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This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 8 Chapter 5: Expanding the Talent Pool: Recruitment and Careers Answers to End-of-Chapter Discussion Questions 1. Name some companies with whom you have done business. Then discuss how you view their employer brands. Would you want to work for them or not? How might these firms improve their employer brands? Answer: However, I can provide the employer brands of some well-known companies based on publicly available information. Google, for instance, is often regarded as a top employer due to its innovative work environment, employee perks, and emphasis on work-life balance. Many people aspire to work there due to its reputation for fostering creativity and offering attractive benefits. Similarly, Apple is known for its cutting-edge technology and design, attracting individuals passionate about technology and innovation. On the other hand, companies like Amazon have faced criticism for their demanding work culture and high-pressure environment, which might deter some potential candidates. To improve their employer brands, firms could focus on enhancing work-life balance initiatives, fostering a supportive and inclusive workplace culture, providing opportunities for career growth and development, and transparently addressing any issues related to workplace culture or employee well-being. 2. More than 50 percent of all MBAs leave their first employer within five years. Although the change may mean career growth for these individuals, it represents a loss to the employers. What are some of the probable reasons an MBA would leave his or her first employer? Answer: Insufficient training and development opportunities; bad manager; inflexible hours; not interesting work; insufficient feedback; plateau in learning. 3. Companies are finding candidates through searches of LinkedIn profiles. They also use LinkedIn and other social media to screen candidates. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using social media as a recruitment channel. Answer: Social media is the most commonly used search tactic by job seekers and recruiters. Both companies and applicants find the approach cheap, fast, and effective. There are costs involved that a recruiter might not necessarily think about, such as branding a Facebook campaign, or employing a part-time social media manager to maintain the company’s online presence. Another potential drawback of using social media is that some groups of people are less likely to be “wired.” A 2010 study found that whereas 85 percent of adults without disabilities access the Internet, only 54 percent of adults with disabilities do. 4. Explain how RJPs operate. Why do they appear to be an effective recruitment technique? Answer: The purpose of a realistic job preview (RJP) is to provide job applicants with information concerning all aspects of the job. The job’s good and bad points are discussed, along with full knowledge of job duties and responsibilities. An RJP may include a job tour showing the work environment. According to research studies, RJPs are an effective recruitment technique because they (1) improve job satisfaction, (2) enhance an employee’s desire to stay with the job, (3) improve employee/employer communication, and (4) establish realistic job expectations. Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) operate by providing job candidates with an accurate portrayal of the tasks, responsibilities, and work environment associated with a specific role. This typically involves sharing both the positive aspects and potential challenges of the job. RJPs aim to give candidates a realistic expectation of what the job entails, helping them make informed decisions about whether the role aligns with their skills, interests, and preferences. By presenting an honest depiction of the job, RJPs reduce the likelihood of turnover and dissatisfaction among new hires, as individuals are less likely to be surprised or disappointed by the actual job conditions. Moreover, RJPs can enhance organizational commitment by fostering a sense of transparency and trust between the employer and the candidate. Additionally, RJPs can attract candidates who are genuinely interested and well-suited for the role, leading to higher job satisfaction and performance in the long run. Furthermore, RJPs can contribute to a positive employer brand, as candidates appreciate companies that value transparency and honesty in their recruitment process. Overall, RJPs appear to be an effective recruitment technique because they help align candidate expectations with reality, reduce turnover costs, enhance organizational commitment, attract suitable candidates, and contribute to a positive employer image. 5. The Ottawa Police Services recognized that traditional recruiting practices may not work in a multicultural society. New immigrants may not view policing as an honourable profession, based on their previous experiences. Sitting in large groups hearing about opportunities in the police force is not effective, as many are reluctant to ask questions. Newcomers also do not know about the “ride along” program that most forces operate as a way to introduce potential recruits to the daily work of a police officer. Design a recruitment campaign for the police force that would be sensitive to the perceptions and needs of a multicultural candidate base. Answer: The recruitment campaign for the police force would focus on fostering inclusivity, cultural sensitivity, and community engagement to address the perceptions and needs of a multicultural candidate base. It would utilize targeted outreach strategies, including partnerships with cultural community organizations and multilingual advertising, to reach diverse populations. The campaign would highlight the importance of representation and diversity within the police force, showcasing officers from various cultural backgrounds and sharing their positive experiences. Additionally, interactive and personalized recruitment events would be organized to provide opportunities for one-on-one engagement and address individual questions and concerns. Special emphasis would be placed on promoting awareness of the "ride along" program as a valuable opportunity for newcomers to gain firsthand insight into the daily work of a police officer. Furthermore, the campaign would emphasize the rewarding and honorable aspects of a career in policing, emphasizing the opportunity to make a positive impact and serve one's community. Clear and accessible information about recruitment requirements, processes, and support services would be provided in multiple languages to ensure accessibility for all candidates. Moreover, the campaign would incorporate storytelling and testimonials from successful multicultural recruits to inspire and empower potential candidates. Lastly, ongoing support and mentorship programs would be established to assist multicultural recruits throughout the recruitment process and their transition into the police force, fostering a sense of belonging and support. HRM Experience: Career Management Students may find that many people did not plan to be exactly where they were in their careers from the outset, but as they made each career move, it became clearer of where they were going and where they wanted to be. You may even use your own career as an instructor/professor to offer advice on how to manage one’s career. Notes for End-of-Chapter Case Studies Case Study 1: Imprimax 1. Identify five probable causes as to why young new hires are leaving the company. Answer: Authoritative management style; nepotism leads to perceptions of unfairness; change (e.g., rapid growth of employee numbers, new contracts); generation clash; lack of experienced workers on the market means that employees can be poached easily. 2. What could be developed as this employer’s brand to make it realistic and attractive to candidates? Answer: Branding refers to a company’s efforts to help existing and prospective workers understand why it is a desirable place to work. Ways include (a) reach out via social networks; (b) philanthropic activities; (c) understand your employees. 3. Develop solutions to the recruitment issues facing this firm. Answer: They first need to understand why people are leaving; this requires data collection from current and former employees, and analysis. Once it is known why they are leaving, then focused efforts can be rallied to stem the tide. Given that one of the issues is intergenerational, it may be wise to discover ways to allow the older and younger employees to find common ground. Shared goals and incentives are a way to achieve that, as is training and shared experiences. They could also set up a shared mentor program where young employees mentor older employees in technology, and older employees mentor younger employees in “know-how.” Case Study 2: Recruitment Channels 1. Provide recommendations for proactive best practices and leading-edge sourcing approaches. Answer: Recruiting the digitally savvy under 30-year-olds means using non-traditional recruiting techniques, such as informative websites, blogs, podcasts, wikis, and so forth. Recruiting from the other three generations can use a combination of traditional methods like referrals, advertisements, professional associations, web-based recruiting, and private employment agencies. Even more creative ideas can be used for recruitment, such as competitions for jobs where candidates would have to demonstrate their innovation and creativity in response to some screening requirement, like a marketing ad for LoyaltyOne. Case Study 3: Get Paid for Employee Referral 1. How does automating the employee referral process encourage referrals? Answer: It is easier to do so electronically (can be done from home, at one’s own pace, etc.). Automating the employee referral process can encourage referrals in several ways: 1. Streamlined Process: By automating the referral process, employees can easily submit referrals through an online portal or system without the need for manual paperwork or administrative tasks. This streamlined process saves time and effort, making it more convenient for employees to participate. 2. Accessibility: An automated referral system provides employees with easy access to information about job openings, referral criteria, and submission guidelines. This accessibility increases awareness and encourages employees to refer qualified candidates who may be a good fit for available positions. 3. Prompt Notifications: Automated systems can send prompt notifications to employees confirming receipt of their referral submissions and providing updates on the status of referred candidates. These notifications keep employees informed and engaged throughout the recruitment process, increasing their confidence in the referral program. 4. Incentives and Rewards: Automated systems can track and manage referral incentives and rewards, ensuring that employees receive timely recognition and compensation for successful referrals. Clear guidelines and transparent processes for incentive payouts motivate employees to actively participate in the referral program. 5. Integration with HR Systems: Automated referral systems can integrate with existing HR systems, applicant tracking systems, and recruitment platforms to streamline the entire hiring process. This integration enables seamless communication and collaboration between HR professionals, hiring managers, and referring employees, enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the recruitment process. 6. Feedback Mechanisms: Automated systems can collect feedback from employees about their referral experiences, allowing organizations to identify areas for improvement and optimize the referral program over time. Soliciting employee input and addressing concerns or suggestions demonstrates a commitment to continuous improvement and employee engagement. Overall, automating the employee referral process simplifies the referral experience, increases visibility and accessibility, and provides employees with timely feedback and rewards, ultimately encouraging greater participation and success in the referral program. 2. What do you think some of the drawbacks of getting referrals from social network sites might be? Answer: The quality of employee-referred applicants is normally quite high, since employees are generally hesitant to recommend individuals who might not perform well; they tend to remain with the organization longer as well. Disadvantages associated with employee referrals include the possibility of corporate inbreeding, systemic discrimination, and nepotism. Chapter 6: Employee Selection Answers to End-of-Chapter Discussion Questions 1. In groups, describe to each other the steps in the selection process that you experienced in a recent job search. Compare these experiences and discuss the reasons why there would be differences. Answer: The differences may derive from (1) size of the organization (economies of scale in using cognitive ability tests, for instance), (2) position to be filled (whether an application form was used or more sophisticated techniques), or (3) the quality of interviewer(s). There might also be differences in (4) selection tools used, and (5) even the amount of time spent in the selection process. Students should come to realize that selection happens in very different ways in organizations, and there is not a single recipe for success. 2. What is meant by the term criterion as it is used in personnel selection? Give some examples of criteria used for jobs with which you are familiar. Answer: Criterion is another word for outcome or dependent variable. In some jobs, the criterion will be sales or customer satisfaction ratings, while in others it may be innovative product design or provision of services. 3. Compare briefly the major types of employment interviews described in this chapter. Which type would you prefer to conduct? Why? Answer: The major types of employment interviews described are nondirective, structured, situational, behavioural description, panel, computer, and video. The major difference among them is the degree of structure or control, with the nondirective type having minimal structure. In the structured interview, the interviewer adheres closely to a highly detailed set of questions on specially prepared forms. 4. What characteristics do job knowledge and job sample tests have that often make them more acceptable to the examinees than other types of tests? Answer: They have higher levels of face validity, in that they appear valid to most people. They appear to be a good way to see whether someone would perform well on the job, and therefore they are far more acceptable in the eyes of job seekers than personality or bio-data tests. Job knowledge and job sample tests often have characteristics that make them more acceptable to examinees compared to other types of tests for several reasons: 1. Relevance: Job knowledge and job sample tests are directly related to the specific knowledge, skills, and tasks required for the job. Examinees perceive these tests as relevant to their job duties and responsibilities, which enhances their acceptance and engagement. 2. Realism: Job sample tests simulate actual job tasks and scenarios, providing examinees with a realistic preview of the job requirements and expectations. Examinees appreciate the opportunity to demonstrate their abilities in a practical, hands-on manner, which increases their satisfaction with the testing process. 3. Transparency: Job knowledge and job sample tests typically have clear and transparent scoring criteria and performance expectations. Examinees understand how their performance will be evaluated and what is required to succeed, reducing ambiguity and anxiety associated with the testing process. 4. Fairness: Job knowledge and job sample tests are perceived as fair and unbiased assessments of job-related competencies and qualifications. Examinees believe that their performance on these tests accurately reflects their suitability for the job, leading to greater acceptance and trust in the selection process. 5. Engagement: Job sample tests often involve interactive and engaging activities that capture examinees' interest and motivation. Examinees are more likely to actively participate in the testing process and invest effort in demonstrating their skills and abilities, resulting in a positive testing experience. 6. Feedback: Job sample tests provide immediate and tangible feedback to examinees about their performance and areas for improvement. Examinees value the opportunity to receive constructive feedback and learn from their testing experience, which enhances their satisfaction and perceived fairness of the assessment process. Overall, the characteristics of job knowledge and job sample tests, including relevance, realism, transparency, fairness, engagement, and feedback, contribute to their greater acceptance and effectiveness as assessment tools for evaluating job-related competencies and qualifications. 5. In what ways does the clinical approach to selection differ from the statistical approach? How do you account for the fact that one approach is superior to the other? Answer: The clinical approach to selection relies heavily on the judgment and intuition of human assessors, such as hiring managers or interviewers, who evaluate candidates based on subjective criteria and personal impressions. In contrast, the statistical approach utilizes objective measures and data analysis to assess candidate suitability, often employing standardized tests or algorithms to predict job performance. The clinical approach prioritizes qualitative assessments, such as interpersonal skills and cultural fit, while the statistical approach emphasizes quantitative metrics and predictive validity. While the clinical approach may offer insights into candidates' soft skills and personal attributes, it is prone to bias, inconsistency, and error. Conversely, the statistical approach tends to be more reliable, valid, and fair, as it reduces human subjectivity and ensures consistency in evaluation criteria. Ultimately, the superiority of one approach over the other depends on factors such as the nature of the job, the availability of reliable data, and the organization's commitment to evidence-based decision-making. However, empirical evidence often supports the statistical approach's effectiveness in predicting job performance and reducing biases, making it a preferred choice in many selection contexts. HRM Experience: Designing Selection Criteria and Methods The methods used to tap qualities will most likely vary with the type of job students choose. Students should choose methods that will offer valid information on how well the person will perform the job. They should also be aware of using methods that will help them get a person–organization fit. After they have done the “reality check,” help them understand that the company may not be using the correct methods either. If so, why would the company choose the methods it is currently using? Have students check the assumptions people may make when deciding on these hiring methods. Notes for End-of-Chapter Case Studies Case Study 1: Job Candidate Assessment Tests Go Virtual 1. What do you think are the primary advantages and disadvantages of “virtual tryouts”? Answer: One chief advantage of a virtual simulation is that it creates a unique impression among applicants, making the organization employing “virtual tryouts” stand out among its competitors as a cutting-edge company. This is especially important among Gen Y applicants. The other advantage is that it allows the bank to hire workers that come from sectors outside banking as long as they have transferable skills. Another advantage is that it will discourage applicants from applying who would not enjoy the job (self-selection) and provide a realistic job preview to applicants. Research suggests that realistic job previews lead to higher attraction and retention. Potential disadvantages are that the tests do not assess whether someone would perform well on the job, but rather test a person’s ability to use a computer. There are also concerns with who is taking the test—is it the actual job seeker, or someone else? It is also very expensive, and therefore used by larger organizations only. HR managers should also ensure that they are reliable and valid measures of performance (for an in-class discussion, ask students how they would go about ensuring that they are valid and reliable). The primary advantages of virtual tryouts include increased accessibility for candidates, allowing them to participate from any location with an internet connection. Virtual tryouts also offer flexibility in scheduling, accommodating candidates' availability more easily than in-person assessments. Additionally, virtual tryouts can reduce costs associated with travel and logistics, making the selection process more efficient and cost-effective for both candidates and employers. Moreover, virtual platforms can simulate real work environments more accurately, providing a more authentic assessment experience. However, virtual tryouts may face challenges in replicating the interpersonal dynamics and non-verbal cues present in face-to-face interactions, potentially affecting the assessment of candidates' soft skills and cultural fit. Furthermore, technical glitches or internet connectivity issues could disrupt the assessment process, leading to frustration for both candidates and assessors. Ensuring data security and privacy in virtual environments is also a concern, particularly with sensitive candidate information being shared online. Despite these drawbacks, with careful planning and implementation, virtual tryouts can offer significant advantages in streamlining the assessment process and expanding access to talent pools. 2. Do you think there would be any employment equity concerns regarding this system? Answer: National City Bank should be concerned about the public relations aspects of the system. Virtual tryouts, particularly those conducted as a group, may not give people the feeling that they have had a chance to present themselves accurately or fully. Applicants might be justly upset if they were eliminated by an impersonal selection check. 3. Do you think virtual job tryouts might be better suited for some jobs than others? If so, which ones? Answer: Yes, virtual job tryouts may be better suited for some jobs than others, particularly those that involve technical skills, remote work, or specialized equipment. Jobs in fields such as software development, graphic design, customer service, and data analysis can benefit from virtual job tryouts, as they allow candidates to demonstrate their proficiency in relevant software applications or communication skills. Additionally, virtual tryouts may be advantageous for roles that require remote collaboration or flexibility, such as freelance writing, virtual assistance, or project management. Furthermore, jobs that involve operating machinery, conducting experiments, or performing physical tasks may not be well-suited for virtual tryouts due to the inability to replicate hands-on experiences accurately. Moreover, roles in healthcare, emergency services, or public safety may require in-person assessments to evaluate candidates' ability to handle high-pressure situations or interact with patients and clients effectively. Overall, the suitability of virtual job tryouts depends on the specific job requirements and the extent to which they can be effectively evaluated through remote simulations or demonstrations. Case Study 2: Pros and Cons of Cleaning Up the “Resu-mess” 1. What impact do you think résumé screening tools are having on HR departments? What about line managers? Would you use the software to screen résumés? Answer: Resume screening tools reduce the amount of resumes that land on HR professionals’ desks, saving time and money. Likewise, it would reduce line managers’ time and costs. This type of software may be essential for some organizations that attract thousands of résumés—it is just not feasible to attain the “human touch” in those situations. 2. How might the drawbacks associated with résumé screening software be addressed? Answer: Using alternative ways to attract applicants, as suggested in the case, may be a solid idea. Being more specific in what the job requires, providing a “realistic job preview,” and also providing structured interview questions on the online application system may also reduce the number of “spammers.” Whether résumés should even be accepted is another question. Why not use an application form? Research actually shows that people are more likely to be honest (or less likely to lie!) on an application form than on their résumé. Application forms also remind the applicant of what the organization is looking for, and may therefore deter applicants who are not qualified. The idea presented in the case, however, may reduce the diversity of applicants. Case Study 3: Searching for Spies 1. Do you think the selection system used by CSIS is valid? Using your knowledge of validity, rate each step in this process. Answer:
Type of Validity Procedure
1. Validity is the degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes. General validity is measured with the multitude of tests and information gathering.
2. Criterion-related validity is the extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behaviour. Language skills are tested and then retested in the 12-week classroom training, which indicates that these tests correlate with multilingual skills.
3. Concurrent validity is the extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion obtained at about the same time from current employees. The psychological and aptitude tests can be compared to other individuals in order to match the criteria at the same time of the recruitment efforts.
4. Predictive validity is the extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period. The security clearance procedures can be matched to the performance scores of the applicants during the probationary period, and then again in the field while being observed by a mentor.
5. Cross-validation means to verify the results obtained from a validation study by administering a test or test battery to a different sample (drawn from the same population). It is implied that the national assessment panel will generally assess the candidate’s motivation, knowledge of CSIS, and awareness of public affairs, and that this assessment is compared to the information obtained from the suitability interview.
6. Validity generalization is the extent to which validity coefficients can be generalized across situations. There is no indication that validity generalization is being applied.
7. Content validity is the extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job. Language tests, aptitude tests, and psychological tests are all indications that content validity is being tested.
8. Construct validity is the extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait. There is no indication that construct validity is being applied.
2. One reason CSIS went public was to increase the representation of women from 10 percent to a target of 50 percent. Are there any possible problems with discrimination in this selection system? Discuss. Answer: Although they targeted visible minorities, there is nothing in the case to suggest that women were targeted in recruitment. One of the criteria is that the applicant must be willing to relocate at any time. This may be difficult for women, compared to men, as they tend to take on more of the childcare and eldercare responsibilities in the household compared to men. Chapter 7: Training and Development Answers to End-of-Chapter Discussion Questions 1. What economic, social, and political forces have made employee training even more important today than it was in the past? Answer: For example, since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the training of airport security personnel has increased substantially. It has also increased for flight crews of airlines, employees in the transportation industry, workers in nuclear power plants, and even security staff at theme parks. Also, trends in the workforce itself affect a firm’s training needs. As older workers near retirement, younger workers need to focus on gaining the skills and knowledge needed to take their place. Increasing pace of technological change also makes training important today. 2. You have been asked by a colleague to teach her how to use Excel. How would you conduct a needs analysis to determine her current knowledge and skill level? Answer: The analyses made to determine the training needs include organizational analysis, task analysis, and person analysis. Once training needs are assessed, the next step is to design the environment necessary to enhance learning. 3. Suppose that you are the manager of an accounts receivable unit in a large company. You are switching to a new system of billing and record keeping and need to train your 3 supervisors and 28 employees in the new procedures. What training method(s) would you use? Why? Answer: One recommendation is that supervisors and employees be trained by using lectures and programmed instruction. Exercises in the new procedures should accompany the lectures. For training the supervisors and employees in the new billing and record-keeping system, a combination of training methods would be effective. Firstly, I would conduct instructor-led training sessions for the supervisors to provide in-depth understanding and guidance on the new procedures. These sessions would involve interactive discussions, demonstrations, and hands-on practice to ensure comprehensive comprehension and mastery of the system. Secondly, for the employees, I would implement a blended learning approach combining instructor-led training sessions with self-paced online modules. This approach allows flexibility and accommodates different learning styles, enabling employees to learn at their own pace and refer back to the material as needed. Additionally, I would provide job aids such as user manuals, quick reference guides, and video tutorials to reinforce learning and serve as ongoing resources. Furthermore, I would organize group workshops or team-based exercises to encourage collaboration and problem-solving skills among employees, fostering a supportive learning environment. Lastly, regular follow-up sessions and assessments would be conducted to track progress, address any challenges or gaps in understanding, and provide ongoing support and feedback to ensure successful implementation of the new system. 4. Using the section on training methods, list all of those you have experienced. Prepare a grid, with the methods on one column and the four levels of evaluation on another. Rate each method as to its effectiveness in your reaction, learning, behaviour, and results, citing specific examples where possible. Answer: Unfortunately, I don't have personal experiences to draw upon to fill out this grid. However, I can provide general information on various training methods and their potential effectiveness based on commonly observed outcomes. For example, instructor-led training sessions are often effective in facilitating learning (level 2) through direct instruction and immediate feedback. On-the-job training can be highly effective in facilitating behavior (level 3) by providing hands-on experience in real-world situations. Additionally, e-learning modules or self-paced online courses may be effective in promoting learning (level 2) and behavior (level 3) by allowing individuals to progress at their own pace and revisit material as needed. Finally, mentoring or coaching programs can be effective in promoting results (level 4) by providing ongoing support, guidance, and accountability. Each method's effectiveness may vary depending on factors such as the nature of the content, the learning preferences of participants, and the level of support provided during and after training. 5. Team up with a classmate and design an orientation program for a new student to your school. Ensure that students incorporate information from Highlights in HRM 7.5: Checklist for Orienting New Employees Answer: In designing an orientation program for a new student, my classmate and I would start by incorporating key elements from Highlights in HRM 7.5: Checklist for Orienting New Employees. We would include an introduction to school policies, procedures, and expectations, covering areas such as attendance, academic integrity, and campus resources. Additionally, we would provide an overview of academic programs, extracurricular activities, and support services available to students. Interactive sessions and campus tours would familiarize the new student with campus facilities, including libraries, student centers, and recreational areas. We would also facilitate connections with faculty, staff, and fellow students through meet-and-greet sessions and social events. Furthermore, we would emphasize the importance of student well-being and self-care, providing information on health services, counseling resources, and campus safety measures. Ongoing support and follow-up would be offered to address any questions, concerns, or adjustment issues the new student may encounter. HRM Experience: Training and Learning Principles You might want to point out that the trainers who do better use more principles of learning in how they instruct their team members (though their plane may not always go farthest, you may want to note that the team was able to learn faster than other teams). For example, there is much more likelihood of teaching people how to effectively build paper airplanes by telling students what it is about the plane that makes it go far, having students practise making the plane, offering feedback, and having those who have mastered the skill teach others in the group. Notes for End-of-Chapter Case Studies Case Study 1: Service at the Chateau Whistler 1. Compare the Chateau Whistler’s orientation program to the list of activities presented in Highlights in HRM 7.5. Would you add anything? Answer: Chateau Whistler’s orientation program compares quite favourably to the checklist in the text. The Chateau Whistler's orientation program likely covers a range of activities to introduce new employees to the organization's culture, policies, procedures, and expectations. To compare it to the list of activities presented in Highlights in HRM 7.5, it's essential to consider the following: 1. Onboarding Activities: The orientation program may include onboarding activities such as introductions to key personnel, facility tours, and overview sessions on the organization's history, mission, and values. 2. Job-Specific Training: New employees may receive job-specific training tailored to their roles, including technical skills, job duties, and performance expectations. 3. Policies and Procedures: The orientation program likely covers important policies and procedures related to employee conduct, safety protocols, customer service standards, and HR-related matters such as benefits and leave policies. 4. Benefits Enrollment: New employees may receive information and assistance with benefits enrollment, including health insurance, retirement plans, and other employee perks. 5. Culture and Values: The orientation program may emphasize the organization's culture and values, fostering a sense of belonging and alignment with the organization's mission and vision. 6. Feedback and Support: New employees may have opportunities to provide feedback on the orientation process and receive ongoing support from HR personnel or mentors throughout their transition period. Based on this comparison, if there are any gaps or areas for improvement in the Chateau Whistler's orientation program, additional activities could be added to enhance the onboarding experience. For example, interactive sessions on diversity and inclusion, customer service simulations, team-building exercises, or networking opportunities with peers and senior leaders could further enrich the orientation process and facilitate new employees' integration into the organization. 2. The hospitality sector has high turnover rates among employees. Why does the Chateau Whistler invest so much time money, and energy into its orientation program? Answer: Though the hospitality sector has high turnover, the upscale hotels and resorts have no choice but to train their employees very well. Customers at upscale resorts expect high service levels, in part because they pay so much for the services, and the only way to get this is to invest in training. 3. Describe the activities in the orientation and training programs that would ensure a high degree of transfer of training to the job. Answer: High degrees of transfer of training to the job result with methods that are more hands-on and participative. 4. How would you measure the success of this program? What results criteria would you try to measure? Answer: Success of this program would best be measured with customer responses. To measure the success of the orientation program at the Chateau Whistler, several key results criteria can be measured: 1. Employee Engagement: Measure the level of employee engagement and satisfaction with the orientation program through surveys or feedback mechanisms. Assess employees' perceptions of the program's effectiveness, relevance, and helpfulness in preparing them for their roles. 2. Retention Rates: Track retention rates of new hires who have completed the orientation program compared to those who have not. Lower turnover rates among employees who participated in the program may indicate its effectiveness in acclimating new hires to the organization and reducing early attrition. 3. Time to Productivity: Measure the time it takes for new hires to reach full productivity or performance benchmarks in their roles. A shorter time to productivity among employees who completed the orientation program suggests that they are better equipped to perform their job duties efficiently and effectively. 4. Performance Metrics: Assess the performance of employees who participated in the orientation program compared to those who did not. Evaluate key performance indicators such as customer satisfaction ratings, sales targets, productivity metrics, and quality standards to determine if there are differences in performance between the two groups. 5. Knowledge Retention: Evaluate the retention of information and skills gained during the orientation program over time. Assess employees' ability to apply knowledge, follow procedures, and adhere to organizational policies and standards in their day-to-day work. 6. Peer and Supervisor Feedback: Gather feedback from peers and supervisors on the performance and readiness of employees who completed the orientation program. Assess their observations of new hires' abilities, confidence, and integration into the team to gauge the program's impact on workplace relationships and dynamics. 7. Career Progression: Track the career progression and advancement opportunities of employees who participated in the orientation program. Assess whether they are more likely to pursue internal promotions, transfers, or leadership roles within the organization compared to their peers. By measuring these results criteria, the Chateau Whistler can effectively evaluate the success and impact of its orientation program on employee integration, performance, retention, and career development. Adjustments and improvements can then be made based on the findings to optimize the program's effectiveness and alignment with organizational goals and objectives. Case Study 2: People Development Strategies at Credit Union Central of Saskatchewan 1. Describe the advantages of the approach used to identify performance gaps. Answer: The advantages of using a competency model is that the competencies required are those necessary for the organization to achieve its business goals; this in turn allows individual employees to see how their own performance contributes to the company’s success, which may contribute to enhanced employee motivation. Evaluating employee performance against the various levels within each of the competencies is an objective way of identifying individual performance gaps. 2. Why would managers resist or support this approach? Answer: Managers may resist this approach because it requires a considerable investment of their time and effort to evaluate each employee’s performance against the competency expectations, to follow up with the proper planning for training or development, and to ensure that any training is subsequently applied on the job. Managers may support this approach because it provides them with a framework for conducting a performance conversation. Performance conversations are typically disliked and therefore avoided by managers. This is often a consequence of a lack of training and confidence in carrying them out. So they may relish this opportunity as it provides them with clear guidance on how to speak to employees about performance issues, and to discuss their performance in line with the organization’s objectives. It also makes it less “personal,” which may bring the relationship between the manager and employee closer. The anchors on the form will also provide management with a vocabulary to use when coaching employees to higher levels of performance. 3. Describe methods that you would use to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach by levels of learning, behaviour, and results. Answer: Level 2 (Learning) can be measured by simple pre- and post-tests, or can be measured by having the trainer ensure that each trainee displays their newly learned knowledge and skills to the trainer’s satisfaction prior to the trainee being left alone at, or being sent back to, the job site. Control groups may be used as well to ensure that the learning did not take place due to some reason other than the training, but this method tends to be unwieldy in most settings. Level 3 (Behaviour) can be measured either by direct observation of the trainee back on the job, or through indirect monitoring, such as reviewing reject reports, customer complaints reports, or other volume-type records. Level 4 (Results) can be measured through periodic organizational reports, such as quarterly results or annual profit-loss statements. (However, without control groups, it is more difficult to ascribe longer-term organizational results directly to training, as other external or internal environmental factors may have contributed or detracted from overall organization performance.) Case Study 3: Onboarding at Capital Power 1. Using the checklist in Highlights in HRM 7.5, compare the requirements for an orientation program to Capital Power’s Strong Start program. What are the differences? Answer:
Welcome information outlining the company’s background, corporate vision, and mission statement An executive discusses the vision and mission as part of the training + E-learning module which includes this information as well
Map of facility, including parking information Not mentioned but new hire portal likely includes this information
IDs, keys, and parking decals Not mentioned
Current organization chart New hire portal likely includes this information
Information about where to find the firm’s corporate news, intranet sites, and bulletin boards New hire portal likely includes this information
Telephone numbers, email addresses, and locations of key personnel New hire portal includes information relevant to the position
Copy of employee’s specific job goals and descriptions E-learning module that outlines an employee developmental plan
List of unique terms in the industry, company, and job New hire portal likely includes this information
Training class schedules Not mentioned, but likely in one of the online modules
Safety and emergency procedures Perhaps in Capital Power 102 e-learning module
The organization’s policy handbook, including the firm’s employment equity policies, office hours, dress code, vacation, and email and Internet-use rules Not explicitly mentioned, but may be in new hire portal
List of employee benefits, including insurance plans Not explicitly mentioned, but may be in new hire portal
Holiday schedule Not explicitly mentioned, but may be in new hire portal
Ensure that employee has completed required paperwork, including benefit enrolment forms Not explicitly mentioned
Revisit performance standards The e-learning module provides the template for a 100-day developmental plan that the new hire must create with the manager
Schedule first performance appraisal meeting Must create developmental plan with manager, but no information on follow-up
2. Capital Power has evaluated its program. Using the four levels of evaluation, determine which levels were used. Prepare an evaluation program that will assess the goals of the program and the goals of onboarding outlined by Saks and Gruman. Answer: Reactions: There is no information on the reaction of trainees to the orientation itself. Learning: Employees have learned about the culture, given that they are aligned with it, and the case suggests that there has been a 30 percent increase in organizational knowledge. Behaviour: The case suggests that employees are more engaged as a result of the training. Results: The case suggests that there is a decrease in turnover; however, further examination of statistics is necessary to validate this claim. The study by Saks and Gruman highlights the importance of fit with the job and organization, as well as the potential for employees to establish a social network. Capital Power does not assess fit, nor does it discuss the establishment of social networks for employees. A 1.5-day orientation would lead one to believe that social networks, at least among new hires, are being developed during orientation. That said, much of the training is done online, so fewer social networks are developed using this method. Chapter 8: Performance Management Answers to End-of-Chapter Discussion Questions 1. Eighty percent of Canadian organizations have performance evaluation systems. List some reasons why 20 percent would not choose to implement one. Answer: Organizations that do not have evaluation systems might believe some of these reasons to be preventing them from doing so: (a) lack of resources (time, human power, budget); (b) they do not see the relevance of evaluation as a means of improving performance; (c) they communicate well with employees and give regular, informal reviews, so an evaluation system would be duplicating this effort; (d) they lack the training to do an evaluation review; (e) the organizational structure is based on teams and, therefore, the team members will self-evaluate; (f) employees are empowered and, therefore, they will set their own performance goals; (g) the organization is too small. 2. Develop a list of the characteristics of effective service for fast-food servers at places such as Tim Hortons. Over your next five visits, rate the servers against the criteria that you have developed. Did your criteria meet the performance standards of relevant and reliable, or were they subject to criterion deficiency or contamination? Answer: Characteristics of effective service for fast-food servers at places like Tim Hortons may include speed and efficiency in taking and delivering orders, accuracy in order fulfillment, friendliness and courtesy towards customers, cleanliness and hygiene in handling food, attentiveness to customer needs, ability to handle busy periods and multitask effectively, knowledge of the menu and product offerings, effective communication skills, problem-solving abilities to resolve customer issues or complaints, and teamwork with colleagues to ensure smooth operations. Over five visits, one can rate servers based on these criteria to assess their performance. The criteria appear to be relevant and reliable as they align with the expectations and standards of service in a fast-food setting like Tim Hortons. However, they could be subject to criterion contamination if personal biases or external factors influence the ratings, such as mood or unrelated experiences during the visits. Regular calibration and consistency in applying the criteria can help mitigate such issues and ensure fair and accurate evaluations of server performance. 3. Develop a 10-item checklist to be used to rate student behaviour (e.g., Always submits assignments on time). Rate your own behaviour against this list. Then ask friends and family members to rate your behaviour. Are there differences? If so, how would you explain them? Answer: 1. Submits assignments on time 2. Actively participates in class discussions 3. Demonstrates respect towards peers and teachers 4. Follows classroom rules and guidelines 5. Completes homework assignments thoroughly 6. Shows curiosity and willingness to learn 7. Collaborates well with classmates on group projects 8. Takes responsibility for own actions and academic performance 9. Shows initiative in seeking help when needed 10. Maintains a positive attitude towards learning and challenges After rating my own behavior against this checklist, I would ask friends and family members to do the same. Differences in ratings may occur due to differing perspectives and biases; friends and family might have a more subjective view influenced by personal relationships, while self-rating may be influenced by self-awareness and desire for self-improvement. Additionally, individuals may observe behavior in different contexts or have varying expectations, leading to discrepancies in ratings. Open communication about specific behaviors and expectations can help reconcile any differences and provide a clearer understanding of one's behavior from different perspectives. 4. Take two of the items from question 3 and develop a BARS for each of these items. Then rate yourself and ask others to rate you using the BARS. Did the ratings change? If so, why? Answer: Research examples of different behaviourally anchored rating scales for further discussion in class. For the item "Demonstrates respect towards peers and teachers," a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) could include descriptors such as: 1. Always greets peers and teachers respectfully. 2. Listens attentively without interrupting during conversations. 3. Uses polite language and tone when interacting with others. 4. Shows appreciation for others' opinions and perspectives. 5. Offers help or assistance to peers and teachers when needed. For the item "Maintains a positive attitude towards learning and challenges," a BARS could include: 1. Approaches learning tasks with enthusiasm and curiosity. 2. Maintains composure and optimism in the face of difficulties or setbacks. 3. Actively seeks opportunities for growth and improvement. 4. Responds positively to constructive feedback and criticism. 5. Demonstrates resilience and perseverance in tackling challenging assignments or topics. After rating myself and asking others to rate me using the BARS, the ratings may or may not change. Differences in ratings could stem from varying interpretations of the descriptors, differing observations of behavior, or personal biases. Additionally, individuals may be more critical or lenient in their evaluations based on their relationship with the person being rated. Clear communication and discussion about specific behaviors and expectations can help reconcile any differences in ratings and provide valuable insights for personal development. 5. Think of a friend or a family member whose behaviour you wish to change (e.g., your friend is usually late for events that you have organized). Using the problem-solving interview and the suggestions for conducting an effective evaluation interview, provide evaluation feedback to your friend. Answer: Demonstrate this question through a role-play in class. Some additional benign examples that can be used are nail-biting, sleeping in, lack of exercise, and so on. They will see how difficult it is to change behaviours that lead to potentially improved performance. In conducting an evaluation interview with my friend who is consistently late for events, I would approach the conversation with empathy, understanding, and a focus on problem-solving. Firstly, I would start by setting a positive tone and expressing appreciation for their presence and willingness to discuss the issue. Next, I would describe the specific behavior of being late and its impact on me or others involved in the events. Using specific examples, I would illustrate how their lateness has caused inconvenience or disruption. Then, I would invite my friend to share their perspective on the situation, allowing them to explain any underlying reasons or challenges they may be facing. I would actively listen to their responses without judgment and validate their feelings while emphasizing the importance of punctuality in maintaining positive relationships and respecting others' time. Together, we would explore potential solutions or strategies to address the issue, such as setting reminders, planning ahead, or adjusting schedules to accommodate their needs. Additionally, I would offer my support and encouragement in implementing these changes and express confidence in their ability to improve. Finally, I would emphasize the value of open communication and ongoing feedback in maintaining a healthy and supportive relationship. HRM Experience: Performance Diagnosis 1. Noting that Carl works very hard on the gopher problem, this may offer a clue that his problem is not motivation or external issues, but that he lacks the skills to address the situation. A potential solution would be to offer training courses on how to deal with the problem. 2. Clark may be having external problems at home (e.g., it appears that he may be facing financial difficulties since he is counting on the bonus to put a down payment on a home). Although we cannot be sure of the problems Clark is facing, finding out why he feels so dejected about the bonus may offer clues to his poor performance. If the problems are external, maybe offering some training in personal finances may help, so that he can accomplish his goals both at home and at work. Alternatively, it may be a time management issue at play. Clark may need training on how to manage his time better, or he could sit with this manager one-on-one to discuss how to manage the project so that deadlines are met. It may also behave his manager to show how the completion of the project will lead to success for the business, aligning Clark’s goals with those of the company. Although the bonus is clearly a valued personal reward for Clark, he should also be motivated to perform for the purpose of the organization. 3. It appears that there are two different issues at play for Tommy. First, he needs to improve his confidence and focus. This requires training—both on and off the job. Tommy should be mentored, receive personalized feedback on his performance, and be trained, perhaps using a simulation in sales, in order to improve his sales technique. This takes time and lots of encouragement and support. The second issue is external—customers are reluctant to purchase the brake pads because of the limited warranty. The organization should listen to its customers and extend the warranty in order to meet their needs and to increase sales. Notes for End-of-Chapter Case Studies Case Study 1: “Project Oxygen” Resuscitates Google’s Poor-Performing Bosses 1. Why isn’t having the greatest amount of technical expertise the key to being a good supervisor at Google? Answer: Being a “manager” requires a very different set of competencies than being a technical expert in an organization such as Google. In this recent blog on Harvard Business Review (, the authors compiled a dataset in which they asked 332,860 bosses, peers, and subordinates what skills have the greatest impact on a leader’s success in the position the respondents currently hold. They found similar results to the case. But they extend it in an important way by showing that the competencies that are needed differ depending on the hierarchical level. At middle management positions, problem solving is very important, whereas at senior positions, communication is relatively more important. Highlight to students that technical experts are often promoted because they have the recognized KSAs in their field, however a potential problem arises because they don’t necessarily have management skills, and many organizations offer little support to new managers. That’s why organizations need to engage in training and development for their future talent. This is a great segue way to the next lesson on training and development. 2. Does Google’s research on the performance of its managers surprise you? Why or why not? Answer: Depending on the maturity/experience of the students, it may or may not surprise them. Perhaps an extension question here is how students can prepare themselves now to become both a technical expert and an effective manager. Google's research on the performance of its managers doesn't surprise me, as it aligns with widely recognized principles of effective leadership. The findings emphasize the importance of soft skills such as communication, coaching, and emotional intelligence, which are increasingly valued in modern workplaces. Furthermore, the emphasis on psychological safety and team dynamics reflects a growing understanding of the impact of interpersonal relationships on team performance and organizational culture. Additionally, the recognition of the role of managers in creating a supportive and inclusive work environment resonates with trends towards employee engagement and well-being. Overall, Google's research reinforces the idea that effective leadership is not solely about technical expertise or authority but also about interpersonal skills and fostering a positive team culture, which are essential components of successful management in today's complex and dynamic work environments. Case Study 2: Wow Productions You are the HR manager and you decide to prepare a report for the president, setting out an overview of the situation and proposing recommendations. 1. Identify four probable causes for the lack of uniformity in the application of performance management practices. Answer: (a) tremendous growth in the last three years; HR cannot keep up with growth; (b) dispersed across Canada; (c) no corporate oversight from the president; (d) directors have different philosophies as to the purpose of the performance management system. 2. What are your top three recommendations to ensure effective management of performance within the organization? Justify your answers. Answer: It include the following: (a) Have a formal evaluation program for all employees with stated objectives that are reliable, strategically relevant, and are free from criterion deficiency or criterion contamination. (b) Appraisers need to be trained, feedback must be given, and an appeals process must be established—training is necessary as the degree to which a performance evaluation system benefits an organization is directly related to the quality of the evaluation interview. (c) Allow for self- and peer ratings to give a more comprehensive picture of employee performance. (d) Allow for employee participation in goal setting—research shows this leads to higher satisfaction and improved performance. 1. Implement Regular Performance Reviews: Regular performance reviews help ensure that employees receive consistent feedback on their performance. This allows for timely adjustments and continuous improvement, fostering better alignment with organizational goals. 2. Set Clear and Achievable Goals: Establishing specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals provides employees with a clear understanding of expectations. This clarity helps in tracking progress and enhances motivation and productivity 3. Provide Ongoing Training and Development: Continuous professional development opportunities ensure that employees' skills remain up-to-date and relevant. This not only enhances individual performance but also contributes to the organization's overall competitiveness and innovation. These strategies ensure that performance management is systematic, fair, and geared towards both individual and organizational growth. Solution Manual for Managing Human Resources Shad Morris, Monica Belcourt, George W. Bohlander, Scott A. Snell, Parbudyal Singh 9780176570262, 9781337387231, 9781285866390, 9780357033814, 9781337387231, 9781111532826, 9780176798055, 9780176407292, 9781285866390, 9781111532826

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