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CHAPTER TWO THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS AND PROPOSALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES (PPT slide 2-2) 1. Describe the major environmental factors influencing marketing research. 2. Discuss the research process and explain the various steps. 3. Distinguish between exploratory, descriptive, and causal research designs. 4. Identify and explain the major components of a research proposal. KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS Causal research Census Descriptive research Exploratory research Gatekeeper technologies Information research process Knowledge Primary data Research proposal Sample Scientific method Secondary data Situation analysis Target population Unit of analysis CHAPTER SUMMARY BY LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the major environmental factors influencing marketing research. Several key environmental factors have significant impact on changing the tasks, responsibilities, and efforts associated with marketing research practices. Marketing research has risen from a supporting role within organizations to being integral in strategic planning. The Internet and e-commerce, gatekeeper technologies and data privacy legislation, and new global market structure expansions are all forcing researchers to balance their use of secondary and primary data to assist decision makers in solving decision problems and taking advantage of opportunities. Researchers need to improve their ability to use technology-driven tools and databases. There are also greater needs for faster data acquisition and retrieval, analysis, and interpretation of cross-functional data and information among decision-making teams within global market environments. Discuss the research process and explain the various steps. The information research process has four major phases, identified as (1) determine the research problem, (2) select the appropriate research design, (3) execute the research design, and (4) communicate the results. To achieve the overall objectives of each phase, researchers must be able to successfully execute 11 interrelated task steps: (1) identify and clarify information needs, (2) define the research problem and questions, (3) specify research objectives and confirm the information value, (4) determine the research design and data sources, (5) develop the sampling design and sample size, (6) examine measurement issues and scales, (7) design and pretest questionnaires, (8) collect and prepare data, (9) analyze data, (10) interpret data to create knowledge, and (11) prepare and present the final report Distinguish between exploratory, descriptive, and causal research designs. The main objective of exploratory research designs is to create information that the researcher or decision maker can use to (1) gain a clear understanding of the problem; (2) define or redefine the initial problem, separating the symptoms from the causes; (3) confirm the problem and objectives; or (4) identify the information requirements. Exploratory research designs are often intended to provide preliminary insight for follow-up quantitative research. However, sometimes qualitative exploratory methods are used as standalone techniques because the topic under investigation requires in-depth understanding of a complex web of consumer culture, psychological motivations, and behavior. For some research topics, quantitative research may be too superficial or it may elicit responses from consumers that are rationalizations rather than true reasons for purchase decisions and behavior. Descriptive research designs produce numeric data to describe existing characteristics (e.g., attitudes, intentions, preferences, purchase behaviors, evaluations of current marketing mix strategies) of a defined target population. The researcher looks for answers to how, who, what, when, and where questions. Information from descriptive designs allows decision makers to draw inferences about their customers, competitors, target markets, environmental factors, or other phenomena. Finally, causal research designs are most useful when the research objectives include the need to understand why market phenomena happen. The focus of causal research is to collect data that enables the decision maker or researcher to model cause-and-effect relationships between two or more variables. Identify and explain the major components of a research proposal. Once the researcher understands the different phases and task steps of the information research process, he or she can develop a research proposal. The proposal serves as a contract between the researcher and decision maker. There are nine sections suggested for inclusion: (1) purpose of the proposed research project; (2) type of study; (3) definition of the target population and sample size; (4) sample design, technique, and data collection method; (5) research instruments; (6) potential managerial benefits of the proposed study; (7) proposed cost structure for the project; (8) profile of the researcher and company; and (9) dummy tables of the projected results. CHAPTER OUTLINE Opening VIGNETTE: Solving Marketing Problems Using a Systematic Process Bill Shulby, president of Carolina Consulting Company, a marketing strategy consulting firm, was working with the owners of a regional telecommunications firm located in Texas. The Texas firm was interested in improving service quality processes. Dan Carter, one of the owners, asked Shulby about customer satisfaction and perceptions of the company’s image as they related to service quality and customer satisfaction. During the conversation, Carter stated that he was not sure how the company’s telecommunications services were viewed by current or potential customers. He said that the customer service department had recently received 11 calls from different customers complaining about a lot of things. Carter wanted to know how they could find out how satisfied their customers were overall and what could be done to improve their image. Shulby stated that the only way to obtain the answers to his question was to conduct a marketing research study. Shulby then told him about several studies they had done and how the information had been used to help the organizations. He agreed to prepare a research proposal summarizing the approach to be used, the deliverables, cost, and time frame for completion. I. Value of the Research Process (PPT slide 2-3) Business owners and managers often identify problems they need help to resolve. In such situations, additional information typically is needed to make a decision or to solve a problem. One solution is a marketing research study based on a scientific research process. II. Changing View of the Marketing Research Process (PPT slide 2-4 to 2-6) Organizations, both for-profit and not-for-profit, are increasingly confronted with new and complex challenges and also opportunities that are the result of changing legal, political, cultural, technological, and competitive issues. Perhaps the most influential factor is the Internet. The rapid technological advances and its growing use by people worldwide are making the Internet a driving force in many current and future developments in marketing research. Traditional research philosophies are being challenged as never before. For example, there is a growing emphasis on secondary data collection, analysis, and interpretation as a basis of making business decisions. Secondary data is information previously collected for some other problem or issue. A by-product of the technology advances is the ongoing collection of data that is placed in a data warehouse and is available as secondary data to help understand business problems and to improve decisions. In contrast, primary data is information collected specifically for a current research problem or opportunity. Another development is increased use of gatekeeper technologies (e.g., caller ID and automated screening and answering devices) as a means of protecting one’s privacy against intrusive marketing practices such as by telemarketers and illegal scam artists. Similarly, many Internet users either block the placement of cookies or periodically erase them in order to keep marketers from tracking their behavior. Marketing researchers’ ability to collect consumer data using traditional methods such as mail and telephone surveys has been severely limited by the combination of gatekeeper devices and recent federal and state data privacy legislation. Similarly, online marketers and researchers must provide opt-in/opt-out opportunities when soliciting business or collecting information. Advances in gatekeeper technologies will continue to challenge marketers to be more creative in developing new ways to reach respondents. A third development affecting marketing decision makers is firms’ widespread expansion into global markets. Global expansion introduces marketing decision makers to new sets of cultural issues that force researchers to focus not only on data collection tasks, but also on data interpretation and information management activities. Fourth, marketing research is being repositioned in businesses to play a more important role in strategy development. Marketing research is being used increasingly to identify new business opportunities and to develop new product, service, and delivery ideas. Marketing research is also being viewed not only as a mechanism to more efficiently execute CRM (customer relationship management) strategies, but also as a critical component in developing competitive intelligence. Collectively, these key influences are forcing managers and researchers to view marketing research as an information management function. The term information research reflects the evolving changes occurring in the market research industry affecting organizational decision makers. Indeed, a more appropriate name for the traditional marketing research process is now the information research process. The information research process is a systematic approach to collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and transforming data into decision-making information (PPT slide 2-6). III. Determining the Need for Information Research (PPT slide 2-7 and 2-9) Decision makers and researchers frequently are trained differently in their approach to identifying and solving business problems, questions, and opportunities. Until decision makers and marketing researchers become closer in their thinking, the initial recognition of the existence of a problem or opportunity should be the primary responsibility of the decision maker, not the researcher. A good rule of thumb is to ask “Can the decision-making problem (or question) be resolved based on past experience and managerial judgment?” If the response is “no,” research should be considered and perhaps implemented. Decision makers often initiate the research process because they recognize problem and opportunity situations that require more information before good plans of action can be developed. Once the research process is initiated, in most cases decision makers will need assistance in defining the problem, collecting and analyzing the data, and interpreting the data. There are several situations in which the decision to undertake a marketing research project may not be necessary. These are listed and discussed in Exhibit 2.1 (PPT slide 2-9): Insufficient time frames Inadequate resources Costs outweigh the value The initial responsibility of today’s decision makers is to determine if research should be used to collect the needed information. The questions the decision maker must ask to determine this include the following: Can the problem and/or opportunity be resolved using existing information and managerial judgment? Is adequate information available within the company’s internal record systems to address the problem? Is there enough time to conduct the necessary research before the final managerial decision must be made? Do the benefits of having the additional information outweigh the costs of gathering the information? Will the research provide useful feedback for decision making? Will this research give our competitors too much information about our marketing strategy? IV. Overview of the Information Research Process (PPT slide 2-10)
Exhibit 2.2 illustrates four distinct but related phases of the research process (PPT slide 2-11): Phase 1: Determine the research problem Phase 2: Select the appropriate research design Phase 3: Execute the research design Phase 4: Communicate the research results The phases of the process must be completed properly to obtain accurate information for decision making. But each phase can be viewed as a separate process that consists of several steps. The four phases are guided by the scientific method. This means the research procedures should be logical, objective, systematic, reliable, and valid. A. Transforming Data into Knowledge (PPT slide 2-12) The primary goal of the research process is to provide decision makers with knowledge that will enable them to resolve problems or pursue opportunities. Data becomes knowledge when someone, either the researcher or the decision maker, interprets the data and attaches meaning. B. Interrelatedness of the Steps and the Research Process (PPT slide 2-13) Exhibit 2.4 shows in more detail the steps included in each phase of the research process (PPT slide 2-13). Although in many instances researchers follow the four phases in order, individual steps may be shifted or omitted. The following factors directly impact how many of the steps are taken and in what order: The complexity of the problem The urgency for solving the problem The cost of alternative approaches The clarification of information needs V. Phase 1: Determine the Research Problem (PPT slide 2-13; 2-14; and 2-16) The process of determining the research problem involves three interrelated activities: Identify and clarify information needs Define the research questions Specify research objectives and confirm the information value A. Step 1: Identify and Clarify Information Needs (PPT slide 2-13 and 2-14) Generally, decision makers prepare a statement of what they believe is the problem before the researcher becomes involved. Then researchers assist decision makers to make sure the problem or opportunity has been correctly defined and the information requirements are known. For researchers to understand the problem, they use a problem definition process which includes several components: Agree on decision maker’s purpose of the research request Understand the complete problem situation Identify measurable symptoms and distinguish them from the root problem Select the unit of analysis Determine the relevant variables Problem definition begins by determining the research purpose. Decision makers must decide whether the services of a researcher are really needed. The researcher helps decision makers begin to define the problem by asking the decision maker why the research is needed. Having a general idea of why research is needed focuses attention on the circumstances surrounding the problem. The iceberg principle holds that decision makers are aware of only 10 percent of the true problem (PPT slide 2-16). Frequently the perceived problem is actually a symptom that is some type of measurable market performance factor, while 90 percent of the problem is not visible to decision makers. The decision maker and the researcher must both understand the complete problem. To gain an understanding, researchers and decision makers should do a situation analysis of the problem. A situation analysis gathers and synthesizes background information to familiarize the researcher with the overall complexity of the problem. A situation analysis attempts to identify the events and factors that have led to the situation, as well as any expected future consequences. Awareness of the complete problem situation provides better perspectives on the decision maker’s needs, the complexity of the problem, and the factors involved. A situation analysis enhances communication between the researcher and the decision maker. The researcher must understand the client’s business, including factors such as the industry, competition, product lines, markets, and in some cases production facilities. To do so, the researcher cannot rely solely on information provided by the client because many decision makers either do not know or will not disclose the information needed. Only when the researcher views the client’s business objectively can the true problem be clarified. Once the researcher understands the overall problem situation, he or she must work with the decision maker to separate the possible root problems from the observable and measurable symptoms that may have been initially perceived as being the problem. As a fundamental part of problem definition, the researcher must determine the appropriate unit of analysis for the study. The researcher must be able to specify whether data should be collected about individuals, households, organizations, departments, geographical areas, or some combination. The unit of analysis will provide direction in later activities such as scale development and sampling. The researcher and decision maker jointly determine the variables that need to be studied. The types of information needed (facts, predictions, relationships) must be identified. Exhibit 2.6 lists examples of variables that are often investigated in marketing research. B. Step 2: Define the Research Questions (PPT slide 2-13) The researcher must redefine the initial problem as a research question. For the most part, this is the responsibility of the researcher. To provide background information on other firms that may have faced similar problems, the researcher conducts a review of the literature. The literature review may uncover relevant theory and variables to include in the research. While the literature review ordinarily does not provide data that answers the research question, it can supply valuable perspectives and ideas that may be used in research design and in interpretation of results. The researcher must restate the initial variables associated with the problem in the form of key questions: how, what, where, when, and why. After redefining the problem into research questions and identifying the information requirements, the researcher must determine the types of data (secondary or primary) that will best answer each research question. Although final decisions on types of data is part of step 4 (Determine the Research Design and Data Sources), the researcher begins the process in step 2. The researcher asks the question, “Can the specific research question be addressed with data that already exist or does the question require new data?” To answer this question, researchers consider other issues such as data availability, data quality, and budget and time constraints. Finally, the researcher determines whether the information being requested is necessary. This step must be completed before going on to the third step. C. Step 3: Specify Research Objectives and Confirm the Information Value (PPT slide 2-13) The research objectives should be based on the development of research questions in step 2. Formally stated research objectives provide guidelines for determining other steps that must be taken. The assumption is that if the objectives are achieved, the decision maker will have the information needed to answer the research questions. Before moving to Phase II of the research process, the decision maker and the researcher must evaluate the expected value of the information. “Best judgment” answers have to be made to the following types of questions: Can the information be collected at all? Can the information tell the decision maker something not already known? Will the information provide significant insights? What benefits will be delivered by this information? VI. Phase II: Select the Research Design (PPT slide 2-13 to 2-15) The main focus of Phase II is to select the most appropriate research design to achieve the research objectives. A. Step 4: Determine the Research Design and Data Sources (PPT slide 2-13 to 2-15) The research design serves as an overall plan of the methods used to collect and analyze the data. Determining the most appropriate research design is a function of the research objectives and information requirements. The researcher must consider the types of data, the data collection method (e.g., survey, observation, in-depth interview), sampling method, schedule, and budget. There are three broad categories of research designs: Exploratory research Descriptive research Causal research Exploratory research has one of two objectives: Generating insights that will help define the problem situation confronting the researcher Deepening the understanding of consumer motivations, attitudes, and behavior that are not easy to access using other research methods. Examples of exploratory research methods include literature reviews of already available information; qualitative approaches such as focus groups and in-depth interviews, and pilot studies. Descriptive research involves collecting quantitative data to answer research questions. Descriptive information provides answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions. In marketing, examples of descriptive information include consumer attitudes, intentions, preferences, purchase behaviors, evaluations of current marketing mix strategies, and demographics. Descriptive studies may provide information about competitors, target markets, and environmental factors. Image assessment surveys or customer satisfaction surveys are examples of descriptive research. Causal research collects data that enables decision makers to determine cause-and-effect relationships between two or more variables. Causal research is most appropriate when the research objectives include the need to understand which variables (e.g., advertising, number of salespersons, price) cause a dependent variable (e.g., sales, customer satisfaction) to move. Understanding cause-effect relationships among market performance factors enables the decision maker to make “If–then” statements about the variables. Causal research designs provide an opportunity to assess and explain causality among market factors. But they often can be complex, expensive, and time consuming. The sources of data needed to address research problems may be classified as either secondary or primary. The sources used depend on two fundamental issues: Whether the data already exist If so, the extent to which the researcher or decision maker knows the reason(s) why the existing secondary data were collected. Sources of such secondary data include a company’s data warehouse, public libraries and universities, Internet websites, or commercial data purchased from firms specializing in providing secondary information. Primary data are collected directly from firsthand sources to address the current research problem. B. Step 5: Determine the Sampling Design and Sample Size (PPT slide 2-13 and 2-15) When conducting primary research, consideration must be given to the sampling design. If secondary research is conducted, the researcher must still determine that the population represented by the secondary data is relevant to the current research problem. If predictions are to be made about market phenomena, the sample must be representative. Typically, marketing decision makers are most interested in identifying and resolving problems associated with their target markets. Therefore, researchers need to identify the relevant target population. In collecting data, researchers can choose between collecting data from a census or a sample. In a census, the researcher attempts to question or observe all the members of a defined target population. For small populations a census may be the best approach. A second approach, used when the target population is large, involves selection of a sample from the defined target population. Researchers must use a representative sample of the population if they wish to generalize the findings. To achieve this objective, researchers develop a sampling plan as part of the overall research design. A sampling plan serves as the blueprint for: Defining the appropriate target population Identifying the possible respondents Establishing the procedures for selecting the sample Determining the appropriate sample size Sampling plans can be classified into two general types: Probability: In probability sampling, each member of the defined target population has a known chance of being selected. Probability sampling gives the researcher the opportunity to assess sampling error. Nonprobability: Nonprobability sampling plans cannot measure sampling error and thus limit the generalizability of the research findings. Qualitative research designs often use small samples, so sample members are usually hand-selected to ensure a relevant sample. Sample size affects the accuracy and generalizability of research results. Researchers must therefore determine how many people to include or how many objects to investigate. C. Step 6: Examine Measurement Issues and Scales (PPT slide 2-13) Step 6 is an important step in the research process for descriptive and causal designs. It involves identifying the concepts to study and measuring the variables related to the research problem. Researchers must be able to answer questions such as: How should a variable such as customer satisfaction or service quality be defined and measured? Should researchers use single- or multi-item measures to quantify variables? Although most of the activities involved in step 6 are related to primary research, understanding these activities is important in secondary research as well. D. Step 7: Design and Pretest the Questionnaire (PPT slide 2-13) Researchers must select the correct type of questions, consider the sequence and format, and pretest the questionnaire. Pretesting obtains information from people representative of those who will be questioned in the actual survey. In a pretest respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire and comment on issues such as clarity of instructions and questions, sequence of the topics and questions, and anything that is potentially difficult or confusing. VII. Phase III: Execute the Research Design (PPT slide 2-13) The main objectives of the execution phase are: To finalize all necessary data collection forms Gather and prepare the data Analyze and interpret the data to understand the problem or opportunity A. Step 8: Collect and Prepare Data (PPT slide 2-13) There are two approaches to gathering data: Using interviewers to ask questions about variables and market phenomena or to use self-completion questionnaires Observing individual behavior or market phenomena Self-administered surveys, personal interviews, computer simulations, telephone interviews, and focus groups are just some of the tools researchers use to collect data. A major advantage of questioning over observation is questioning enables researchers to collect a wider array of data. Questioning approaches can collect information about attitudes, intentions, motivations, and past behavior, which are usually invisible in observational research. In short, questioning approaches can be used to answer not just how a person is behaving, but why. Once primary data are collected, researchers must perform several activities before data analysis. Researchers usually assign a numerical descriptor (code) to all response categories so that data can be entered into the electronic data file. The data then must be examined for coding, data-entry errors, inconsistencies, availability, and so on. Data preparation is also necessary when information is used from internal data warehouses. B. Step 9: Analyze Data (PPT slide 2-13) Data analysis procedures vary widely in sophistication and complexity, from simple frequency distributions (percentages) to summary statistics (mean, median, and mode) and multivariate data analysis. In qualitative research studies, textual and/or visual information is examined, categorized, and even sometimes tabulated. Different procedures enable the researcher to statistically test hypotheses for significant differences or correlations among several variables, evaluate data quality, and test models of cause-effect relationships. C. Step 10: Interpret Data to Create Knowledge (PPT slide 2-13) Knowledge is created through engaged and careful interpretation of results. Interpretation is more than a narrative description of the results. It involves integrating several aspects of the findings into conclusions that can be used to answer the research questions. VIII. Phase IV: Communicate the Results (PPT slide 2-13) The last phase of the research process is reporting the research findings to management. The overall objective often is to prepare a nontechnical report that is useful to decision makers whether or not they have marketing research backgrounds. A. Step 11: Prepare and Present the Final Report (PPT slide 2-13) The importance of preparing and presenting the final research report to management cannot be overstated. The sections that should be included in any research report are: Executive summary Introduction Problem definition and objectives Methodology Results and findings Limitations of study In some cases, the researcher not only submits a written report but also makes an oral presentation of the major findings. IX. Develop a Research Proposal (PPT slide 2-17) By understanding the four phases of the research process, a researcher can develop a research proposal that communicates the research framework to the decision maker. A research proposal is a specific document that serves as a written contract between the decision maker and the researcher. It lists the activities that will be undertaken to develop the needed information, the research deliverables, how long it will take, and what it will cost. The research proposal is not the same as a final research report. They are at two different ends of the process, but some of the sections are necessarily similar. There is no best way to write a research proposal. If a client asks for research proposals from two or three different companies for a given research problem, they are likely to be somewhat different in the methodologies and approach suggested for the problem. Exhibit 2.8 shows the sections that should be included in most research proposals (PPT slide 2-18 and 2-19): Purpose of the proposed research project Type of study Definition of the target population and sample size Sample design and data collection method Specific research instruments Potential managerial benefits of the proposed study Proposed cost for the total project Profile of the research company capabilities Optional dummy tables of the projected results MARKETING RESEARCH IN ACTION MAGNUM HOTEL PREFERRED GUEST CARD RESEARCH PROPOSAL (PPT slide 2-20) The Marketing Research in Action focus in this chapter is the Magnum Hotel Preferred Guest Card program. The hotel needs a research project which can address several key questions. The research will be structured, undisguised and include both exploratory and descriptive components. The target population will be adults who are current cardholders of the Magnum Hotel card. A probability sample will be drawn from the target population. The questionnaire will be self-administered. The project will result in a customer database. A proposed budget is provided, with a total cost of $27,350. Instructor Manual for Essentials of Marketing Research Joseph F. Hair, Mary Celsi, Robert P. Bush, David J. Ortinau 9780078028816, 9780078112119

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