characteristics. C. consideration set. D. evaluative criteria. E. information search criteria. Answer: D 33. After doing considerable shopping, Eric has just decided what brand and type of athletic shoes to buy and where he's going to buy them. In what stage of the consumer buying decision process is Eric? A. Problem recognition B. Information search C. Evaluation of alternatives D. Purchase E. Post purchase evaluation Answer: D 34. Claire is beginning to wonder if she has made the right decision about purchasing a new HP Laptop after she sees a friend with a new Dell. Claire’s doubt whether she made the right decision occurs during the ________ of the buying decision process. A. cognitive dissonance phase B. purchase phase C. evaluation of alternatives phase D. information search phase E. post purchase evaluation phase Answer: E 35. After purchasing a new Lexus, Brandon sees an Infinity pass by on the street and begins to wonder if he made the right choice. Brandon is experiencing: A. routinized response behavior. B. cognitive dissonance. C. situational involvement. D. alternative evaluation. E. enduring involvement. Answer: B 36. After purchasing a product, post purchase evaluation may result in cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is: A. the congruence between external and internal searches for available primary and secondary product information. B. a function of the manner in which the manufacturer of the product describes its attributes. C. a person’s interest in a high­cost product or product category that is ongoing and long­term. D. the establishment of criteria for comparing purchase products. E. doubts that occur because the buyer questions whether the decision to purchase the product was right. Answer: E 37. The three major categories of influences on the consumer buying decision process are: A. situational influences, demographic influences, and psychological influences. B. social influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences. C. demographic influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences. D. situational influences, social influences, and psychological influences. E. marketer-dominated influences, psychological influences, and person-specific influences. Answer: D 38. Many aspects of consumer buying decisions are affected by the individual's level of involvement. Level of involvement is: A. the importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation. B. the buyer's perception, motives, and abilities. C. the circumstances, time, and location that affect the consumer buying process. D. the particular circumstance or environment in which consumers find themselves. E. a combination of an individual's demographic factors. Answer: A 39. Justin is purchasing his third car in the past five years. He has been a car enthusiast ever since he was a young boy. Justin likes to spend his free time looking at car magazines, going to car shows, and watching NASCAR. Justin's interest in cars is referred to as: A. situational involvement. B. dynamic involvement. C. enduring involvement. D. tapering involvement. E. routinized involvement. Answer: C 40. A major determining factor in deciding which type of problem-solving process should be used depends on the individual's intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person. This is known as an individual's: A. motivational structure. B. routinized response behavior. C. level of involvement. D. cognitive dissonance. E. criteria of evaluation. Answer: C 41. Claire will be traveling to London next month for an official conference. Therefore, she has decided to retire the old college luggage for a more professional-looking version and has begun to evaluate various brands. Claire is most likely facing ________ in this particular purchase. A. enduring involvement B. perceptual involvement C. internal retention D. situational involvement E. selective retention Answer: D 42. The three most widely recognized types of consumer decision making are: A. limited decision making, extended decision making, and routinized response behavior. B. extended decision making, enduring decision making, and situational decision making. C. planned decision making, impulse buying, and limited decision making. D. internal decision making, external decision making, situational behavior. E. responsive behavior, planned behavior, and impulsive decision making. Answer: A 43. While shopping at a local grocery store, Tim sees a display of his favorite brand of energy drink. He buys some to take home for the weekend. This purchase process would be described as: A. routinized response behavior. B. extended decision making. C. limited decision making. D. situational awareness. E. enduring involvement. Answer: A 44. Which of the following consumer decision making processes will probably be used in purchasing toothpaste? A. Extended decision making B. Routinized response behavior C. Enduring involvement D. Limited decision making E. Perceptual mapping Answer: B 45. Evan has just shifted to a new apartment in the suburbs. Currently, he is making purchases for his new apartment. His purchase of ________ would most likely be done through extended decision making behavior. A. a new suit B. bed sheets C. bath towels D. flat screen TV E. groceries Answer: D 46. Which of the following buying situations is most consistent with routinized response behavior? A. Ian buying his first pair of basketball shoes B. Molly buying a new set of tires for her car C. Aaron buying a new fishing rod and reel D. Stephanie buying bottled water E. Bryan buying a new software program Answer: D 47. Stacy is going to the store to buy milk and cereal. She will most likely use ________ in her consumer decision-making process. A. routinized response behavior B. limited decision making C. extended decision making D. perceptual mapping E. enduring involvement Answer: A 48. Routinized response behavior is displayed by a consumer when: A. purchasing an unfamiliar product. B. buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that need little effort. C. an information search is extensive and may involve consulting with friends and family. D. buying products that require a moderate amount of time for information gathering and deliberation. E. he or she enters the problem recognition stage of the consumer buying decision process. Answer: B 49. Cole’s smartphone is two years old and he would like to have a new one. He is not a gadget freak. However, this time he wants to make sure that the phone he buys has a longer battery charge and better geographic coverage, since he is travels three days a week for his new job. Cole is most likely to use ________ for this purchase. A. routinized response behavior B. limited decision making behavior C. perceptual mapping D. enduring involvement E. extended decision making behavior Answer: B 50. When a consumer purchases products occasionally or needs information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, he or she will most likely engage in: A. perceptual mapping. B. routinized response behavior. C. extended decision making. D. impulse searching. E. limited decision making. Answer: E 51. When a new variety of Kashi whole-grain breakfast cereals is first introduced, consumers will most likely engage in ________ when deciding whether or not to purchase this new product. A. extended decision making B. limited decision making C. perceptual mapping D. routinized response behavior E. impulse buying Answer: B 52. Jenny plans to buy a new swimsuit for her spring break cruise. She has not seen this year's styles and thus will do some comparison shopping before making a purchase decision. Jenny is engaging in: A. routinized response behavior. B. extended decision making behavior. C. limited decision making behavior. D. impulse buying. E. intensive problem solving. Answer: C 53. Kellogg's is introducing a new bran waffle for toasters. Television commercials will be a key element in communicating the benefits associated with this product. Based on this approach of Kellogg’s, which of the following types of decision making processes will Kellogg’s most likely expect from its customers? A. Routinized response behavior B. Limited decision making behavior C. Extended decision making D. Impulse buying E. Extensive response behavior Answer: B 54. For which of the following products would a consumer most likely use limited decision making behavior? A. Detergent B. Toothpaste C. Automobile D. Hair dryer E. Soft drinks Answer: D 55. Extended decision making is the type of consumer decision making process that: A. involves no conscious planning but rather a powerful and persistent urge to buy something. B. comes into play when a purchase involves unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products. C. requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering and search from internal and external resources. D. is the creation and maintenance of a collection of products that satisfy a person's needs and wants. E. requires very little search-and-decision effort and is practiced when buying low-cost and frequently purchased products. Answer: B 56. Which of the following products would probably require extended decision making before a purchase? A. Products purchased frequently B. Low-involvement products C. Products that are purchased routinely D. Expensive products E. Products purchased as a result of social influences Answer: D 57. Jose and Teresa are searching for an apartment. Which of the following forms of decision-making processes will best suit this purpose? A. Extended decision making behavior B. Limited decision making behavior C. Impulse buying D. Routinized response behavior E. Intensive response behavior Answer: A 58. Teri went to Sam’s Wholesale Club to shop for a party she was hosting on the weekend. She knew that she could buy larger quantities of food items than she normally did, and it would also be much less expensive. She checked everything off her list and proceeded to the checkout lines. Passing a display of fresh flowers, she thought “Wouldn’t those be nice for the party?” She selected one of the bouquets and placed it in her cart. Which of the following is most likely true in this scenario? A. Teri is engaged in limited decision making when selecting the food for her party, and impulse buying when selecting the flowers. B. Teri is engaged in impulse buying when selecting the food for her party, and routinized response behavior when selecting the flowers. C. Teri is engaged in extended decision making when selecting the food for her party, and compulsive response behavior when selecting the flowers. D. Teri is engaged in limited decision making when selecting the food for her party, and cognitive dissonance when selecting the flowers. E. Teri is engaged in routinized response behavior when selecting the food for her party, and compulsive response behavior when selecting the flowers. Answer: A 59. Marissa goes to Target to purchase school supplies for her two children. As she is approaching the check-out counter, she sees a vase she just has to have and buys it immediately. Marissa's purchase of the vase is an example of: A. limited decision making. B. impulse buying. C. routinized response behavior. D. addictive consumption. E. extended decision making. Answer: B 60. Beth Hines is buying furniture for her apartment for the first time. She is spending considerable time and effort comparing the products that different stores offer. Which type of decision making process is she using? A. Selective B. Intensive C. Extended D. Impulsive E. Routinized Answer: C 61. Mark is shopping for a new suit to wear to an important interview. He really wants to impress his prospective employer and is shopping at many stores to find the right outfit. Martin is using which type of consumer decision making process? A. Routinized response behavior B. Habitual response C. Impulse buying D. Extended decision making E. Perceptual mapping Answer: D 62. The five categories of situational influences are: A. product involvement level, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and purchase reason. B. antecedent states, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and space dimensions. C. social surroundings, physical surroundings, time pressures, purchase reason, and lifestyles. D. purchase reason, time perspective, social surroundings, physical surroundings, and buyer's momentary mood. E. store atmosphere, location, aromas, sounds, and lighting. Answer: D 63. Grant Turner makes an appointment to visit with a new dermatologist in town because of recent bad sunburn. When he arrives at the dermatologist's office, Grant notices a foul odor in the air, worn floor coverings, cluttered rooms that have paint peeling from the walls, and poor lighting. However, the other patients in the waiting room were talking about how much they liked the doctor. While Grant viewed the dermatologist as competent, Grant decided not to visit him again even though the dermatologist recommended a follow-up. Which situational influences are most likely to have affected Grant's decision? A. Social surroundings B. Momentary mood C. Antecedent states D. Purchase reasons E. Physical surroundings Answer: E 64. Jessie was out with a group of friends this evening for dinner at a local restaurant and then a movie. While the service at the restaurant was slow, and the food was not very good, Jessie still had a great time and left with a positive opinion of the restaurant experience. Jessie’s purchase decision was likely influenced by ________. A. Physical surroundings B. Social surroundings C. Purchase reasons D. Buyer's momentary mood and condition E. Pressures created by time factors Answer: B 65. The primary psychological influences on consumer behavior are: A. perception, motives, learning, attitudes, personality, and lifestyles. B. attitudes, perception, retention, exposure, roles, and lifestyles. C. attitudes, perception, social class, culture, and learning. D. perception, motives, reference groups, social class, and personality. E. lifestyles, personality, perception, motives, attitudes, and culture. Answer: A 66. Perception is a three-step process that involves: A. motivation, personality, and attitudes. B. classifying, recording, and eliminating information received through the senses. C. collecting, eliminating, and organizing information inputs. D. selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs. E. anticipating, classifying, and discarding information inputs. Answer: D 67. In the process of perception, individuals receive sensations through sight, sound, taste, smell, and hearing. These sensations are called: A. selective inputs. B. olfactory receptors. C. information inputs. D. perceptual motives. E. psychological influences. Answer: C 68. Selective exposure refers to: A. targeting only certain parts of the total market. B. admitting only certain inputs into consciousness. C. the circumstances or conditions that exist when a consumer is making a purchase decision. D. changing or twisting received information. E. remembering inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting those that do not. Answer: B 69. As Brianna walks to classes, she selects, organizes, and interprets the sensations she is receiving through her sense organs. Brianna is experiencing the process of: A. exposure. B. motivation. C. learning. D. attitude formation. E. perception. Answer: E 70. Mario and his friend have been talking about their love for Bose headphones and speakers. Mario’s friend mentions a consumer report that he read the week before that stated Bose products had higher prices but lower quality than in previous years. Mario thought to himself that perhaps his friend had misread the report, because Bose had always been the best. This perceptual process is known as selective: A. exposure. B. distortion. C. retention. D. information. E. organization. Answer: B 71. After certain inputs have been selected to reach an individual's awareness, the next step in the perceptual process is perceptual: A. organization. B. attention. C. retention. D. interpretation. E. redefinition. Answer: A 72. Monique reads through her emails containing advertisements for sweaters from H&M, purses from JC Penney, and tennis shoes from Foot Locker. Later while at the mall, she remembers only the shoe ad, thanks to the recent tear in her own Reeboks. Monique has engaged in selective: A. distortion. B. exposure. C. analysis. D. retention. E. organization. Answer: D 73. When organizing perceptual inputs, people tend to mentally fill in missing elements in a pattern or statement. This principle is called: A. interpretation. B. retention. C. distortion. D. closure. E. framing. Answer: D 74. Assignment of meaning to organized information inputs is best defined as: A. motivation. B. redefinition. C. framing. D. interpretation. E. selection. Answer: D 75. A salesperson at Best Buy tells Donovan that the Sony Notebook is one of the most reliable computer notebooks ever made. Donovan, however, has just heard about a second Sony recall for this model because of overheating. If Donovan engages in selective distortion, his most likely response will be to: A. buy the Sony Notebook without a second thought. B. forget the information from the salesperson. C. ignore the recall as a fluke. D. focus on positive aspects of the Sony. E. cease shopping for a computer notebook at this time. Answer: B 76. Consumers tend to remember information inputs that support their feelings and beliefs and forget inputs that do not. This is known as selective: A. exposure. B. distortion. C. retention. D. information. E. framing. Answer: C 77. Buyers' actions are affected by one or more internal energizing forces geared toward satisfying needs, which are called: A. motives. B. lifestyles. C. perceptions. D. attitudes. E. traits. Answer: A 78. Maslow's hierarchy of needs refers to the five levels of needs that humans seek to satisfy, from most to least important. These needs, in order from highest level to basic are: A. psychological, physiological, safety, social, and esteem. B. physiological, safety, esteem, social, and self-actualization. C. physiological, psychological, safety, social, and esteem. D. physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. E. physiological, esteem, safety, self-actualization, and psychological. Answer: D 79. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A. individuals simultaneously try to satisfy all five levels of needs. B. self-actualization needs are the most basic needs to be met, for most individuals. C. safety needs include the need for food, clothing, and shelter. D. levels of needs are different for everyone, and people try to satisfy them in a different order. E. esteem needs include people’s desire respect and recognition from others. Answer: E 80. Shortly after moving into their new home, Mark and Katherine Gould purchased and installed smoke detectors and an alarm system. With respect to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the Goulds are concerned about fulfilling their need for: A. survival. B. safety. C. self-actualization. D. esteem. E. belonging. Answer: B 81. People's needs to grow, develop, and achieve their full potential are referred to by Maslow as ________ needs. A. self-realization B. esteem C. self-actualization D. social E. safety Answer: C 82. The U.S. Army recruits soldiers based on the slogan, "An army of one," implying that people can reach their full personal potential in the U.S. Army. In accordance with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this is an appeal to the ________ needs. A. safety B. esteem C. self-actualization D. physiological E. social Answer: C 83. Psychological influences that determine where a person purchases products on a regular basis are called: A. convenience responses. B. patronage motives. C. shopping motives. D. pattern responses. E. routine decisions. Answer: B 84. Luis likes shopping at Stein Mart, a discount department store, because he likes the prices, products, and services the store provides. His selection of this store as a regular stop when shopping is influenced by ________ motives. A. self-concept B. self-image C. projective D. depth E. patronage Answer: E 85. Salina is shopping for low-calorie frozen dinners to take to work for lunch. Salina has always been mindful of the total calories and the number of fat grams in these dinners. However, after reading an article about the high sodium counts in frozen meals and the maximum grams of sodium a woman should eat daily, she now pays attention to the sodium as well. The changes in Salina’s thought processes and behavior caused by this information is called: A. learning. B. attitude formation. C. patronage motives. D. self-actualization needs. E. selective distortion. Answer: A 86. Marketers often provide consumers with information of their products, including free samples and trial offers, to facilitate consumer: A. patronage motives. B. attitudes. C. self-concept. D. distortion. E. learning. Answer: E 87. Which of the following best defines attitude? A. The objective and subjective product characteristics that are important to a buyer. B. A set of actions that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform. C. A competence in performing activities. D. A sensation received through sight, taste, hearing, smell, and touch. E. One's evaluation, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea. Answer: E 88. Having used both Secret and Sure deodorants, Annette feels that Secret is a good product and the one that best meets her needs. She has formed a(n) ________ about Secret. A. impression B. consideration set C. cognition D. attitude E. self-concept Answer: D 89. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral are the three major components of: A. self-concept. B. motives. C. selective retention. D. consumer socialization. E. attitudes. Answer: E 90. Which of the following consumer research methods consists of a series of adjectives, phrases, or sentences regarding an object, with subjects indicating the intensity of their feelings toward this object by reacting to these adjectives, phrases, or sentences? A. Projective specification B. Patronage clarification C. Group interview D. Attitude scale E. Depth interview Answer: D 91. Melanie prefers to shop at Target for most of her household needs even though the same products and brands are available at Kmart. She prefers the service, location, and friendliness of the employees at Target. Melanie's reasons that influence her decision to shop at Target are called: A. self-actualization needs. B. learning processes. C. patronage motives. D. product attitudes. E. retailer attitudes. Answer: C 92. An attitude scale measures the: A. strength of a buyer's need for a product. B. buyer's level of information about a product. C. amount of experience the buyer has had with the product. D. intensity of a buyer's feelings toward a certain object. E. intensity of a buyer's desire for the product. Answer: D 93. Changing people's attitudes toward a firm and its marketing program is: A. simple when advertisements are used. B. impossible, even if the firm uses advertisements. C. a long, expensive, and difficult task that may require extensive advertising campaigns. D. unnecessary, since consumer attitudes are of little importance. E. rarely attempted through the use of marketing practice. Answer: C 94. Hereditary characteristics combined with personal experiences that together make an individual unique, form one’s: A. self-concept. B. patronage motive. C. physiological need. D. personality. E. lifestyle. Answer: D 95. Shane spends most of his free time participating in extreme sports and traveling to exotic locations with a group of close friends who share his interests and opinions about most things. This is a description of Shane's: A. self-concept. B. lifestyle. C. physiological need. D. patronage motive. E. role. Answer: B 96. A consumer's buying decisions are affected in part by the people around him or her. Such people and the forces they exert on an individual buyer are called: A. patronage motives. B. social influences. C. physiological needs. D. personality influences. E. self-actualization needs. Answer: B 97. Carla is a prosecuting attorney for the city of Cleveland. She is also vice president for the local parent/teacher organization and a coach for her daughter’s soccer team. The actions and activities associated with each of these positions constitute Carla’s: A. physiological needs. B. role. C. patronage motives. D. beliefs. E. safety needs. Answer: B 98. Shaun is shopping with his dad to buy his first baseball glove for Little League. He listens to his dad talk to the salesperson at the sporting goods store, watches him examine the stitching in the glove and then rub his finger over the leather palm. Shaun's observations are part of his: A. patronage motives. B. attitude development. C. purchasing evaluation. D. consumer socialization. E. consumer attitude. Answer: D 99. Children often achieve ________ by observing parents and older siblings in purchase situations and then through their own purchase experiences. A. consumer socialization B. patronage motives C. role conflict D. cognitive dissonance E. selective distortion Answer: A 100. Jennifer is interested in joining Kappa Lambda Iota sorority. She begins to shop at Sarah's, a local store where the Kappas buy their clothes. She also asks her family for a new car because all the sorority members have new cars. In these instances, Jennifer is influenced by: A. a patronage motive. B. a reference group. C. a consideration set. D. a knowledge base. E. a role conflict. Answer: B 101. The three major types of reference groups are: A. membership, aspirational, and advocacy. B. advocacy, avoidance, and approach. C. aspirational, disassociative, and membership. D. actual, implied, and desired. E. autonomic, syncretic, and disassociative. Answer: C 102. Stuart’s little brother Kyle joined the Boy Scouts recently. Stuart notices that in addition to wearing the Boy Scout uniform, Kyle has been better about keeping his everyday clothes neat and clean, has been searching online for camping gear, and has become interested in “green” products. Stuart believes that the Boy Scouts are now a reference group for Kyle because he: A. has taken on many of the values, attitudes, or behaviors of group members. B. became a formal member of the group. C. became familiar with the group's activities. D. looked for information from members of the group regarding buying decisions. E. cannot control his involvement with the group. Answer: A 103. Which of the following statements regarding social class is true? A. Within a social class, income remains the same among all members. B. The criteria used to group people into social classes’ remains the same in all societies. C. A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social ranking. D. A social class has no influence on people’s saving and credit practices. E. Within a social class, spending habits remain the same among all members. Answer: C Scenario 6.1 Use the following to answer the questions. Consumers use information from many sources when making purchasing decisions, including information from friends and family members. One of the most dissatisfying consumer experiences is with auto repair. Aware of this, Kate has asked several of her friends and family members where they have their cars repaired, since she has experienced a problem starting her car when the weather is cold. Kate has heard that Skola's Auto Repair has reasonable prices, but it can be difficult to get an appointment. Steve, one of Kate’s friends, had a very poor experience with Skola's. However, once he complained to them, they fixed the situation and now he prefers their auto repair shop over others. 104. Refer to Scenario 6.1. The type of decision making behavior that Kate is expressing to select an auto repair shop would be: A. enduring involvement. B. extended decision making. C. routinized response behavior. D. perceptual mapping. E. limited decision making. Answer: E 105. Refer to Scenario 6.1. One of the dissatisfied customers of Skola's Auto Repair told his friend about his experience. The friend has been a long-time Skola's customer and the next day, didn't remember what he told her. This is an example of: A. perceptive perception. B. selective exposure. C. selective distortion. D. receptive exposure. E. selective retention. Answer: E 106. Refer to Scenario 6.1. The change in Steve's behavior toward Skola's Auto Repair, caused by the company's response to his complaint, is a function of: A. perception. B. motivation. C. attitudes. D. learning. E. influence. Answer: D 107. Refer to Scenario 6.1. Positive feelings generated by satisfaction with Skola's response will become part of Steve's: A. consideration set. B. motives. C. selective retention. D. response. E. attitude. Answer: E Scenario 6.2 Use the following to answer the questions. Both the Racer and the Strider were very popular choices for family vans. Racer noticed that the majority of its customers were families with 3 or more children, and so they developed commercials that featured larger families. They also produced commercials that featured Hispanic-looking actors and for some markets, in Spanish. Alicia Desario and her husband were currently shopping for a van for their family. As Alicia listened to an advertisement on the television about the Strider, she noticed that the Strider cost about $27,000 and had gas mileage of about 17 mpg. She recalled an earlier ad for the Racer, which also cost about $27,000, but had gas mileage of about 21 mpg. She also liked the way the family was portrayed in the Racer ad, showing the children in the back seats having plenty of room, watching the DVD players, and having their own sound controls. When she spoke to Carlos, her husband, about how much she liked the Racer van, he replied that it had too low of gas mileage at only 16 mpg. Since Alicia didn't agree with that number, he produced a magazine ad that supported his claim of the 16 mpg for the Racer. Alicia couldn't believe that she had made such an error in hearing what the gas mileage was for the Racer and the Strider. 108. Refer to Scenario 6.2. Since Alicia and Carlos were using gas mileage as one of their assessment criteria, they are most likely in the ________ phase of the consumer buying process. A. problem recognition B. external search C. evaluation of alternatives D. purchase E. post-purchase Answer: C 109. Refer to Scenario 6.2. The fact that Alicia had remembered the gas mileage of the Racer incorrectly is most likely an example of: A. selective expression. B. selective retention. C. perceptual extension. D. perceptual bias. E. selective distortion. Answer: E 110. Refer to Scenario 6.2. Carlos' knowledge of the correct gas mileage is an example of the ________ component(s) of his attitude toward the Racer. A. cognitive B. behavioral C. affective D. affective and cognitive E. behavioral and affective Answer: A 111. Refer to Scenario 6.2. Racer’s production of commercials that featured Hispanic actors and the Spanish language is an example of marketing to: A. cultural self-concepts. B. social classes. C. subcultures. D. roles. E. social strata. Answer: C 112. A consumer market consists of buyers intending to use the product with the main purpose of making a profit. A. True B. False Answer: False 113. Buying behavior refers to the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. A. True B. False Answer: True 114. The actual act of purchase is the second stage of the consumer buying decision process. A. True B. False Answer: False 115. Once initiated, the consumer buying decision process always leads to a purchase. A. True B. False Answer: False 116. Problem recognition speed can vary from rapid to slow. A. True B. False Answer: True 117. An information search, once completed, should identify for the buyer the one brand that he or she views as the best alternative. A. True B. False Answer: False 118. When evaluating the alternatives, the buyer rates and eventually ranks the brands in the consideration set. A. True B. False Answer: True 119. The evaluative criteria are objective but not subjective product characteristics that are important to a specific buyer when purchasing a product. A. True B. False Answer: False 120. A marketer's use of framing can make a product characteristic seem more important to a consumer and can facilitate its recall from memory. A. True B. False Answer: True 121. During the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer buying decision process, the buyer selects the seller from whom he or she will purchase the product. A. True B. False Answer: False 122. The terms of sale are negotiated during the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer decision-making process. A. True B. False Answer: False 123. Some of the criteria used in the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer buying decision process are also used during the postpurchase evaluation stage. A. True B. False Answer: True 124. Product availability plays a major role in the purchase stage. If the highest-ranked product is unavailable, the consumer will most likely purchase the brand ranked second. A. True B. False Answer: True 125. The choice of a seller may actually affect the final product selection during the purchase stage of the consumer buying decision process. A. True B. False Answer: True 126. Dissatisfaction may occur shortly after a purchase; this is called cognitive dissatisfaction. A. True B. False Answer: False 127. If a person's interest in the product category is ongoing and long term, it is referred to as situational involvement. A. True B. False Answer: False 128. Involvement that is temporary and results from a specific set of circumstances is called situational involvement. A. True B. False Answer: True 129. Involvement level is one factor that affects a consumer's selection of a type of problem-solving process. A. True B. False Answer: True 130. High involvement products tend to be those that are expensive and visible to others. A. True B. False Answer: True 131. Buyers are engaged in limited decision making behavior when purchasing frequently bought, low-cost items needing very little decision effort. A. True B. False Answer: False 132. Buyers engage in extended decision making behavior when unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently purchased products are bought. A. True B. False Answer: True 133. When making habitual purchases, a consumer engages in extended decision making behavior. A. True B. False Answer: False 134. Situational influences generally have the greatest influence during the problem recognition of the consumer buying decision process. A. True B. False Answer: False 135. There are situational influences that cannot be controlled. A. True B. False Answer: True 136. Situational influences can be classified into five different categories including physical surroundings, social surroundings, personality, purchase reason, and time perspective. A. True B. False Answer: False 137. Situational influences would likely not affect a high school senior searching for a college or university to attend. A. True B. False Answer: False 138. An electronics store puts a large screen TV, wired for surround sound, in a quiet corner of the store with couches and a rug, and plays a recently released movie. These actions give the display the look of a family room or den. The store is using the physical surroundings as a way to influence purchase decisions. A. True B. False Answer: True 139. Social surroundings during the purchase decision do not include the presence of a salesperson. A. True B. False Answer: False 140. Time dimensions on the buying decision include how long it may take to become knowledgeable about a product. A. True B. False Answer: True 141. The time that a buyer has to make a purchase decision is a situational influence. A. True B. False Answer: True 142. Psychological influences operate within individuals to determine, in part, their behavior as consumers. A. True B. False Answer: True 143. Perception is a process in which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information received through the sense organs. A. True B. False Answer: True 144. A person receives information inputs through the senses. A. True B. False Answer: True 145. The phenomenon of selective exposure is associated with perception. A. True B. False Answer: True 146. An information input is less likely to reach awareness if it is related to an event that the person is anticipating. A. True B. False Answer: False 147. If an information input is useful in satisfying a person's current needs, it is more likely to reach awareness. A. True B. False Answer: True 148. When a buyer receives information that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs, the buyer may distort the information to bring it more in line with those beliefs. A. True B. False Answer: True 149. Information inputs that reach awareness are received in an organized form. A. True B. False Answer: False 150. Marketers can control the perception of potential buyers. A. True B. False Answer: False 151. A consumer may receive a marketer's information and perceive it differently from the way the marketer intended. A. True B. False Answer: True 152. A buyer's actions at any point in time are affected by one major motive. A. True B. False Answer: False 153. Motives can affect the direction and intensity of behavior. A. True B. False Answer: True 154. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the most fundamental need is safety. A. True B. False Answer: False 155. Ads for beauty products often suggest that purchasing these products will bring love, helping to fulfill one's social needs. A. True B. False Answer: True 156. Patronage motives influence where one purchases products on a regular basis. A. True B. False Answer: True 157. By giving out free samples, a marketer is trying to influence the direct experiences of consumers even before they purchase products. A. True B. False Answer: True 158. An attitude consists of one's evaluation feelings and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea. A. True B. False Answer: True 159. Just as attitudes are learned, they can be changed. A. True B. False Answer: True 160. An attitude scale is useful in helping to measure the intensity of feelings. A. True B. False Answer: True 161. Marketers may try to change consumers' attitudes toward a product if they feel that a significant number of consumers have strong negative attitudes toward it. A. True B. False Answer: True 162. One's personality is a set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior in certain situations. A. True B. False Answer: True 163. A person's self-concept may affect whether the person buys a product in a particular product category, but it has little impact on brand selection. A. True B. False Answer: False 164. Consumers' buying decisions are not affected by other people. A. True B. False Answer: False 165. A role consists of a set of actions and activities that a person in a particular position is expected to perform. A. True B. False Answer: True 166. Family influences are not directly related to purchasing decisions. A. True B. False Answer: False 167. Consumer socialization is the process through which a person acquires the knowledge and skills to function as a consumer. A. True B. False Answer: True 168. Consumers' purchasing decisions and brand decisions may be influenced strongly by reference groups. A. True B. False Answer: True 169. A reference group acts as a point of comparison and as a source of information for an individual. A. True B. False Answer: True 170. When a product is a conspicuous one, reference-group influence is more likely to affect the brand decision. A. True B. False Answer: True 171. Jon's colleagues at work want to take a skiing trip. Jon grew up in Colorado and learned to ski as a young child so the group consults him about the best slopes and ski gear needed for the trip. Jon's role is that of an opinion leader. A. True B. False Answer: True 172. An opinion leader provides information and is viewed as an authority on all spheres of interest for reference-group participants. A. True B. False Answer: False 173. Income is the key factor in determining a person's social class. A. True B. False Answer: False 174. A social class is a closed aggregate of individuals with similar social ranking. A. True B. False Answer: False 175. Social classes are referred to as open aggregates of individuals because people can move into and out of them. A. True B. False Answer: True 176. The criteria used to group people into classes are basically the same in all societies. A. True B. False Answer: False 177. Expecting ethical business behavior reflects our culture. A. True B. False Answer: True 178. The values, knowledge, beliefs, customs, objects, and concepts of a society affect how people make purchasing decisions. A. True B. False Answer: True 179. Changes in culture do not affect product development. A. True B. False Answer: False 180. The values, needs, interests, shopping patterns, and buying habits of various subcultures must be considered if a business wants to succeed. A. True B. False Answer: True 181. A person can be a member of only one subculture. A. True B. False Answer: False 182. Not all the behavioral patterns and values attributed to specific subcultures apply to every member of that specific subculture. A. True B. False Answer: True 183. Marketers must consider the different nationalities represented within the Hispanic and Asian-American subcultures because of the unique culture, history, and buying patterns of each ethnic group. A. True B. False Answer: True Test Bank for Foundations of Marketing William M. Pride, O. C. Ferrell 9781285429779, 9781439039441

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