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This document contains Chapters 4 to 6 PART TWO: MEETING HUMAN RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER 4 DESIGNING AND ANALYZING JOBS REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Explain work simplification. In what situations is this approach to job design appropriate? Work simplification evolved from scientific management theory. It is based on the premise that work can be broken down into simple, repetitive tasks to maximize efficiency. This approach to job design involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lowerlevel employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management. Work simplification is appropriate in a stable environment and in settings employing individuals with mental disabilities or lacking in education and training (as in some third-world operations). It is not effective in a changing environment in which customers or clients demand custom-designed products and/or high-quality services, or one in which employees want challenging work. Moreover, among educated employees, simplified jobs often lead to lower satisfaction, higher rates of absenteeism and turnover, and sometimes to a demand for premium pay to compensate for the repetitive nature of the work. (page 125) Differentiate between job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment, and provide an example of each. Job enlargement involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform. Also known as horizontal loading, job enlargement reduces monotony and fatigue by expanding the job cycle and drawing on a wider range of employee skills. For example, if the work was assembling chairs, a worker who previously only bolted the seat to the legs might take on the additional tasks of assembling the legs and attaching the back, as well. Job rotation is another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom. This involves systematically moving employees from one job to another. Although the jobs themselves don't change, workers experience more task variety, motivation, and productivity. The company gains by having versatile, multi-skilled employees who can cover for one another efficiently. For example, a worker might assemble chairs for several days, then move to the table assembly area for a few, and spend the remainder of the week working in the shipping area, packing chairs and tables. Job enrichment is defined as any effort that makes an employee's job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties. Also known as vertical loading, job enrichment involves increasing autonomy and responsibility by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision-making process and become more involved in planning, organizing, directing, and controlling their own work. Enriching jobs can be accomplished through such activities as: increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job; assigning workers more authority and control over outcomes; providing feedback about individual or unit job performance directly to employees; adding new tasks requiring training, thereby providing an opportunity for growth; or assigning individuals specific tasks or the responsibility of performing a whole job rather than only parts of it. (pages 71-72) What is involved in the human engineering approach to job design? Why is it becoming increasingly important? Human engineering (or ergonomics) seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system – work, environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to match human characteristics. Doing so results in eliminating or minimizing product defects, damage to equipment, and worker injuries or illnesses caused by poor work design. As Canadian employers fight for competitiveness, the issues of workers' compensation, lost time due to injury, and the need to provide modified work programs top the list of challenges that must be met. Designing jobs and equipment with the aim of minimizing negative physiological effects for all workers is thus linked to competitive advantage. In addition, human engineering can aid in meeting the unique requirements of individuals with special needs and adapting jobs for older workers, accommodation measures that are becoming increasingly important, given current demographic trends. (pages 73-74).The fact that ergonomics is becoming increasingly important is also related to the following facts: almost one-half of all lost-time injuries are caused by repetitive motion or overexertion repetitive strain injuries are the greatest single contributor to workers’ compensation claims, and cost the Canadian economy nearly $800 million each year a recent research study revealed that a majority of employees rank design issues second only to compensation as a reason to accept or leave jobs ergonomics has become a collective bargaining issue 4. We discussed several methods for collecting job analysis data – questionnaires, the position analysis questionnaire, and so on. Compare and contrast these methods, explaining what each is useful for and listing the pros and cons of each. Interviews, questionnaires, observation, and participant diaries are known as the conventional data collection methods, since they are all qualitative in nature. They are the most popular methods for gathering job analysis data, and provide realistic information about what job incumbents actually do as well as the qualifications and skills required. Associated with each are certain advantages and disadvantages, as summarized in Table 3.1. By combining two or more conventional techniques, some of the disadvantages can be overcome. The Interview – Three types of interviews are used to collect job analysis data: individual interviews with each employee; group interviews with employees having the same job; and supervisory interviews with one or more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the job being analyzed. The interview is probably the most widely used method. The major advantage is that the incumbent can report activities and behaviour that might not otherwise come to light. Interviews also provide an opportunity to explain the need for and functions of job analysis, allow for probing, and can let the interviewee vent frustrations or views that might otherwise go unnoticed by management. Interviews are also relatively simple and quick, and are more flexible than surveys. There are several additional advantages to group interviews. First, groups tend to do better than individuals with open-ended questions. Also, such interviews may also be higher in reliability and validity due to cross-checking. The major drawback of the interview technique is potential distortion of information, whether due to outright falsification or honest misunderstandings. A job analysis is often used as a prelude to changing a job's pay rate. Knowing that fact, employees tend to exaggerate certain responsibilities, while minimizing others. Obtaining valid information can thus be a slow process. Interviewing is also fairly labour-intensive, and depends heavily on rapport between the interviewer and respondent. Group interviews are also fairly costly, because of the number of people taken away from their jobs to participate. Questionnaires – Having employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities is another good method of obtaining job analysis information. Whether structured, unstructured, or a combination of the two, questionnaires have advantages and disadvantages. A questionnaire is a quick and efficient way of obtaining information from a large number of employees and is less costly than interviewing hundreds of workers, for instance. Structured surveys lend themselves easily to computer analyses. This method also lends itself to situations in which the survey sample is widely scattered. A drawback is the fact that developing the questionnaire and testing it can be an expensive and time-consuming process. Other disadvantages include the fact that this technique is dependent on the communication skills of respondents, does not allow for probing, and tends to focus on perceptions of the job. Observation – Direct observation is especially useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities. Direct observation and interviewing are often used together. One approach is to observe the worker on the job during a complete work cycle. All of the observed job activities are noted. Then, after as much information as possible is accumulated, the incumbent is interviewed, asked to clarify points not understood, and explain what additional activities he or she performs that weren't observed. Another approach is to observe and interview simultaneously, while the jobholder performs his or her tasks. Advantages include the fact this method focuses more on reality than on perceptions, and that a third-party observer tends to have more credibility than job incumbents, who may have reasons for distorting the information provided. Disadvantages relate to the fact that observation can influence the behaviour of job incumbents, and is unsuitable for jobs requiring mental effort – those in which the employee engages in important activities that occur only occasionally, and those with long job cycles. Participant Diary/Log – Another technique involves asking employees to keep a diary/log or a list of what they do during the day, along with the time each activity takes. This can produce a very complete picture of the job, especially when supplemented with subsequent interviews with the employee and his or her supervisor. Another advantage is its appropriateness for jobs with a long job cycle. This method requires the participation and cooperation of job incumbents, something that is not always easy to attain. Other disadvantages include the focus on perceptions and the fact that the employee might try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others. However, the detailed, chronological nature of the log tends to minimize this problem. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques – Although most employers use interviews, questionnaires, observations, and/or diaries/logs for collecting job analysis data, there are many times when these narrative approaches are not appropriate. For example, when the aim is to assign a quantitative value to each job so that they can be compared for pay purposes, a more quantitative job analysis approach may be best. The two most popular quantitative methods include: Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) – The position analysis questionnaire is a very structured job analysis questionnaire that is filled in by a job analyst. The PAQ contains 194 items, each of which represents a basic element that may or may not play an important role in the job. The job analyst decides whether each item plays a role on the job and, if so, to what extent. The advantage of the PAQ is that it provides a quantitative score or profile of the job in terms of how that job rates on five basic dimensions: (1) having decision-making/communication/social responsibilities; (2) performing skilled activities; (3) being physically active; (4) operating vehicles/equipment; and (5) processing information. The PAQ's real strength is in classifying jobs. Results can be used to compare jobs to one another; this information can then be used to determine appropriate pay levels. Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Functional job analysis rates the job not only on responsibilities pertaining to data, people, and things, but also on the following dimensions: the extent to which specific instructions, reasoning, and judgment are required to perform the task; the mathematical ability required; and the verbal and language facilities involved. This quantitative technique also identifies performance standards and training requirements. 5. While not legally required, having job descriptions is highly advisable. Why? How can firms ensure that their job specifications are legally defensible? Job Descriptions and Human Rights Issues – While employers are not legally obligated to have job descriptions, it is highly advisable, since failure to develop such descriptions may mean that job duties are never determined, clarified, prioritized, and justified. Human rights legislation requires employers to ensure that there is no discrimination on any of the prohibited grounds in any aspect or terms and conditions of employment. Essential job duties can be clearly identified in the job description. When assessing suitability for employment, training program enrolment, and transfers or promotions, and appraising performance, the sole criteria examined should be KSAs required for the essential duties of the job. Even when an employee cannot perform one or more of the essential duties of the job due to reasons related to a prohibited ground, such as a physical disability or religion, an employer is expected to make reasonable accommodations to the point of undue hardship. (page 150) Writing Legally-Defensible Job Specifications – Writing the job specification involves examining the duties and responsibilities and answering the question, "What human traits and experience are required to do this job?" Both skill and effort factors should be considered, as well as the human implications of the working conditions. To comply with human rights legislation, it is imperative that all qualifications listed in the job specifications be justifiable, based on the current job duties and responsibilities. Unjustifiably high educational and/or lengthy experience requirements can lead to systemic discrimination. For that reason, many employers are no longer indicating that a degree or diploma is mandatory; rather, they specify that the position calls for a university degree in a specific area, a college diploma in that area, or an equivalent combination of education and work experience. The qualifications of the current incumbent should not be confused with the minimum requirements, since he or she might be under- or overqualified. To avoid overstating or understating qualifications, it is helpful to ask the question, "What minimum qualifications would be required if this job were being filled in the immediate future?" When developing job specifications for entry-level positions for which on-the-job training will be provided, identifying the actual physical and mental demands is critical. The goal is to identify those personal traits – the human requirements – that are valid predictors of job success. A physical demands analysis – which identifies the senses used, and type, frequency, and amount of physical effort involved in the job – is often used to supplement the job specification. Having such detailed information is extremely beneficial when determining accommodation requirements. Identifying the human requirements for a job is accomplished either through a judgmental approach or statistical analysis. The judgmental approach is based on the educated guesses of job incumbents, supervisors, and HR managers. The usual procedure to obtain the required information is to ask questions on the job analysis questionnaire such as, "What does it take in terms of education, knowledge, training, and the like, to do this job?" When this approach is used, it is important that all qualifications listed are justifiable based on the current job duties and responsibilities. The NOC and Career Handbook can provide helpful reference information. Basing a job specification on statistical analysis is more difficult. Basically, the aim is to statistically determine the relationship between (1) some predictor or human trait such as verbal or written communication skills, keyboarding speed, or finger dexterity and (2) some indicator or criterion of job effectiveness (such as performance, as rated by the supervisor). The objective is to determine whether there is a correlation between them, which means that the former predicts the latter. In this way, the human requirements for performing the job can be statistically ascertained. This method is more legally defensible than the judgmental approach, since human rights legislation forbids using traits that could lead to discrimination on a prohibited ground in any employment decisions, unless the employer can prove that there is a bona fide occupational requirement. A statistical validation study provides such proof. CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Why isn't it always desirable or appropriate to use job enrichment or include the five core dimensions when designing jobs? How would you determine how enriched an individual employee’s job should be? Job enrichment programs are more successful in some jobs and settings than in others. Moreover, not all employees want additional responsibility and the challenge of enriched jobs or those including the five core dimensions. Some people prefer routine jobs and may resist job redesign efforts. In addition, job redesign efforts almost always fail when employees lack the physical or mental skills, abilities, or education needed to perform the job. Furthermore, neither approach will correct job dissatisfaction problems related to inequitable compensation, inadequate benefits, or lack of job security. Unions have sometimes resisted job enrichment, fearing that management will expect workers to take on more responsibility and challenge without additional compensation. Managers, fearing a loss of authority and control, or worried about possible elimination of supervisory jobs, have also been sources of resistance. The strength of the linkage among job characteristics, psychological states, and work outcomes is determined by the intensity of an individual employee's need for growth. Thus, the key to determining how enriched an individual employee’s job should be and/or the extent to which the five core job characteristics should be present is assessing the intensity of his or her need and desire for growth. For individuals with high growth needs, enriched jobs or those including the five core dimensions lead to high internal motivation, high-quality work performance, high satisfaction with their work, and low turnover and absenteeism. (page 72) Assume that you are the job analyst at a bicycle manufacturing company in British Columbia and have been assigned responsibility for preparing job descriptions (including specifications) for all of the supervisory and managerial positions. One of the production managers has just indicated that he will not complete the job analysis questionnaire you have developed. (a) How would you handle this situation? (b) What arguments would you use to attempt to persuade him to change his mind? (c) If your persuasion efforts failed, how would you go about obtaining the job analysis information you require to develop the job description for his position? I would try to discover the cause of his resistance. If it is simply a matter of not understanding the importance of this information and/or the reasons why it is being collected, providing additional information may be advantageous. Perhaps he is confusing this process with some type of “efficiency evaluation.” In such case, explaining that job analysis is the procedure firms use to determine the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, as well as the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it (page 93), may be all that is required to overcome his resistance. If that tactic fails, I would seek advice from my boss, since he or she might have additional hints regarding how this situation should be handled. Presumably, completing the questionnaire has the support of senior management and is required of all employees. Perhaps an explanation from the HR Manager would overcome the production manager’s resistance. Arguments to attempt to persuade him to change his mind include: First of all, job analysis is the cornerstone of a wide range of HRM activities. It is used to develop job descriptions and job specifications. Having accurate information about jobs and their human requirements is essential for legal compliance in a number of areas. For example: Human Resources Planning: Knowing the actual requirements of jobs is essential in order to plan future staffing needs. When this information is combined with knowledge about the skills and qualifications of current employees, it is possible to determine which jobs can be filled internally and which will require external recruitment. Job analysis information is also extremely helpful in assessing how a firm's employment equity goals can be met most effectively. Recruitment and Selection: The job description and job specification information should be used to decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. Identifying bona fide occupational requirements, and ensuring that all activities related to recruitment and selection are based on such requirements, is necessary for legal compliance in all Canadian jurisdictions. Compensation: Job analysis information is essential for determining the relative value of and appropriate compensation for each job. Job evaluation should be based on the required skills, physical and mental demands, responsibilities, and working conditions – all assessed through job analysis. The relative value of jobs is one of the key factors used to determine appropriate compensation and justify pay differences if challenged under human rights or pay equity legislation. Information about the actual job duties is also necessary to determine whether a job should be classified as exempt or non-exempt for overtime pay and maximum hours purposes, as specified in employment standards legislation. I would point out that a job re-evaluation might result in higher pay for his position if there have been responsibilities added since it was previously evaluated. I would also indicate that the fact that his position is currently classified as exempt is likely the result of a previous job analysis process. Performance Appraisal: To be legally defensible, the criteria used to assess employee performance must be directly related to the duties and responsibilities identified through job analysis. The standards used must also be justifiable. Training, Development, and Career Management: By comparing the KSAs that employees bring to the job with those that are identified by job analysis, managers can determine the gaps. Training programs can then be designed to bridge these gaps. Having accurate information about jobs also means that employees can prepare for future advancement by identifying gaps between their current KSAs and those specified for the jobs to which they aspire. If he is an individual with upward mobility goals, I would discuss the important role that job analyses and skills inventories play in succession planning. Job Design: Job analysis is useful for ensuring that all of the duties having to be done have actually been assigned, and identifying areas of overlap. Also, having an accurate description of each job sometimes leads to the identification of unnecessary requirements, areas of conflict or dissatisfaction, and/or health and safety concerns that can be eliminated through job redesign. Such redesign may increase morale and productivity, and ensure compliance with human rights and occupational health and safety legislation. (c) If all of my efforts at persuasion and those of the HR Manager fail, with the permission of my boss and support of senior management, I would use observation or the PAQ technique. Since his job likely involves a fair number of unmeasurable mental activities, and some important activities that might occur only occasionally, my preference would be PAQ. Since the top job in a firm (such as president, executive director, or CEO) is by nature broader in scope than any of the other jobs, is there less need for a job description for the president? Why or why not? While it is true that the job descriptions for lower-level positions tend to include more detailed explanations of duties and tasks, job descriptions are equally critical for senior management positions, including president or CEO. Such descriptions tend to include broader responsibility statements rather than an outline of specific tasks. Having a job description and job specifications for the most senior-level position are absolutely essential for HR planning, recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and succession planning purposes. Even the most senior-level person is accountable to others, such as a board or stockholders. Shareholder activism is combining with other changes to tighten up the restrictions on what firms pay their top executives, thus increasing the importance of having a job description. For example, the Ontario Securities Commission has rules regarding disclosure of executive compensation (salary, bonus, stock options, and other compensation) for companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange. The chief executive officer’s pay must always be disclosed, as well as that of the next four highest-paid employees. Further, boards of directors must disclose how they make executive compensation decisions, and hence must act responsibly in reviewing and setting executive pay. That includes determining the key performance requirements of the executive’s job, assessing the appropriateness of the firm’s current compensation practices, conducting a pay-for-performance survey, and testing shareholder acceptance of the board’s pay proposals. A related development for public sector employees was the Ontario government’s requirement that, beginning in 1996, public disclosure be made of salaries for provincial government employees earning $100 000 or more. The law also applies to employees in the broader public sector, including hospitals, universities, school boards, crown agencies, and municipalities. Create guidelines for a “mental demands analysis” for service economy jobs that would parallel the traditional physical demands analysis. A mental demands analysis would identify mental demands, and the type, frequency, and amount of mental effort involved in the job. Mental demands for service jobs would include dealing with several customers at once, dealing with emotional customers, maintaining a pleasant demeanour at all times, taking inventory, remembering and describing product features, balancing cash to register tapes, and more. Some of these demands would be occasional, some would be regular, and some would be constant. The amount of mental effort involved in the job would vary from limited to constant, depending on the type of position and the type of service being provided. APPLICATION EXERCISES RUNNING CASE: (page 103) Who Do We Have To Hire? Draft up job descriptions for the salesperson and Web designer. You may use whatever sources you want, but preferably search the Internet and relevant Web sites, since you want job descriptions and lists of duties that apply specifically to dot-com firms. You should suggest the students explore the NOC Web site and to find sample job descriptions for each position in the cases that apply specifically to dot-com firms. Next, using sources similar to those in Question 1 – and whatever other sources you can think of – draw up specifications for each of these jobs, including things such as desirable work habits, skills, education, and experiences. You can direct the students to the following sources to help them come up with the job specifications: the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and Let the students know that they will also have to use their own judgment based on the data they gather to draw up the job specifications. Next, keeping in mind that this company is on a tight budget, write a short proposal explaining how it should accomplish the other activities it needs done, such as answering the phones, compiling sales leads, producing monthly reports, and purchasing supplies. In writing their proposals, the students should direct the owners to use the various Internet sources discussed in the chapter to create a job position with a job description and job specification to accomplish the other activities the company needs done. CASE INCIDENT: TEAM FUN! (page 104) Help Tony write his job description. Use the sample job description in Figure 4.9 as a guide. To help Tony write his job description based on the "Team Fun!" case incident from the book "Human Resources Management in Canada," we need to consider the tasks, responsibilities, and qualifications outlined in the case. Since I can't access specific content from the book, I'll provide a general outline based on common elements found in job descriptions for similar positions. Job Title: Team Fun Coordinator Job Summary: The Team Fun Coordinator is responsible for organizing and facilitating team-building activities and events to promote employee engagement, morale, and teamwork within the organization. This role involves planning, coordinating, and executing various activities aimed at fostering a positive and inclusive work culture. Key Responsibilities: 1. Plan and organize team-building activities, events, and initiatives based on employee preferences and organizational objectives. 2. Coordinate logistics for team events, including venue selection, catering, transportation, and budget management. 3. Collaborate with department heads and team leaders to identify team-building needs and develop customized programs. 4. Facilitate team-building sessions, workshops, and exercises to enhance communication, collaboration, and trust among team members. 5. Evaluate the effectiveness of team-building activities through feedback mechanisms and make recommendations for improvement. 6. Maintain records of team-building initiatives, attendance, and feedback for reporting purposes. 7. Stay updated on trends and best practices in team development and incorporate innovative ideas into the program. Qualifications: 1. Bachelor's degree in human resources, organizational psychology, or a related field. 2. Proven experience in organizing and facilitating team-building activities or events. 3. Strong interpersonal and communication skills, with the ability to engage and motivate diverse groups of employees. 4. Excellent organizational and time-management abilities, with a keen attention to detail. 5. Creative problem-solving skills and a proactive approach to overcoming challenges. 6. Ability to work independently as well as collaboratively in a team environment. 7. Knowledge of relevant software tools for event planning and communication (e.g., Microsoft Office, event management platforms). 8. Certification in team development or related areas (e.g., Certified Team Facilitator) is a plus. By incorporating these elements into Tony's job description, he can effectively communicate the expectations and requirements for the Team Fun Coordinator role. What techniques should he use to gather data? Tony should use the diary/log technique because there are no HR staff to prepare questionnaires or to conduct interviews or observation. How should he conduct the job analysis? Tony should use the NOC as it is the most basic tool available. If he finds this resource to be insufficient, he could use a standard tool such as the Position Analysis Questionnaire. Instructor’s Manual: What should he say to Kenny and Norton to ensure their buy-in on this project? Tony should tell Kenny and Norton how useful his job description will be to him in making a case for a raise once all of all his job responsibilities are documented! He could also emphasize that the job description can serve as the basis for job advertising, determining compensation, assessing his performance, and determining any training he needs to perform his job duties more effectively. How will job descriptions change the organization? Job descriptions will make the organization more formal and create work required to write the job descriptions and to review and update them regularly. Job descriptions will be very helpful in recruiting and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training needs analysis. EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES (page 105) 1. Draw an organization chart to accurately depict the structure of the organization in which you are currently employed or one with which you are thoroughly familiar. Once you have completed this task, form a group with several of your classmates. Taking turns, each member is to show his or her organization chart to the group, briefly describe the structure depicted, explain whether or not the structure seems to be appropriate to him or her, and identify several advantages and disadvantages he or she experienced working within this structure. A sample organization chart can be found on page 67. There are three basic types of organizational structure, as depicted in Figure 4.1 on page 67: bureaucratic, flat, and boundaryless. The major characteristics and advantages/disadvantages are listed beside the illustration of each. Flatter organizations and team-based structures are becoming increasingly the norm, and boundaryless structures are starting to emerge due to such forces as accelerating product and technological change, globalized competition, deregulation, political instability, demographic changes, and trends toward a service society and the information age. These forces have dramatically increased the need for firms to be responsive, flexible, and capable of competing in a global marketplace. Working individually or in groups, obtain a copy of the National Occupational Classification and/or the NOC Career Handbook from your library or nearest HRDC office. Find the descriptions for any two occupations with which you have some familiarity. Compare the Employment Requirements and/or the Profile Summaries. Based on what you know about these occupations, does the material provided seem accurate? Why or why not? What changes would you recommend, if any? The NOC job description for Specialists in Human Resources is included as Figure 4.8 on page 87. Both the NOC and Career Handbook include the judgments of job analysts and vocational counsellors regarding the education and/or training requirements of all of the occupations included. In addition to the types of information provided in the NOC (see Figure 4.8), the Career Handbook lists desired aptitudes and interests, as well as the vision, colour discrimination, hearing, body position, limb coordination, and strength demands. Working individually, prepare a job description (including job specifications) for a position that you know intimately, using the job analysis questionnaire in this chapter. Once you have done so, exchange your job description with someone else in the class. Critique your colleague’s job description and provide specific suggestions regarding any additions/deletions/revisions you would recommend to ensure that the job description accurately reflects the job as it exists today and is legally defensible. The job analysis questionnaire on pages 80 and 81 of the text should be used as the model for this experiential exercise. The material on pages 88 to 92 of the text will provide some helpful hints regarding the content of a job description. The sample job specification found on page 89 (Figure 4.9) should also provide assistance. The job description/specification form included on pages 99 and 100 can be photocopied and distributed for classroom use if so desired. The hints to ensure legal compliance found on pages 93 and 95 of the text should form the basis of the critique and recommendations regarding additions/deletions/revisions. PART TWO: MEETING HUMAN RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER 5 HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Describe the costs associated with lack of or inadequate HRP. Human resources planning (HRP) is the process of reviewing human resources requirements to ensure that the organization has the required number of employees, with the necessary skills, to meet its goals. Also known as employment planning, HRP is a proactive process, which both anticipates and influences an organization's future by systematically forecasting the demand for and supply of employees under changing conditions, and developing plans and activities to satisfy these needs. Key steps in the HRP process include forecasting demand for labour, analyzing labour supply, and planning and implementing HR programs to balance supply and demand. Lack of or inadequate human resources planning within an organization can result in: significant costs – both tangible and intangible. For example, unstaffed vacant positions can lead to costly inefficiencies, particularly when lengthy training is needed for new hires to reach acceptable performance standards. Requiring employees to work extra hours to perform the duties of such vacant positions or to compensate for understaffing can lead to lower productivity, fatigue, stress-related illnesses, and accidents, as well as incurring overtime premium costs. There are also costs associated with overstaffing. For example, if large numbers of employees are being laid off, extended notice periods are required in many jurisdictions, as well as severance pay. situations in which one department is laying off employees, while another is hiring individuals with similar skills, which can have a devastating impact on morale and productivity. inability to develop effective training, development, and career planning programs. turnover – if employees are not qualified when vacancies arise, and are therefore denied opportunities for lateral moves or promotions, turnover is the inevitable result, especially among high performers. difficulties in meeting employment equity goals or inappropriate staffing decisions, such as hiring or promoting underqualified target group members simply to meet established goals and timetables. This can result in poor performance or even termination and replacement, as well as costs that cannot be measured in dollars alone – perpetuation of prejudices and/or stereotypes, the undermining of employee self-confidence and self-respect associated with inadequate performance, and backlash from other employees. inability to accomplish short-term operational plans and/or long-range strategic plans. (page 114) After analyzing the human resources implications of the organization’s strategic plans, what are the three subsequent processes involved in HRP? The 3 processes are: forecasting future human resources needs – demand forecasting availability of internal and external candidates – supply planning and Implementing HR programs to balance supply and demand (page 116) Differentiate between replacement charts and replacement summaries, and explain why replacement summaries are generally preferred. Replacement charts are a visual representation of who will replace whom in the event of a job opening. Such charts typically indicate age and replacement status of potential internal candidates. Replacement status consists of two variables: (1) present performance – gleaned from performance appraisals and (2) promotability – based on information provided by the employee about future career aspirations, and a subjective assessment by the employee's immediate supervisors regarding likelihood of future success. Replacement summaries list likely replacements for each position and their relative strengths and weaknesses, as well as information about current position, performance, promotability, age, and experience. While replacement charts provide an excellent quick reference tool, they contain very little information. For that reason, many firms prefer to use replacement summaries. (page 124) Discuss various methods of easing the burden of a layoff or termination. Most employers’ initial response is a hiring freeze, which means that openings are filled by reassigning current employees, and no outsiders are hired unless authorization is granted by the CEO due to extenuating circumstances. The surplus is slowly reduced through attrition, which is the normal separation of employees from an organization due to resignation, retirement, or death. Some organizations attempt to accelerate attrition by offering incentives to employees to leave, such as buyouts and early retirement programs. Reducing the total number of work hours is an additional strategy used to cope with an employee surplus. Job sharing involves dividing duties of a single position between two or more employees. Reducing full-time positions to part-time work is sometimes more effective, especially if there are peak demand periods. There is also work sharing or offering reduced workweeks where the employee works less hours and gets paid a reduced salary. Some organizations with progressive HR policies are able to find alternative jobs within the organization for surplus and displaced employees. (page 128) Differentiate between seniority and merit-based approaches to promotion, and describe the advantages and disadvantages associated with each. In unionized settings, seniority may be the governing factor in promotion decisions, or the deciding factor in the event of a tie in candidates' skills and abilities. A key advantage is that length of service is a matter of record and is therefore totally objective. A drawback is that because all workers are not equally capable, the individual who is transferred or promoted may not be the most competent. Merit-based promotions, common in non-union settings, are awarded as recognition of a person's superior performance in his or her present job, or as an assessment of his or her future potential. Merit-based promotions are viewed as a form of reward and recognition, and knowing that such promotions are available can thus be highly motivating. Meritbased promotions are also an excellent strategy for retaining high-performing employees. To lead to these advantages, such promotions must be based on an objective measure of performance and not personal biases of the decision maker. Promotions based on favouritism result in incompetent people in higher-level, more demanding positions, and resentment among those not selected. Another potential problem with merit-based promotions is the Peter Principle, which states that, in a hierarchy, people tend to rise to their level of incompetence. While not universally true, this principle suggests that good performance in one job is not a guarantee of good performance in another. (page 129) Describe several flexible work arrangements that can help employees. Flexible work options include: flextime, whereby employees’ flexible workdays are built around a core of midday hours; telecommuting allows employees to work at home, using their computers and fax machine to transmit completed work to the office; job sharing is a strategy allowing two or more employees to share a single full-time job; reduced workweek is an option for employees wishing to reduce their overall work hours; compressed workweek arrangements involve working four ten-hour days instead of five eight-hour days; and flexyear permits employees to choose the number of hours they want to work each month over the next year. Flexible work arrangements are offered to help employees achieve work-life balance and reduce the costs associated with absenteeism and turnover due to stress and related mental health problems. In Canada, almost half of workers experience high or moderate levels of stress because of work and family pressures. Family-friendly policies can result in higher morale, better job satisfaction, and lower turnover. Flexible work arrangements can also be part of a business strategy to be available for customers beyond the usual working hours. (page 131) CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. A number of quantitative and qualitative techniques for forecasting human resources demand were discussed in this chapter. Working in groups, identify which strategies would be most appropriate for (a) small vs. large sized companies, (b) industries undergoing rapid change, and (c) businesses/industries in which there are seasonal variations in HR requirements. Quantitative approaches include: (page 117) Trend Analysis – Trend analysis involves studying the firm's employment levels over the past five years or so to predict future needs. The purpose is to identify employment trends that might continue into the future. It is valuable as an initial estimate only, since employment levels rarely depend solely on the passage of time. Ratio Analysis – Ratio analysis involves making estimates based on the ratio between (1) some causal factor (such as sales volume) and (2) number of employees required. Like trend analysis, ratio analysis assumes that productivity remains about the same. In a changing environment, a forecast based on historical ratios will no longer be accurate. The Scatter Plot – Scatter plots are a graphical method used to determine whether two factors – a measure of business activity and staffing levels – are related. If they are, then if the measure of business activity is forecast, HR requirements can also be estimated. Regression Analysis – Regression analysis is a more sophisticated statistical technique that involves the use of a mathematical formula to project future demands based on an established relationship between an organization's employment level (dependent variable) and some measurable factor of output (independent variable) such as revenue, sales, or production level. When there are several dependent and/or independent variables, multiple regression analysis is used. Computerized Forecasting Techniques – Many employers involved in quantitative forecasting use computers and software packages. Typical data needed include direct labour hours to produce one unit of product (a measure of productivity) and three sales projections – minimum, maximum, and probable – for the product line in question. Based on such data, the program generates a computerized forecast of average staff levels required to meet product demands, as well as separate forecasts for direct labour (such as assembly workers), indirect labour (support staff, such as accounting clerks) and senior staff (such as managers). With such systems, employers can quickly translate projected productivity and sales levels into forecasts of human resources needs, and can easily check the impact of various productivity and sales levels on HR requirements. There are two qualitative approaches: (page 119) Nominal Group Technique – The nominal group technique involves a group of experts (such as first-line supervisors and managers) meeting face to face. The steps involved include independent idea generation, idea presentation, clarification and open discussion, and private assessment. Delphi Technique – The Delphi technique is useful for long-range forecasting and other strategic planning issues. It typically involves outside experts as well as company employees, based on the premise that outsiders may be able to more objectively assess changes in economic, demographic, governmental, technological, and social conditions, as well as their potential impacts. Ideas are exchanged without face-to-face interaction, and feedback is provided and used to fine-tune independent judgments until consensus is reached. Small firms do not need to get involved in sophisticated HR planning, and therefore would not likely consider using the majority of the quantitative techniques. Any of the other techniques would be suitable. In large organizations, needs forecasting is primarily quantitative in nature and is the responsibility of highly trained professionals. Industries undergoing rapid change will find computerized forecasting, the nominal group technique, and/or the Delphi technique to be particularly helpful. Trend analysis is well suited to the needs of businesses/industries in which there are seasonal variations in HR requirements. 2. Suppose it has just been projected that, due to a number of technological innovations, your firm will need 20 percent fewer clerical employees within the next five years. What actions would you take to try to retain your high-performing clerical staff members? I would ensure that high-performing clerical staff members, identified as such through the performance appraisal process, are provided with career planning guidance and opportunities for training and development, such that they will be able to acquire the technological skills needed in the future or to acquire the KSAs needed to qualify for transfers or promotions to other jobs within the firm. (page 129) 3. Suppose you are the HR manager of a firm at which a hiring freeze has just been declared. The plan is to downsize through attrition. What steps would you ensure that you reap the advantages of this strategy, while minimizing the disadvantages? The major advantage of attrition is that it does not require separating any employees involuntarily. Potential drawbacks of this strategy include the following: It can be a slow method of reducing numbers. The organization may have no control over who stays and who leaves. Thus, valuable high performers may leave, while less needed or lower-performing employees stay. Remaining employees may be overburdened with work or lack necessary skills, resulting in decreased or inferior performance. Stagnation may occur due to the lack of new skills and ideas. To reap the advantages of this strategy and minimize its disadvantages, I would recommend that we introduce a buyout package. To ensure that the organization does not lose high performers or individuals with highly needed skills, I would recommend that selection criteria to qualify for the buyout package be established with care. Given current demographic trends, I would not recommend the introduction of an early retirement program. To avoid stagnation and help to ensure that we do not end up in a situation in which we are lacking an employee with particular qualifications, I would recommend that current employees be provided with the opportunity for training and development to broaden and enhance their KSAs, based on needs identified through HR planning. I would also recommend that we engage in planned, strategic recruitment for those positions that we know cannot be filled internally, based on our HR plan and our skills and management inventories. (page 127) 4. Work/life balance is important for both older workers and younger generations in the workforce. What are some of the operational issues that need to be managed in implementing widespread flexible work arrangements? Time has become the new currency for compensating employees. Employers must be aware of the value of flexible schedules for attracting and retaining talent, as labour becomes increasingly scarce. Operational issues can include: Part of a business strategy which can assist organizations in meeting customer needs when and where they need to be met, over time zones for example. Coordination within and between organizational units may affect the extent of flexibility. Managers may sense a loss of control. Mutual trust needs to be developed between employees and supervisors. Some arrangements, such as the compressed workweek, are generally effective in reducing paid overtime and absenteeism while improving efficiency. Fatigue is a potential drawback. (page 131) APPLICATION EXERCISES RUNNING CASE: (page 134) To Plan or Not to Plan? In what ways might HRP benefit Effective HRP would benefit by enabling the firm to utilize employees' capabilities more effectively, thereby increasing performance and productivity, and reducing dissatisfaction and turnover. By providing internal promotion opportunities, linked to training and development activities, the company would eventually have a more qualified and loyal workforce. In addition, should they decide that increased diversity would benefit the business, having an HRP would enable Jennifer and Pierre to set realistic employment equity goals and timetables. Should they decide to proceed with HRP, what steps should Jennifer and Pierre take? There are three key steps involved in effective HRP, the first of which is to forecast future human resources needs (demand). Initially, the nominal group technique might be quite appropriate. Jennifer and Pierre could assess the environment – both external and internal – and project future HR needs. Jennifer might then wish to produce a staffing table. The second step involves forecasting future human resources supply. Skills/management inventories should be prepared for all of the current employees. Replacement charts and/or summaries could then be devised, so that specific and appropriate career development activities could be planned. The available external supply should also be considered. This will require an assessment of the general economic, labour market, and occupational market conditions. The third step Jennifer and Pierre will have to take is to plan and implement HR programs to balance supply and demand. Once HRP has been implemented, Pierre and Jennifer will need to conduct an annual assessment to determine its effectiveness in meeting their expectations and make any required modifications. What HRP techniques would be appropriate for them to use? As suggested above, the nominal group technique would be very appropriate for forecasting their HR needs. Should Jennifer and Pierre wish to use a quantitative approach, any of trend analysis, ratio analysis, a scatter plot, or regression analysis could be considered, since the firm is still relatively small and these techniques do not require advanced training or sophisticated computer software. Regardless of the approach or approaches selected, managerial judgment will play a key role. They may wish to depict their short-term plans in a staffing table. To forecast their internal supply, skills/management inventories will be particularly helpful. Replacement charts and/or summaries can then be prepared. To assist in forecasting their supply of external candidates, Statistics Canada publications will be helpful. Since technology workers are vital to their operations, they may wish to refer to the shortterm and long-term labour force projects by occupation published by HRDC. HRP evaluation criteria they could consider include actual staffing levels versus established staffing requirements, ratio of internal placement to external hiring, actual internal mobility flow versus career development plans, and internal mobility flow versus turnover. What other issues would have to be addressed to make HRP worthwhile? To make HRP worthwhile, Jennifer and Pierre would need to begin thinking about implementing a promote-from-within policy. At this point they are too small, but as they add employees this would be an important consideration. They would have to adopt effective strategies for managing performance and careers. Managing performance would require looking at the effectiveness of their job design, considering quality of working life initiatives, establishing performance standards and goals, coaching, establishing an objective performance appraisal system, and implementing a more effective reward structure. To manage employee careers, they would have to establish effective policies and systems for recruitment, selection, placement (including transfers, promotions, terminations, and retirements), replacement and succession planning, career planning, and training and development. CASE INCIDENT: How Much Work Schedule Flexibility Is Too Much Flexibility? (page 134) What difficulties might Jasmine face it she tries to accommodate all of these requests for flexible work arrangements to cope with work-family issues? Jasmine may not be able to have enough cashiers on duty at some times if she tries to accommodate all of these requests for flexible work arrangements to cope with work-family issues. Should any of these requests be turned down? Jasmine should try not to turn down any of these requests, due to the store policy of flexibility to accommodate work family conflict. How can the remaining requests be accommodated? Make recommendations on how to handle each of them. Jasmine might ask Al and Shirley to work part time for the next few weeks instead of being off entirely. She could ask Bill to find a licensed babysitting service that he can feel comfortable with. She might ask Sophia to work full time on some weekends and during the busy Christmas season. EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES (page 135) Develop a realistic, hypothetical staffing table for a department or organization with which you are familiar. The partial staffing table included as Figure 5.4 on page 121 should be used as a model for this assignment. It was based on a staffing table developed for an actual firm. Hypothetical staffing table for the Marketing Department of a mid-sized technology company: This staffing table provides a structure for the Marketing Department, outlining the roles, responsibilities, qualifications, and the number of employees needed for each position. Adjustments can be made based on the specific needs and resources of the organization. Contact the HR manager at a firm in your area and find out whether or not the firm uses any of the following: (a) skills/management inventories, (b) replacement charts or summaries and (c) a succession plan. Prepare a brief summary of the information gleaned. Once you have completed these tasks, form a group with several of your classmates. Share your findings with the group members. Were there similarities across firms? Did company size seem to make a difference in terms of strategies used for forecasting the supply of internal candidates? Can you identify any other factors that seem to play a role in choice of forecasting techniques used? Skills/management inventories tend to be fairly common. Replacement charts or summaries are more common in large firms, as are succession plans. Computerized skills/management inventories are also more common in large firms. Firms with global operations tend to place increased emphasis on succession plans. This assignment requires working within teams of five or six. Half of the teams are to assume the role of management team members at a firm that is about to undergo major downsizing. The other half of the teams are to assume the roles of employees – some of whom will be affected and others of whom will remain. Each management team is to be paired up with an employee team, and assigned responsibility for preparing a realistic simulation. Managers should work toward the goal of minimizing the negative impact on those who will be affected as well as those who will be remaining. Individuals in employee roles are asked to try to envision what their thoughts and feelings would be (if they have never actually been in this situation, that is) and to portray them as realistically as possible. The research insight on page 126 will be helpful to those in both roles. Management team members will find the Tips for the Front Line on page 128 to be extremely useful. Creating a simulation for this scenario requires thoughtful consideration and empathy from both the management and employee teams. Let's outline a simulation plan: Simulation Plan: Major Downsizing Scenario 1. Introduction and Background • All participants are briefed on the scenario: The company is facing financial challenges and needs to downsize its workforce significantly to remain viable. • Each team is assigned roles: Management team members and employee team members. 2. Team Preparation • Management teams strategize on how to approach the downsizing process with empathy and transparency, considering ways to minimize the impact on affected employees while maintaining morale among remaining staff. • Employee teams discuss how they might feel in this situation, considering emotions such as anxiety, uncertainty, and fear of job loss. 3. Simulation Execution • Management teams conduct a meeting with employee teams to announce the downsizing plan, providing clear reasons for the decision and outlining the process. • Management teams listen actively to employee concerns and questions, demonstrating empathy and offering support resources such as career counseling and severance packages. • Employee teams react to the news, expressing their emotions, concerns, and questions realistically. Some may feel relieved to be remaining, while others may be devastated by the news of being affected. 4. Discussion and Reflection • After the simulation, all teams come together for a debriefing session. • Management teams reflect on their approach, discussing what went well and what could be improved in terms of communication and support for affected employees. • Employee teams share their thoughts on how the news was delivered and how they felt during the simulation, providing insights into the emotional impact of downsizing. • Both management and employee teams brainstorm ideas for moving forward positively, focusing on rebuilding morale and supporting remaining staff through the transition. 5. Conclusion • The simulation concludes with a final discussion on the importance of empathy, transparency, and support during times of organizational change. • Participants are encouraged to carry forward the lessons learned from the simulation into their real-world professional experiences. By following this simulation plan, teams can gain valuable insights into the complexities of managing downsizing scenarios with empathy and professionalism, fostering a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by both management and employees during times of organizational change. VIDEO CASE: Charlie Catchpaugh and The Outlet (page 136) It is expected that there will be a lot of activity around persuading older workers to continue working past retirement age once the approaching labour shortage hits. Although the average age of retirement has been slowly decreasing, there are some workers who enjoy their work so much that they have continued on for years after most others have chosen to retire. Charlie Catchpaugh is the editor, chief reporter, and photographer for The Outlet, a monthly newspaper for AngloCanadians in the Eastern Townships of Quebec. Catchpaugh has been cranking out this paper for 25 years and only lately, at the age of 76, has he taken on some part-time help. Obviously a labour of love for Charlie, The Outlet is a mix of neighbourhood church news, local gossip, corny jokes, and outrageous political comment. Charlie refuses to abandon his dwindling constituency of 4,500 readers, and wants to help keep the Anglo community alive in his area. Questions: Why does Charlie choose to continue to work at the age of 76? Charlie loves his job. He feels that he still has something to contribute to the intellectual life of his community. He feels motivated to provide his readers with relevant reading material. He does not want to sit back and see The Outlet cease publication. What are Charlie’s strengths as an older employee? His strengths are that he has 25 years of perspective on news events in the Eastern Townships and 25 years of experience in the newspaper business. He knows the Anglo community that make up his readers and he knows what they are interested in reading about. Is Charlie’s business facing any problems because of his age? Expenses have risen slightly because Charlie has had to hire a part-time helper. There does not appear to be any succession plan for Charlie’s position. The part-time helper has only recently been hired. When Charlie is no longer able to work, the paper will be in danger of ceasing publication. Source: Based on “Magog Town Crier,” CBC The National (March 17, 2004). PART TWO: MEETING HUMAN RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER 6 RECRUITMENT REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting within the organization. Filling open positions with inside candidates has several advantages: employees see that competence is rewarded, thus enhancing commitment, morale, and performance. having already been with the firm for some time, insiders may be more committed to company’s goals and less likely to leave. managers are provided with a longer-termv perspective when making business decisions. it is generally safer to promote from within, since the firm is likely to have a more accurate assessment of the person’s skills than would otherwise be the case. inside candidates require less orientation than outsiders. Disadvantages associated with recruiting within the organization include: employees who apply for jobs and don’t get them may become discontented. Informing unsuccessful applicants as to why they were rejected and what remedial action they might take to be more successful in the future is thus essential. managers may be required to post all job openings and interview all inside candidates, even when they already know whom they wish to hire, thus wasting considerable time and creating false hope on the part of those employees not genuinely being considered. employees may be less satisfied and accepting of a boss appointed from within their own ranks than a newcomer. it is sometimes difficult for a newly chosen leader to adjust to no longer being “one of the gang.” there is a possibility of “inbreeding.” When an entire management team has been brought up through the ranks, there may be a tendency to make decisions “by the book” and to maintain the status quo, even when a new and innovative direction is needed. (page 139) 2. List the advantages of external recruitment. The advantages of external recruitment include: generation of a larger pool of qualified candidates, which may have a positive impact on the quality of the selection decision. availability of a more diverse applicant pool, which can assist in meeting employment equity goals and timetables. acquisition of skills or knowledge not currently available within the organization and/or new ideas and creative problem-solving techniques. elimination of rivalry and competition caused by employees jockeying for transfers and promotions, which can hinder interpersonal and interdepartmental cooperation. potential cost savings resulting from hiring individuals who already have the skills, rather than providing extensive training. (page 142) 3. Explain the difference between an Internet job board and a corporate career Web site. A job board is open to all employers and employees seeking to fill a position. A candidate can post his or her resume online, and employers can access this database and search for the best match. Typically, employers pay a fee to post their positions. The corporate Web site is specific to that corporation. The positions posted are open positions within that organization and have been approved by the HR department to be posted. Potential candidates can view the possible positions online and apply. Many firms use applicant-tracking systems to power their Web sites. Combined with resume databases, corporate Web sites can help companies create a pool of candidates who have already expressed interest in the organization. (pages 144–145) 4. Describe the AIDA guidelines for print advertising. The ad should attract attention. The ads that stand out have borders, a company logo or picture, and effective use of empty white space. To attract attention, key positions should be advertised in display ads, not lost in the columns of classified ads. The ad should develop interest in the job by pointing out the range of duties and/or the amount of challenge or responsibility involved. Sometimes other aspects of the job, such as its location or working conditions, are useful in attracting interest. To ensure that the individuals attracted are qualified, the job specifications should always be included. The ad should create a desire for the job by capitalizing on the interesting aspects of the job itself and by pointing out any unique benefits or opportunities associated with it. Desire may also be created by stressing the employer’s commitment to employment equity. The target audience should be kept in mind as the ad is being created. The ad should instigate action by including a closing date and a statement such as “Call today” or “Send your résumé today by fax or e-mail” or “Check out our Web site for more information” or “Go to the site of our next job fair.” (page 146) Under what circumstances should a private employment agency be used? Private employment agencies are often called upon to provide assistance to employers seeking intermediate- to senior level clerical staff, and professional, technical, or managerial employees. Such agencies take an employer’s request for recruits and then solicit job seekers, relying primarily on advertising and walk-ins/write-ins. They serve two basic functions: expanding the applicant pool and performing preliminary interviewing and screening. To match the employer’s job specifications with the abilities and interests of potential applicants, agencies may perform a range of functions, including: advertising; testing for skills, aptitudes, and interests; interviewing; and reference checking. It should be noted, though, that the amount of service provided varies widely, as does the level of professionalism and the calibre of staff. (page 148) Describe three ways to recruit designated group members. Some of the methods that can be used are: online recruiting; print advertising; search firms; employee referrals; educational institutions; or the use of alternative publications – ones targeted to the designated groups or agencies that specialize in employment of diverse groups (see page 154 for examples). The key point here is that the organization must be committed to equity and that this message needs to be clear to all those involved in the recruitment process. CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS What potential problems could be created by offering referral bonuses to existing employees? Some of the potential problems associated with employee referrals include the potential of inbreeding and nepotism to cause morale problems, and dissatisfaction of employees whose referral is not hired. Perhaps the biggest drawback, however, is that this method may result in systemic discrimination in workplaces that are not diverse, since employees tend to recommend individuals who have backgrounds similar to their own, in terms of race, ethnicity, religion. (page 149) Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of traditional and virtual career fairs. At traditional job fairs, recruiters share information about the organization and job opportunities with those attending in an informal relaxed setting. Virtual job fairs online connect with a wider geographical audience. For job seekers, the virtual fair is more efficient in considering a number of organizations while more time may be needed to attend traditional ones. On the other hand, there are potential benefits to the face-to-face aspect of a traditional job fair, including a sense of the type of people in the organization as well as the possibility of making direct contact (networking) with the employers or their representatives. (page 152) As the labour supply gets tighter and tighter, would you be in favour of loosening requirements of foreigntrained professionals to become qualified in Canada? Among the issues to be considered are the diversity of qualification internationally and the need to maintain or meet professional standards in Canada. Consideration of alternatives could include an across-the-board loosening of requirements versus a more differentiated approach. Foreign-trained professionals could sit a “challenge” examination to demonstrate their skills and abilities that could bring them into the labour force rapidly. Otherwise, the initiative of Manitoba supported by the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists provides a viable alternative. (page 139) What are some of the reservations that a 30-year-old candidate might have about applying for a job that requires managing a workforce that is on average ten years older than he or she is? Discrepancy in age and experience are obvious reservations that a young manager may have. To some degree, these may be superficial. He or she may be bringing new and required skills and knowledge to the job. As such, there can be reservations about the possible disparity in mental models. As such, the need to build a bridge between these models can be perceived as challenging. Also, the engagement with the people on the job in terms of generational differences in regard to issues such as work-life balance. APPLICATION EXERCISES RUNNING CASE: (page 163) Getting Better Applicants Tell Jennifer and Pierre what they’re doing wrong. The students should base their responses on the information presented in the advertising section of the chapter, and their responses should include placing and constructing the ad. 1. Insufficient Job Advertisement Strategy: • Jennifer and Pierre may not be effectively promoting job openings through appropriate channels. They might be relying solely on traditional methods like job boards or internal referrals, limiting the reach of their job postings. 2. Unclear Job Descriptions: • If the job postings lack clarity regarding roles, responsibilities, and qualifications, it could deter qualified candidates from applying. Jennifer and Pierre should ensure that job descriptions are detailed and accurately reflect the requirements of the position. 3. Lack of Employer Branding: • If doesn't have a strong employer brand or reputation in the industry, it may struggle to attract top talent. Jennifer and Pierre should focus on showcasing the company culture, values, and employee benefits to make it more appealing to potential applicants. 4. Ineffective Screening Process: • If the initial screening process is too rigid or exclusionary, it could result in qualified candidates being overlooked. Jennifer and Pierre should review their screening criteria to ensure they're not inadvertently filtering out suitable candidates. 5. Limited Diversity and Inclusion Efforts: • If's recruitment efforts lack diversity and inclusion initiatives, it may be missing out on valuable talent from underrepresented groups. Jennifer and Pierre should prioritize diversity and actively seek to attract candidates from diverse backgrounds. 6. Slow Response Time: • Delayed communication or lack of follow-up with applicants can create a negative impression of the company. Jennifer and Pierre should ensure timely responses to inquiries, updates on the status of applications, and feedback to candidates throughout the recruitment process. 7. Neglecting Employee Referral Programs: • If isn't leveraging its existing employees as a source of referrals, it could be missing out on qualified candidates. Jennifer and Pierre should encourage and incentivize employees to refer potential candidates from their professional networks. In addressing these potential areas of improvement, Jennifer and Pierre can enhance's recruitment efforts and attract better applicants to meet the company's talent needs effectively. Provide a detailed list of recommendations concerning how they should go about increasing their pool of acceptable job applicants, so they no longer have to hire almost anyone who walks in the door. (Recommendations regarding the latter should include completely worded advertisements and recommendations regarding any other recruiting strategies you would suggest they use.) The students should review the section on outside sources of candidates, and their responses should include advertising and the possible use of employment and/or temp agencies. To improve the quality and quantity of job applicants, it's essential to strategize your recruitment efforts effectively. Here's a detailed list of recommendations: 1. Revise Job Descriptions: • Ensure that job descriptions accurately reflect the role's responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations. • Highlight the benefits of working for your company, such as career advancement opportunities, competitive salaries, and a positive work environment. 2. Targeted Advertising: • Use targeted advertising on job boards and social media platforms to reach specific demographics and skill sets. • Utilize keywords relevant to the job position to optimize visibility in online searches. 3. Employee Referral Program: • Encourage current employees to refer qualified candidates by offering incentives such as bonuses or extra time off. • Promote the referral program through internal communications and company meetings. 4. Networking Events: • Attend industry-specific networking events, job fairs, and career expos to connect with potential candidates. • Engage with professionals in relevant fields to build relationships and attract top talent. 5. Professional Organizations: • Partner with professional organizations related to your industry to access their membership base and advertise job openings. • Sponsor events or workshops to increase visibility and establish your company as an employer of choice. 6. Internship Programs: • Develop internship programs to attract recent graduates and students seeking practical experience. • Provide meaningful learning opportunities and mentorship to interns, with the potential for permanent employment upon completion of the program. 7. Diverse Recruitment Channels: • Explore alternative recruitment channels, such as community organizations, diversity-focused job boards, and specialized recruitment agencies, to reach a broader pool of candidates. • Emphasize your commitment to diversity and inclusion in recruitment materials and outreach efforts. 8. Employee Brand Ambassadors: • Empower employees to become brand ambassadors by sharing their positive experiences working for the company on social media and professional networks. • Encourage employees to participate in employer review sites like Glassdoor to enhance the company's reputation and attract prospective applicants. 9. Competitive Compensation and Benefits: • Offer competitive salaries and benefits packages to attract top talent and differentiate your company from competitors. • Highlight unique perks and incentives, such as flexible work arrangements, professional development opportunities, and wellness programs, in recruitment materials. 10. Streamlined Application Process: • Simplify the application process by minimizing unnecessary steps and ensuring that it's mobile-friendly. • Provide clear instructions and guidance to applicants to enhance their experience and encourage completion. Sample Advertisement: By implementing these recommendations and crafting compelling recruitment strategies, you can attract a diverse pool of qualified candidates and elevate your hiring process to ensure the best fit for your organization. CASE INCIDENT: Expansion at Ontario Engineering Works (page 164) 1. Make your recommendation on the best recruitment method(s) for each type of workforce. From the percentage figures provided in the incident, we can calculate the absolute figures for each column. These are shown in the two tables below along with the percentages in parentheses. For calculating the recruitment cost of replacing employees who left the organization (the last column), the number of employees hired must be multiplied by the average recruitment cost per employee and the percentage turnover. The top two favourable figures in each column are shown in bold letters. As you can see, different recruitment methods score high on varying criteria; however, considering most criteria, it would appear that employee referrals and campus recruiting are the most effective for hiring production workers. If the focus is on getting the greatest number of recruits, then other methods such as advertisements or Internet recruiting become attractive. It should be noted that the employee turnover costs are highest (in absolute terms) for advertisements. In the case of sales staff, HRDC and write-ins seem to score on multiple criteria. Again, if the objective is to get the maximum number of recruits, advertisements seem to be the appropriate approach. The objective of the case incident is to impress upon students the alternate conclusions that can result when using different evaluation criteria. Students should also be encouraged to question the reasons why the turnover is highest among those recruited through advertisements. Are the advertisements conveying a false message about the firm and/or the job? Alternatively, are the advertisements targeted at a vastly different audience? Further research is in order. Recruitment Statistics for Production Workers
Total number of applications Yield in percentage Ratio of acceptance to applications (%) Ratio of acceptance to job offer (%) Cost of recruiting per person hired Cost of employee turnover (% in 2 years)
Walk-in 90 9% 27(30) 14(50) $20 $39(14)
Write-in 170 17% 68(40) 41(60) $40 $246(15)
HRDC 40 4% 8(20) 6(70) $12 $7(10)
Advertisements 230 23% 115(50) 86(75) $110 $1183(12.5)
Employee referrals 30 3% 15(50) 9(60) $20 $7(4)
Campus recruiting 30 3% 18(60) 14(75) $20 $21(7.5)
Internet 410 41% 33(8) 17(50) $40 $136(20)
Recruitment Statistics for Sales Staff
Total number of applications Yield in percentage Ratio of acceptance to applications (%) Ratio of acceptance to job offer (%) Cost of recruiting per person hired Cost of employee turnover (% in 2 years)
Walk-in 30 3% 9(30) 6(70) $20 $12(10)
Write-in 60 6% 48(80) 38(80) $30 $57(5)
HRDC 130 13% 33(25) 26(80) $9 $18(7.5)
Advertisements 420 42% 210(50) 105(50) $140 $2205(15)
Employee referrals 20 2% 8(40) 4(50) $20 $7(9)
Campus recruiting 40 4% 20(50) 12(60) $30 $4(14)
Internet 300 30% 36(12) 14(40) $30 $76(18)
Source: H. Das, Recruitment, Selection, and Deployment of Human Resources, Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2007. EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES (page 165) 1. Examine the classified and display ads appearing in the help-wanted section of a recent newspaper. Using the AIDA guidelines presented in this chapter, analyze the effectiveness of each one. Answering this question requires an understanding of the AIDA guidelines described on page 146: The ad should attract attention. The ads that stand out have borders, a company logo or picture, and effective use of empty white space. To attract attention, key positions should be advertised in display ads, not lost in the columns of classified ads. The ad should develop interest in the job by pointing out the range of duties and/or the amount of challenge or responsibility involved. Sometimes other aspects of the job, such as its location or working conditions, are useful in attracting interest. To ensure that the individuals attracted are qualified, the job specifications should always be included. The ad should create a desire for the job by capitalizing on the interesting aspects of the job itself and by pointing out any unique benefits or opportunities associated with it. Desire may also be created by stressing the employer’s commitment to employment equity. The target audience should be kept in mind as the ad is being created. The ad should instigate action by including a closing date and a statement such as “Call today” or “Send your résumé today by fax or e-mail” or “Check out our Web site for more information” or “Go to the site of our next job fair.” 2. Working individually or in small groups, design an application form meeting human rights legislation requirements. Application forms cannot ask questions that would directly or indirectly classify candidates on the basis of any one of the prohibited grounds. Most prohibited questions are fairly easily identifiable – age, date of birth, marital status, etc. Potentially discriminatory information can be revealed, however, by requesting a photograph; asking whether the applicant would prefer to be addressed as Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms.; requesting a social insurance number; asking for the name, address, and dates of educational institutions attended; and asking questions about workers' compensation claims. Helpful hints regarding questions that can and cannot be asked are outlined in the Guide to Screening and Selection in Employment on pages 63–64. The sample application form developed by the Ontario Human Rights Commission included as Figure 5.7 on page 160 will also provide assistance in designing a legally compliant application form. Solution Manual for Human Resources Management in Canada Human Resources Management in Canada Gary Dessler, Nina D. Cole 9780132270878, 9780134005447

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