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This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 6 Chapter 05 Personality Dispositions Over Time: Stability, Coherence, and Change Multiple Choice Questions 1. _______________ is defined as both the consistencies in people and the ways people change over time. A. Personality development B. Rank order stability C. Mean level stability D. Personality coherence Answer: A. Personality development 2. When people maintain their position in a group over time, they display A. mean level stability. B. rank order stability. C. personality coherence. D. possible selves. Answer: B. rank order stability. 3. If we measured height from the age of 12 to 18, we would likely see high degrees of A. mean level stability. B. rank order stability. C. rank order instability. D. both A and B. Answer: B. rank order stability. 4. When the average level of a trait remains constant over time, we observe A. mean level change. B. mean level stability. C. rank order stability. D. rank order instability. Answer: B. mean level stability. 5. The finding that sensation seeking tends to decrease with age is an example of A. mean level change. B. mean level stability. C. rank order stability. D. rank order instability. Answer: A. mean level change. 6. If we studied political attitudes and found that everyone became more conservative with age, we would observe A. mean level change. B. mean level stability. C. rank order stability. D. rank order change. Answer: A. mean level change. 7. If an individual maintains his or her rank order for a trait relative to a group, but changes the behaviors manifested by that trait over time that individual is exhibiting A. mean level stability. B. rank order stability. C. personality coherence. D. validity coefficients. Answer: C. personality coherence. 8. An example of _______________ would be that ambivalently attached babies cry when their mothers leave them, and that later in life as adults these individuals have many short-lived relationships. A. mean level stability B. mean level change C. rank order stability D. personality coherence Answer: D. personality coherence 9. When Maria was a child she was always did her homework on time and was an excellent student. As an adult Maria is a highly organized business woman with a reputation for meeting deadlines. Maria's behavior throughout her life demonstrates A. personality coherence. B. mean level reliability. C. rank order stability. D. mean level stability. Answer: A. personality coherence. 10. Which of the following concepts does Gandhi's life best illustrate? A. How a personality changes over time. B. How a personality can remain stable over time. C. The concept of rank order stability. D. Traits that are correlated with leadership skills. Answer: B. How a personality can remain stable over time. 11. Personality changes take place when those changes are _______________ and _______________. A. internal; progressive B. external; phenotypical C. internal; enduring D. external; durable Answer: D. external; durable 12. Freud's theory of psychosexual stages is an example of personality change at the _______________ level of analysis. A. population B. group differences C. individual differences D. individual uniqueness Answer: A. population 13. Which of the following is NOT an example of a topic at the group level of analysis? A. Male versus female differences in empathy toward others. B. Cultural differences in coming of age rituals. C. Arousal differences that correlate with extraversion. D. Ethnic differences in body satisfaction. Answer: C. Arousal differences that correlate with extraversion. 14. _______________ usually is/are defined as the individual differences that show up early in life and are likely to be heritable and involved in behaviors linked with emotionality. A. Traits B. Temperament C. Individual differences D. Dispositions Answer: B. Temperament 15. Which level of analysis would consider the question, "Can we predict healthy aging from personality traits?" A. Population B. Group differences C. Individual differences D. Cultural differences Answer: C. Individual differences 16. Personality is least stable in A. early infancy. B. late infancy. C. adolescence. D. adulthood. Answer: A. early infancy. 17. Personality differences usually can be first observed in A. early infancy. B. late infancy. C. adolescence. D. adulthood. Answer: A. early infancy. 18. Which of the following aspects of temperament is probably most stable? A. Activity level B. Fear C. Duration of orienting D. Soothability Answer: A. Activity level 19. Temperament has been found to be A. unstable. B. more stable in early infancy. C. more stable over short interval. D. more stable over long intervals. Answer: C. more stable over short interval. 20. Correlations between the same measure taken at different points in time are called A. validity coefficients. B. stability coefficients. C. mean level stability. D. rank order stability. Answer: B. stability coefficients. 21. Correlations between different measures of the same trait taken at the same time are called A. validity coefficients. B. stability coefficients. C. mean level stability. D. rank order stability. Answer: A. validity coefficients. 22. Buss, Block, and Block's longitudinal study of activity level found A. stability in activity level over time. B. less stability over short intervals. C. more stability over long intervals. D. a lack of personality coherence. Answer: A. stability in activity level over time. 23. Research suggests that children classified as bullies in the 6th grade A. will be more popular in the 10th grade. B. will become "whipping boys" by the 7th grade. C. are more likely to commit criminal acts in adulthood. D. are more likely to have been bullied by parents. Answer: C. are more likely to commit criminal acts in adulthood. 24. Traits from the five-factor model have been found to A. be only slightly stable in adulthood. B. be moderately stable in adulthood. C. lack stability in early adulthood. D. have population stability in adulthood. Answer: B. be moderately stable in adulthood. 25. Researchers have found that personality stability A. does not change reliably over time. B. tends to decrease with age. C. tends to increase with age. D. is best estimated by validity coefficients. Answer: C. tends to increase with age. 26. Trait consistency tends to reach each peak after age A. 20. B. 30. C. 40. D. 50. Answer: D. 50. 27. Research suggests that traits from the five-factor model _______________ mean level changes with age. A. do not show B. show small C. show moderate D. show large Answer: B. show small 28. The traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and openness tend to A. increase substantially in a person's thirties. B. decline gradually with age until a person is about fifty years old. C. fluctuate greatly in mean level stability during adolescence. D. decrease markedly after a person reaches his or her sixties. Answer: B. decline gradually with age until a person is about fifty years old. 29. Trait neuroticism and negative affect scores tend to _______________ from the freshman to senior years in college. A. increase strongly B. decrease strongly C. remain stable D. fluctuate wildly Answer: B. decrease strongly 30. Trait levels of _______________ and _______________ tend to increase with age. A. agreeableness; openness to experience B. extraversion; openness to experience C. neuroticism; extraversion D. conscientiousness; agreeableness Answer: D. conscientiousness; agreeableness 31. Some have suggested that more research focuses on personality stability, rather than change, because A. longitudinal studies are difficult to conduct. B. terms that refer to stability are generally more positive. C. assessing change is easier than assessing stability. D. there might be a bias among researchers against even looking for personality change. Answer: D. there might be a bias among researchers against even looking for personality change. 32. People whose actual selves are close to their ideal selves score high on measures of A. possible selves. B. feared selves. C. desired selves. D. self-esteem. Answer: D. self-esteem. 33. During adolescence, the self-esteem of _______________ increases and the self-esteem of _______________ decreases. A. males; females B. females; males C. irritable persons; calm persons D. calm persons; irritable persons Answer: A. males; females 34. A longitudinal study of architects that spanned 25 years found that A. successful architects scored high on independence and spontaneity scales. B. successful architects scored high on conventionality and conservatism scales. C. impulsivity and flexibility scale scores increased with age for successful architects. D. successful architects had fewer health problems then less creative architects. Answer: A. successful architects scored high on independence and spontaneity scales. 35. The architects classified as being "average" in a longitudinal, 25-year study, were found to A. have become somewhat more creative over the years, but not as much as the successful architects. B. score very low on conformity scales at both times data was collected in the study. C. have become less impulse and flexible and to have become more rigid as they aged. D. have considerably fewer health problems then the successful architects over the years. Answer: C. have become less impulse and flexible and to have become more rigid as they aged. 36. A longitudinal study followed male management employees at AT&T over 20 years starting in the late 1950s while the men were in their twenties. The study found that the managers' levels of _______________ decreased over their careers. A. autonomy B. ambition C. motivation D. dominance Answer: B. ambition 37. If you measure self-esteem every day for two weeks, you are probably most interested in A. self-esteem level. B. self-esteem variability. C. possible selves. D. feared selves. Answer: B. self-esteem variability. 38. Self-esteem variability is most correlated with A. self-esteem level. B. childhood temper tantrums. C. depression. D. activity level. Answer: C. depression. 39. A person who feels very good after receiving a compliment, but very bad after being insulted, would sore high on measures of A. self-esteem. B. self-esteem variability. C. activity level. D. both a and b. Answer: B. self-esteem variability. 40. People who have high levels of self-esteem variability A. depend on others for their sense of self-worth. B. score high on measures of self-esteem level. C. score low on measures of self-esteem level. D. react positively to objectively defined negative events. Answer: A. depend on others for their sense of self-worth. 41. Self-esteem variability appears to be strongly related to the extent to which one's self-view can be influenced by A. levels of mono-analyse oxide. B. the outcome of social events. C. the mean level of self-esteem. D. the self-esteem of others in the environment. Answer: B. the outcome of social events. 42. Kara is extremely sensitive to the feedback of other people. She most likely has a/an A. high level of self-esteem variability. B. overall low level of self-esteem. C. low mean level of self-esteem. D. extremely rigid sense of self-esteem. Answer: A. high level of self-esteem variability. 43. Which of the following is NOT a component of sensation seeking? A. Thrill and adventure seeking B. Disinhibition C. Sociability D. Boredom susceptibility Answer: C. Sociability 44. When does the trait of sensation seeking tend to peak? A. In early childhood. B. In late adolescence. C. In midlife. D. In late life. Answer: B. In late adolescence. 45. Women who score high on the femininity scale of the California Psychological Inventory (compared to low scorers) are more likely to A. remember an acquaintance's birthday. B. take charge of a committee meeting. C. take the initiative in sexual encounters. D. demand equal social and political rights Answer: A. remember an acquaintance's birthday. 46. A longitudinal study conducted of women who attended Mills College suggests that femininity (defined as being dependent, emotional, gentle, high-strung, etc.) decreases to become more masculine (defined as being assertive, confident, determined, independent, etc.) from ages A. 13 to 20. B. 20 to 30. C. 30 to 40. D. 40 to 50. Answer: D. 40 to 50. 47. The trait of competence tends to _______________ women. A. decrease with age among B. increase with age among C. remain unchanged with age among D. increase among married, but decrease among unmarried Answer: B. increase with age among 48. Over time, trait scores of independence tended to increase for all women except A. divorced mothers. B. the nulliparous. C. working mothers. D. homemakers. Answer: D. homemakers. 49. The Mills College longitudinal study of women found that homemakers' level of independence at age 21 versus that at age 43 suggests that A. being a homemaker requires much more independence than originally believed. B. homemakers' independence scores are likely to change little with age. C. the roles women adopt are irrelevant to changes in independence. D. the role a college-educated woman has in life is irrelevant to changes in personality. Answer: B. homemakers' independence scores are likely to change little with age. 50. _______________ are defined as the social times in which people live. A. "Cohort effects" B. "Generational effects" C. "Historical byproducts" D. "Longitudinal effects" Answer: A. "Cohort effects" 51. The effects on individuals of living through the first gulf war is an example of A. cohort effects. B. generational effects. C. historical byproducts. D. longitudinal effects. Answer: A. cohort effects. 52. American women in the 1930s were more _______________ than women of the 1950s. A. sexually active B. self-sufficient C. passive D. resilient Answer: B. self-sufficient 53. American women's scores for _______________ rose from 1931 to 1945 and also from 1968 to 1993. A. domesticity B. level of education C. assertiveness D. sensation seeking Answer: C. assertiveness 54. Which of the following has NOT been associated with marital satisfaction? A. The husband's neuroticism B. The wife's neuroticism C. The husband's impulsivity D. The wife's impulsivity Answer: D. The wife's impulsivity 55. Twenge concluded from her studies of cohort effects from 1968 to 1993 that A. females internalized the social change and cultural messages of the era, and their personalities were molded by these messages. B. cohort effects are interesting to study historically, but of little relevance to personality psychology. C. social and cultural changes had only marginal effects on personality. D. the culture in which an individual is immersed is the major determinant of personality. Answer: A. females internalized the social change and cultural messages of the era, and their personalities were molded by these messages. 56. "Personality coherence" refers to the predictable changes in A. the outcomes of personality factors over time. B. the mean level stability of personality traits. C. how much "common sense" a personality score makes. D. the effects of rank-order stability over time. Answer: A. the outcomes of personality factors over time. 57. Which of the following personality traits is one of the strongest predictors of divorce in the Kelly and Conley longitudinal study of married couples? A. High extraversion B. Low agreeableness C. High neuroticism D. Low conscientiousness Answer: C. High neuroticism 58. Husbands who score low on _______________ have been found to be more likely to have extramarital affairs. A. neuroticism B. impulse control C. dominance D. extraversion Answer: B. impulse control 59. Individuals with a high level of _______________ tend to cope better with the loss of a spouse. A. dominance B. impulse control C. neuroticism D. independence Answer: C. neuroticism 60. Which of the following has been suggested as the key factor with the later development of alcoholism in men? A. High levels of neuroticism B. Low levels of neuroticism C. Low levels of impulse control D. High levels of impulse control Answer: C. Low levels of impulse control 61. Which of the following has been associated with the later development of emotional disturbances in men? A. High levels of neuroticism B. Low levels of neuroticism C. Low levels of impulse control D. High levels of impulse control Answer: A. High levels of neuroticism 62. Impulsivity in men has been associated with A. lower levels of marital satisfaction. B. alcoholism. C. lower levels of academic achievement. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 63. Which of the following does NOT predict later levels of marital satisfaction? A. Impulse control B. Childhood temper tantrums C. Neuroticism D. Sensation seeking Answer: D. Sensation seeking 64. A study found that men who had many childhood temper tantrums later A. achieved higher levels of academic success. B. were more likely to be divorced. C. had more successful military careers. D. achieved great financial success. Answer: B. were more likely to be divorced. 65. Men classified as being "explosive" children in a 40-year longitudinal study presented by Caspi and his colleagues in 1987 differed from the "nonexplosive" group by A. earning more promotions for valor. B. achieving lower military ranks. C. earning more medals for bravery. D. benefiting from military discipline. Answer: B. achieving lower military ranks. 66. When people in marriages have similar personalities, A. they are more likely to divorce. B. their personalities remain more stable over time. C. their personalities change more over time. D. their personalities are neither more nor less likely to change over time. Answer: B. their personalities remain more stable over time. 67. _______________ been associated with greater stability of personality over time. A. Marrying someone with a similar personality has B. Marrying someone with a very different personality has C. High levels of neuroticism have D. Low levels of neuroticism have Answer: A. Marrying someone with a similar personality has Chapter 06 Genetics and Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. The "Jim twins" A. prove that personality traits are heritable. B. prove the effects of nonshared family environments. C. are very similar despite having been separated at birth. D. are identical in all ways. Answer: C. are very similar despite having been separated at birth. 2. The term _______________ refers to the complete set of genes an organism possesses. A. "genome" B. "eugenics" C. "phenotypic" D. "genotypic" Answer: A. "genome" 3. All human genes are located somewhere on one of _______________ pairs of chromosomes. A. 12 B. 17 C. 23 D. 32 Answer: C. 23 4. The human genome contains about _______________ separate genes. A. 10,000-15,000 B. 20,000-40,000 C. 30,000-40,000 D. 1,000,000-2,000,000 Answer: B. 20,000-40,000 5. The goal of the Human Genome Project is to A. identify which genes are related to personality. B. identify the particular sequence of DNA molecules in humans. C. identify genotypic variance. D. solve the nature-nurture debate once and for all. Answer: B. identify the particular sequence of DNA molecules in humans. 6. The Human Genome Project has A. been a large failure. B. identified the sequence of DNA molecules in humans. C. identified the functions of most human genes. D. discovered that people differ widely in their particular genes. Answer: B. identified the sequence of DNA molecules in humans. 7. Which one of the following is NOT one of the fears about genetic research? A. Genetic research will lead to the development of "designer" babies. B. If criminal behavior is genetic then attempts at rehabilitation will be fruitless. C. Decoding genetic differences will reveal complexities in human nature. D. Genetic research will marginalize research in other areas of psychology. Answer: C. Decoding genetic differences will reveal complexities in human nature. 8. The idea that people with "desirable" characteristics should be encouraged to have children while "less desirable" people should be discouraged from having children is called A. eugenics. B. molecular genetics. C. selective placement. D. heritability. Answer: A. eugenics. 9. Most psychologists who study genetics A. support the idea of eugenics. B. believe creating "designer babies" is a worthwhile goal. C. believe that the environment does not contribute to personality. D. are interested in the causes of individual differences. Answer: D. are interested in the causes of individual differences. 10. The fact that Americans are, on average, 2 inches taller than a hundred years ago demonstrates that A. the environment determines height. B. the environment can contribute to highly heritable traits. C. height is not heritable. D. height is only slightly heritable. Answer: B. the environment can contribute to highly heritable traits. 11. If a score for a characteristic is divided into its different causes researchers are typically assessing the _______________ due each of the causes of that score. A. genotype-environment interaction B. genotype-environment correlation C. percentage of variance D. environmentalism Answer: C. percentage of variance 12. Behavioral geneticists are generally NOT interested in the A. percentage of variance due to environment. B. percentage of variance due to genes. C. percentage of genetic variance in an individual. D. ways in which genes and the environment interact to form personality. Answer: C. percentage of genetic variance in an individual. 13. The proportion of phenotypic variation in a group of individuals due to genetic variance is called A. "heritability." B. the "phenotypic percentage of variance." C. the "genome." D. "eugenics." Answer: A. "heritability." 14. _______________ refers to the proportion of variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance. A. Heritability B. Phenotypic percentage of variance C. The genome D. Eugenics Answer: A. Heritability 15. _______________ refers to observed differences among individuals. A. Heritability B. Phenotypic variance C. Genotypic variance D. Environmentality Answer: B. Phenotypic variance 16. _______________ refers to individual differences in the collection of genes of each person. A. Heritability B. Phenotypic variance C. Genotypic variance D. Environmentality Answer: C. Genotypic variance 17. If the heritability of sociability is .30, the environment is responsible for A. 70 percent of phenotypic variation. B. 70 percent of genotypic variation. C. 30 percent of phenotypic variation. D. 30 percent of genotypic variation. Answer: A. 70 percent of phenotypic variation. 18. The percentage of variance in a group of individuals that can be attributed to nongenetic differences is called A. heritability. B. phenotypic variance. C. genotypic variance. D. environmentality. Answer: D. environmentality. 19. If the heritability of a trait is very large, then the _______________ of the trait is small. A. phenotypic variance B. genotypic variance C. environmentality D. genomic variance Answer: C. environmentality 20. Which of the following statements about heritability is NOT true? A. Heritability can be applied to an individual. B. Heritability can change over time. C. The heritability of the same trait can be different in different groups. D. The phenotype is the expression of a characteristic's genotype. Answer: A. Heritability can be applied to an individual. 21. Which of the following is NOT a reason why heritability can vary? A. It is an imprecise estimate. B. Environments change. C. Unreliability in measurement. D. Heritability coefficients are fixed in a population. Answer: D. Heritability coefficients are fixed in a population. 22. The argument over whether the environment or genes determines personality is known as A. the eugenics debate. B. the nature-nurture debate. C. heritability. D. the equal environments assumption. Answer: B. the nature-nurture debate. 23. If we were attempting to determine how much of George's personality was due to genetics and how much were due to the environment we would A. measure George's genome. B. compare George to his siblings. C. be asking an impossible question. D. map his chromosomes. Answer: C. be asking an impossible question. 24. At the level of the individual A. there is no nature-nurture debate. B. genes are useful in studying personality. C. the idiographic genetic approach should be used. D. genes determine most of personality. Answer: A. there is no nature-nurture debate. 25. The technical term for dividing a trait's score genetic and environmental variance at the population level is called A. apportioning. B. subdivision. C. partitioning. D. extrapolating. Answer: C. partitioning. 26. Which of the following methods in NOT used with humans? A. Selective breeding B. Twin studies C. Adoption studies D. Family studies Answer: A. Selective breeding 27. The use of selective breeding in animals can be used to study A. sexual selection pressures for behaviors. B. the heritability of behaviors. C. natural selection pressures for behaviors. D. the dominance hierarchies of animals. Answer: B. the heritability of behaviors. 28. _______________ is shown when successive generations show more and more of a trait. A. Shared environment B. Selective breeding C. Genotype-environment correlation D. The equal environments assumption Answer: B. Selective breeding 29. Selective breeding in dogs demonstrates that A. behavioral traits can be heritable. B. human personality is heritable. C. the equal environments assumption is not violated. D. the representativeness assumption is not violated. Answer: A. behavioral traits can be heritable. 30. For selective breeding to be successful, the desired trait must A. be entirely under genetic control. B. occur in all offspring. C. be heritable. D. not effected by the environment. Answer: C. be heritable. 31. A parent shares, on average, _______________ percent of his or her genes with each child. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 100 Answer: B. 50 32. Aunts and uncles share, on average, _______________ percent of their genes with nieces and nephews. A. 0 B. 12.5 C. 25 D. 50 Answer: C. 25 33. If a trait is highly heritable, A. all family members will possess the trait. B. all children in the family will possess the trait. C. the more closely family members are genetically related; the more similar they will be on the trait. D. all members of the population will possess the trait. Answer: C. the more closely family members are genetically related; the more similar they will be on the trait. 34. Which of the following is NOT a problem with the family-study method? A. Family members sharing environments. B. The degree of genetic similarity is often correlated with environmental similarity. C. Siblings may share traits because they grew up in the same household. D. The fact that parents contribute 50 percent of their genes to each child. Answer: D. The fact that parents contribute 50 percent of their genes to each child. 35. Which of the following methods provides the LEAST conclusive evidence that a trait is heritable? A. Family studies B. Twin studies C. Adoption studies D. Selective breeding Answer: A. Family studies 36. Which of the following could potentially develop from a single fertilized egg? A. All siblings B. Fraternal twins C. Identical twins D. Zygotic twins Answer: C. Identical twins 37. _______________ are also known as "monozygotic twins." A. Fraternal twins B. Genotypic twins C. Identical twins D. Phenotypic twins Answer: B. Genotypic twins 38. Which of the following share 100 percent of their genes? A. Parents and children B. All siblings C. Dizygotic twins D. Monozygotic twins Answer: D. Monozygotic twins 39. Dizygotic twins share _______________ genes compared to ordinary siblings, and _______________ genes compared to monozygotic twins. A. the same amount; less B. more; less C. more; more D. less; more Answer: A. the same amount; less 40. A trait is likely to be heritable if _______________ are more similar in that trait than _______________. A. dizygotic twins; monozygotic twins B. monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins C. ordinary siblings; dizygotic twins D. dizygotic twins; ordinary siblings Answer: B. monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins 41. Which of the following estimates heritability most accurately? A. The difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins. B. Twice the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins. C. One-half the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins. D. Multiplying the correlations between MZ twins and DZ twins. Answer: B. Twice the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins. 42. One of the most common formulas for assessing heritability is A. heritability = (rdz - rmz). B. heritability2 = (rmz - rdz). C. heritability2 = 2(rmz - rdz). D. heritability = 2(rmz - rdz). Answer: C. heritability2 = 2(rmz - rdz). 43. The equal environments assumption states that A. all people in a population share similar environments. B. dizygotic twins are not treated differently from monozygotic twins. C. twins are not treated differently from ordinary siblings. D. parents treat all their children the same. Answer: B. dizygotic twins are not treated differently from monozygotic twins. 44. Which of the following could be a violation of the equal environments assumption? A. Dressing identical twins in the identical clothes. B. Dressing fraternal twins in the identical clothes. C. Twins are treated differently than other children. D. Fraternal twins are similar to ordinary siblings. Answer: A. Dressing identical twins in the identical clothes. 45. Mary Jo and Bobbi Jo are identical twins. Their parents dress them alike, put them in the same classes and treat them identically. If Betty Jo and Mary Jo were selected to participate in a twin study, they may contaminate the results by leading to a violation of the _______________ assumption. A. Nonshared family variance B. Shared family environment C. Equal environments D. Confluence effects Answer: C. Equal environments 46. Researchers have studied cases where parents were wrong about whether their twins were identical or fraternal to address A. shared environments. B. selective breeding. C. genotype-environment correlation. D. the equal environments assumption. Answer: D. the equal environments assumption. 47. If adopted children differ in important ways from most other people, it would violate the _______________ assumption. A. representativeness B. equal environments C. eugenics D. shared family environment Answer: A. representativeness 48. If the correlation between adoptive parents' traits and adopted children's traits is high we can assume A. a genetic influence. B. an environmental influence. C. an influence of shared environment. D. adoptive parents pick children similar to themselves. Answer: B. an environmental influence. 49. An advantage of adoption studies is that they A. depend on the equal environments assumption. B. depend on the representativeness assumption. C. do not depend on the equal environments assumption. D. do not depend on the representativeness assumption. Answer: C. do not depend on the equal environments assumption. 50. A trait is heritable if A. adoptive parents and the children they have adopted have similar levels of a characteristic. B. the biological parents of children they placed for adoption have similar levels of a characteristic. C. adoptive parents and biological parents of a child have similar levels of a characteristic. D. the children that have been adopted have levels of a characteristic that are similar to those of the other siblings in the home. Answer: B. the biological parents of children they placed for adoption have similar levels of a characteristic. 51. Selective placement is a potential problem with behavior genetics studies as it artificially inflates the A. estimates of genetic influences. B. estimates of nonshared family environment. C. estimates of environmental influences. D. effects of the equal environments assumption. Answer: C. estimates of environmental influences. 52. Jerold was adopted by his mother's sister (his maternal aunt) and his uncle. If he were to participate in a behavior genetics study his scores would A. skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to genetic influences. B. skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to environmental influences. C. the results of his test scores would be skewed to show the greater effects of maternal influences. D. the results of his test scores would not bias the effects for either the genes or the environment. Answer: B. skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to environmental influences. 53. Combining adoption studies and twin studies A. methodologically is not appropriate in behavior genetics studies. B. provides an especially powerful method for studying behavior genetics. C. requires selective breeding over many generations of lab animals. D. provides an error-free estimate of heritability for behavior genetics studies. Answer: B. provides an especially powerful method for studying behavior genetics. 54. The personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism have been found to be A. highly heritable. B. moderately heritable. C. slightly heritable. D. not at all heritable. Answer: B. moderately heritable. 55. Most major personality traits A. have been found to be moderately heritable. B. have been found to be not at all heritable. C. have not been studied with respect to heritability. D. are more heritable than height. Answer: A. have been found to be moderately heritable. 56. _______________ traits show moderate to high heritability. A. Psychopathic B. Religious C. Idiographic D. Political Answer: A. Psychopathic 57. Chimpanzees show moderate heritability for dominance and A. extraversion. B. well-being. C. aggressiveness. D. sociability. Answer: B. well-being. 58. Which of the following attitudes has been found to be somewhat heritable? A. Traditionalism B. Belief in God C. Involvement in religious activities D. Attitudes about racial integration Answer: A. Traditionalism 59. Which of the following is probably most heritable? A. Drinking behavior in men. B. Drinking behavior in women. C. Alcoholism in men and women. D. Alcoholism is not heritable. Answer: C. Alcoholism in men and women. 60. Recent findings from behavioral genetics and brain research point to the possibility that sexual orientation may A. be heritable only in men. B. be heritable only in women. C. be heritable in both women and men. D. not be at all heritable. Answer: C. be heritable in both women and men. 61. According to recent research (e.g., the Bailey et al. study discussed in the text as support for Bem's 1995 theory), it appears that A. sexual orientation is extremely heritable. B. childhood gender nonconformity may be the inherited component of adult sexual orientation. C. gender nonconformity is not heritable. D. homosexuals' brains are the same as heterosexuals' brains. Answer: B. childhood gender nonconformity may be the inherited component of adult sexual orientation. 62. Research on brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men has found some evidence that homosexual men have A. brains substantially more like women's brains than heterosexual males' brains. B. substantially larger ascending reticular activating systems than heterosexual men. C. substantially smaller medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus than heterosexual men. D. substantially smaller occipital lobes of the brain than heterosexual men. Answer: C. substantially smaller medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus than heterosexual men. 63. Which of the following is an example of a shared environmental influence? A. A child's friends B. The grades a child gets C. Special treatment from a parent D. Parents' values and attitudes Answer: D. Parents' values and attitudes 64. _______________ refers to the unique things that happen to one sibling and not another. A. Phenotypic variance B. Genotypic variance C. Shared environment D. Nonshared environment Answer: D. Nonshared environment 65. Nonshared family environment is best expressed as those aspects of the family environment that A. are uniquely experienced by the family. B. are uniquely experienced by an individual family member. C. are hoarded by the family members. D. represent differential genetic dimorphism Answer: B. are uniquely experienced by an individual family member. 66. Shared family environment is BEST expressed by which of the following? A. The friends a child selects while growing up. B. A shared family vacation. C. A parent's rapid rise up the corporate ladder. D. Differential effects of grandparenting on children. Answer: B. A shared family vacation. 67. The number of books in a child's home is an example of A. phenotypic variance. B. genotypic variance. C. shared environment. D. nonshared environment. Answer: C. shared environment. 68. A yearly family trip to Uncle Earl and Aunt Eunice's farm would be considered part of the _______________ environment. A. shared common family B. nonshared family C. family experiential D. phenotypic family Answer: A. shared common family 69. Research indicates that shared environmental factors correlate about _______________ with personality. A. .05 B. .25 C. .50 D. .65 Answer: A. .05 70. Evidence for the extremely small effects of shared family environment includes the low correlations A. across biological siblings for personality traits. B. between adopted children's personality traits in the same family. C. between adopted and biological children in the same family for personality traits. D. between adopted children and their parents personality traits. Answer: B. between adopted children's personality traits in the same family. 71. One problem with attempting to study the effects of nonshared family environment is that A. there are myriad environmental variables that affect personality, but each may have only a small effect. B. the nonshared environmental effects on each child in the family are too subtle to analyze with current methods. C. the effects of shared family environments interfere with clearly observing the effects of the nonshared family environments. D. the equal environments assumption is violated by variables attributable to nonshared family environment. Answer: A. there are myriad environmental variables that affect personality, but each may have only a small effect. 72. All of these are significant shared family environment variables EXCEPT A. smoking and drinking. B. gender nonconformity. C. verbal intelligence. D. health behavior. Answer: B. gender nonconformity. 73. The idea that individuals with different genotypes respond differently to the same environmental cues is called A. passive genotype-environment interaction. B. genotype-environment interaction. C. active genotype-environment correlation. D. genotype-environment correlation. Answer: B. genotype-environment interaction. 74. David, an extravert, and Tom, is an introvert, are studying in a small room with the television's volume is quite loud. Based on what you know about genotype-environment interactions, what can you say about how effectively the two are studying? A. Tom will most likely study better then David due the background noise of the television. B. David will find the television much more distracting than Tom will. C. Tom will find the television much more distracting than David will. D. Both David and Tom will start watching television and scheme to move the test back one week. Answer: C. Tom will find the television much more distracting than David will. 75. Genotype-environment _______________ describes what occurs when people with different genotypes are exposed to different environments. A. interaction B. correlation C. variance D. concordance Answer: B. correlation 76. Juanita is a fantastic basketball player. She has great innate ability. She is tall, agile, and has a great head for the game. Her parents take every opportunity to send her to basketball camps and clinics, and make sure she gets extra coaching. Juanita's basketball skills are due to a genotype-environment A. interaction. B. correlation. C. variance. D. concordance. Answer: B. correlation. 77. A child shows early musical ability, which causes her parents to buy a piano for her. This scenario demonstrates the idea of genotype-environment A. interaction. B. correlation. C. variance. D. concordance. Answer: B. correlation. 78. Which of the following is NOT a type of genotype-environment correlation? A. Interclass B. Active C. Passive D. Reactive Answer: A. Interclass 79. Winston, the son of a professional musician, grew up surrounded by many musical instruments in his home. This is an example of a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. interclass B. active C. passive D. reactive Answer: C. passive 80. Barbara is a renowned naturalist. Her parents were both park rangers and she grew up in various national parks. Barbara's predilection to become a naturalist was most likely due to a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. active B. positive C. negative D. passive Answer: D. passive 81. When individuals respond to someone else based on that person's genotype, there is a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. reactive B. interpersonal C. active D. evocative Answer: A. reactive 82. Alex scores high on the neuroticism scale. He acts extremely anxious much of the time, which causes other people to constantly try to calm him. The responses Alex elicits from others are an example of a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. active B. reactive C. elicative D. evocative Answer: B. reactive 83. When a mother increases the number of times she holds a child because the child loves it so much, we observe a(n) _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. direct B. active C. passive D. reactive Answer: D. reactive 84. Sharon scores high on the sensation seeking scale. There is nothing she likes better then to seek out thrills like skydiving or bungee jumping. Sharon seeks out these high-risk behaviors due to a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. reactive B. aggressive C. active D. evocative Answer: C. active 85. An extravert who seeks out stimulating environments in which to work demonstrates a(n) _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. direct B. active C. passive D. reactive Answer: B. active 86. Jerry is extremely extraverted and will monopolize conversations. His girlfriend, Elaine, does a good job of forcing Jerry to let other people get a few words into the conversation. Jerry's incessant talkativeness and Elaine's ability to do something about it is an example of a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. passive B. restrained C. negative D. positive Answer: C. negative 87. Brian always tries to decide the team's strategy. Over time, the rest of the team works to let everybody have a voice in the team strategy. This is an example of a _______________ genotype-environment correlation. A. positive B. negative C. reactive D. active Answer: B. negative 88. _______________ aims to identify specific genes associated with personality traits. A. Adoption studies B. Molecular genetics C. Twin studies D. Behavior Genetics Answer: B. Molecular genetics 89. The gene D4DR has been associated with A. neuroticism. B. novelty seeking. C. sexual orientation. D. traditionalism. Answer: B. novelty seeking. 90. Individuals with so-called "long repeat" versions of the D4DR gene tend to be relatively unresponsive to the effects of A. dopamine. B. epinephrine. C. serotonin. D. acetylcholine. Answer: A. dopamine. 91. Most studies linking a specific gene to personality A. fail to find a relationship. B. find that the gene accounts for a small percentage of variance. C. find that the gene accounts for a moderate percentage of variance. D. find that the gene accounts for a large percentage of variance. Answer: B. find that the gene accounts for a small percentage of variance. 92. The search is for the discovery of specific genes that are responsible for personality traits is called _______________ genetics. A. molecular B. behavior C. molar D. univariate Answer: A. molecular 93. It is unlikely that a single gene will ever be found that explains more than a _______________ percentage of variation in personality. A. small B. marginal C. moderate D. large Answer: A. small 94. Based on the molecular genetic research done to date, we can speculate that A. personality is probably not related to genes. B. most traits are caused by a single gene plus the environment. C. the genetic component of a personality trait is likely the result of many genes. D. genes are more important than the environment in shaping personality. Answer: C. the genetic component of a personality trait is likely the result of many genes. 95. The idea that personality is determined primarily by socialization and parenting is called A. eugenics. B. the nature-nurture debate. C. the equal environments assumption. D. environmentalism. Answer: D. environmentalism. 96. The idea that genes contribute to personality is A. unsupported by research. B. more accepted today than it was 10 years ago. C. less accepted today than is was 10 years ago. D. a branch of environmentalism. Answer: B. more accepted today than it was 10 years ago. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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