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Chapter 2: Elements of High-Quality Programs
1. A variable can hold more than one value at any given moment in time.
Answer: False
2. Because one memory location can be used repeatedly with different values, you can write
program instructions once and then use them for thousands of separate calculations
Answer: True
3. In many programming languages, if you declare a variable and do not initialize it, the
variable contains an unknown value until it is assigned a value.
Answer: True
4. Variable names can be more than one word with blanks between the words.
Answer: False
5. The assignment operator has left-to-right-to-left associativity, which means that the value
of the expression to the left of the assignment operator is evaluated first and that the result is
assigned to the operand on the right.
Answer: False
6. A string variable can hold digits such as phone numbers and zip codes.
Answer: True
7. Programmers generally write programs as one long series of steps.
Answer: False
8. Modularization makes it harder for multiple programmers to work on a problem.
Answer: False
9. Program comments are a type of internal documentation.
Answer: True
10. Most modern programming languages require that program statements be placed in
specific columns.
Answer: False
1. When you write programs, you work with data in three different forms: ____.
a. values; variables, or named values; and unnamed values
b. variables; named constants; and named memory
c. variables; literals, or unnamed constants; and named constants

d. variations; transliterals, or unnamed constants; and named values
Answer: C
2. A specific numeric value is often called a(n) ____.
a. named constant
b. defined constant
c. arithmetic constant
d. numeric constant
Answer: D
3. Fractional numeric variables that contain a decimal point are known as ____ variables.
a. partial
b. string
c. integer
d. floating-point
Answer: D
4. In most programming languages, before you can use any variable, you must include a ____
for it.
a. declaration
b. definition
c. header
d. proclamation
Answer: A
5. The process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them is called ____
a. initializing
b. declaring
c. identifying
d. proclaiming
Answer: B
6. A variable’s unknown value is commonly called ____.
a. initial
b. default

c. deterministically random
d. garbage
Answer: D
7. Declaring a starting value for a variable is known as ____ the variable.
a. initializing
b. declaring
c. defining
d. identifying
Answer: A
8. When the variable starts with a lowercase letter and any subsequent word begins with an
uppercase letter, this is called ____.
a. Hungarian notation
b. Pascal casing
c. camel casing
d. Turing notation
Answer: C
9. When the first letter of a variable name is uppercase, as in HourlyWage, the format is
known as ____ casing.
a. Hungarian notation
b. Pascal casing
c. camel casing
d. Turing notation
Answer: B
10. ____ is where a variable’s data type or other information is stored as part of the name.
a. Hungarian notation
b. Pascal case
c. Turing notation
d. Camel case
Answer: A
11. The assignment operator is the ____ sign.
a. *

b. +
c. =
d. /
Answer: C
12. A(n) ____ is similar to a variable, except it can be assigned a value only once.
a. unnamed constant
b. literal
c. named constant
d. constant
Answer: C
13. The ____ dictate the order in which operations in the same statement are carried out.
a. rules of precedence
b. statement rules
c. operation rules
d. rules of arithmetic
Answer: A
14. Depending on the programming language being used, modules are also known as ____ .
a. subroutines, procedures, or methods
b. subroutines, code bits, or methods
c. tasks, functions, or methods
d. procedures, functions, or hierarchy
Answer: A
15. The process of breaking down a large program into modules is called ____.
a. decomposition
b. modularization
c. unification
d. orientation
Answer: B
16. ____ is the process of paying attention to important properties while ignoring
nonessential details.
a. Abstraction

b. Modularization
c. Abbreviation
d. Decomposition
Answer: A
17. Programmers say the statements that are contained in a module have been ____.
a. embedded
b. decomposed
c. encapsulated
d. modularized
Answer: C
18. Programmers say that variables and constants declared within a module are ____ only
within that module.
a. abstracted
b. out of scope
c. in scope
d. in reference
Answer: C
19. ____ variables and constants are known to the entire program.
a. Local
b. Transient
c. Heap
d. Global
Answer: D
20. The mainline logic of almost every procedural computer program consists of these three
distinct parts: ____ .
a. housekeeping tasks, processing tasks, and end-of-job tasks
b. clearing tasks, detail loop tasks, and end-of-job tasks
c. housekeeping tasks, detail loop tasks, and end-of-job tasks
d. housekeeping tasks, detail loop tasks, and math tasks
Answer: C

21. When a program has several modules calling other modules, programmers often use a
program ____, which operates similarly to an organizational chart, to show the overall picture
of how modules are related to one another.
a. hierarchy chart
b. tree chart
c. flow chart
d. data diagram
Answer: A
22. As programs become larger and more complicated, the need for good planning and design
a. decreases
b. is inefficient
c. is not necessary
d. increases
Answer: D
23. An ____ is most often represented by a three-sided box that is connected to the step it
references by a dashed line.
a. abstraction symbol
b. annotation symbol
c. abbreviation symbol
d. enumeration symbol
Answer: B
24. Programmers refer to programs that contain meaningful names as ____.
a. undocumented
b. procedurally documented
c. formally documented
d. self-documenting
Answer: D
25. A ____ variable is not used for input or output, but instead is just a working variable that
you use during a program’s execution.
a. programming
b. throw away

c. temporary
d. calculating
Answer: C
1. Whole number variables are known as ____________________ variables.
Answer: integer
2. Declaring a starting value is known as ____________________ the variable.
Answer: initializing
3. Each programming language has a few reserved ____________________ that are not
allowed as variable names because they are part of the language’s syntax.
Answer: keywords
key words
4. ___________________ tasks include any steps you must perform at the beginning of a
program to get ready for the rest of the program.
Answer: Housekeeping
House keeping
house keeping
5. Program ___________________ are written explanations that are not part of the program
logic but that serve as documentation for readers of the program.
Answer: comments
Match each term with a statement below.
1. Named memory locations whose contents can vary or differ over time a. Reliability
2. A statement that provides a data type and an identifier for a variable b. Declaration
3. A program component’s name c. Echoing input
4. Can hold digits and have mathematical operations performed on it d. String variable
5. Can hold text, such as letters of the alphabet, and other special characters, such as
punctuation marks e. Identifier

6. The feature of programming languages that prevents assigning values of an incorrect data
type f. Prompt
7. The feature of programs that assures you a module has been tested and proven to function
correctly g. Variables
8. A list of every variable name used in a program, along with its type, size, and description
h. Data dictionary
9. A message that is displayed on a monitor to ask the user for a response and perhaps explain
how that response should be formatted i. Numeric variable
10. The act of repeating input back to a user either in a subsequent prompt or in output j.
1. Answer: G
2. Answer: B
3. Answer: E
4. Answer: I
5. Answer: D
6. Answer: J
7. Answer: A
8. Answer: H
9. Answer: F
10. Answer: C
1. What does a data item’s data type describe?
Answer: A data item’s data type is a classification that describes the following:
1) What values can be held by the item
2) How the item is stored in computer memory
3) What operations can be performed on the data item
2. List three reasons for modularizing a large program.
Answer: 1) Modularization provides abstraction.
2) Modularization allows multiple programmers to work on a problem.
3) Modularization allows you to reuse your work more easily.
3. What items should you include when you create a module?
Answer: When you create a module, you include the following:

1) A header—A module’s header includes the module identifier and possibly other necessary
identifying information.
2) A body—A module’s body contains all the statements in the module.
3) A return statement—A module’s return statement marks the end of the module and
identifies the point at which control returns to the program or module that called the module.
4. Explain the purpose of detail loop tasks.
Answer: Detail loop tasks do the core work of the program. When a program processes many
records, detail loop tasks execute repeatedly for each set of input data until there are no more.
For example, in a payroll program, the same set of calculations is executed repeatedly until a
check has been produced for each employee.
5. What are end-of-job tasks?
Answer: End-of-job tasks are the steps you take at the end of the program to finish the
application. You can call these finish-up or clean-up tasks. They might include displaying
totals or other final messages and closing any open files.
6. List three design features that you can use while creating programs to make them easier to
write and maintain.
Answer: Students should list three of the following:
1) You should use program comments where appropriate.
2) Your identifiers should be well chosen.
3) You should strive to design clear statements within your programs and modules.
4) You should write clear prompts and echo input.
5) You should continue to maintain good programming habits as you develop your
programming skills.
7. Explain the purpose of annotation symbols.
Answer: In a flowchart, you can use an annotation symbol to hold information that expands
on what is stored within another flowchart symbol. An annotation symbol is most often
represented by a three-sided box that is connected to the step it references by a dashed line.
Annotation symbols are used to hold comments, or sometimes statements that are too long to
fit neatly into a flowchart symbol.
8. Discuss why it is important to use meaningful names for identifiers.
Answer: Creating a data item named someData or a module named firstModule() makes a
program cryptic. Not only will others find it hard to read your programs, but you will forget
the purpose of these identifiers even within your own programs. All programmers
occasionally use short, non-descriptive names such as x or temp in a quick program;
however, in most cases, data and module names should be meaningful. Programmers refer to
programs that contain meaningful names as self-documenting. This means that even without
further documentation, the program code explains itself to readers.

9. Explain the purpose of temporary variables.
Answer: When you need several mathematical operations to determine a result, consider
using a series of temporary variables to hold intermediate results. A temporary variable (or a
work variable) is not used for input or output, but instead is just a working variable that you
use during a program’s execution.
10. Discuss why it is important to maintain good programming habits.
Answer: When you learn a programming language and begin to write lines of program code,
it is easy to forget the principles you have learned in this text. Having some programming
knowledge and a keyboard at your fingertips can lure you into typing lines of code before you
think things through. But every program you write will be better if you plan before you code.
If you maintain the habit of first drawing flowcharts or writing pseudocode, as you have
learned here, your future programming projects will go more smoothly. If you desk-check
your program logic on paper before starting to type statements in a programming language,
your programs will run correctly sooner. If you think carefully about the variable and module
names you use, and design your program statements to be easy to read and use, your
programs will be easier to develop and maintain.

Test Bank for Programming Logic and Design
Joyce Farrell
9781111969752, 9788131525906, 9781111825959

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