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This Document Contains Chapters 19 to 20 Chapter 19 Disorders of Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. Kody Scott, a gang member nicknamed "Monster," is a violent person who craves excitement, fears nothing, and has no guilt or remorse. Scott most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. paranoid C. schizotypal D. narcissistic Answer: A. antisocial 2. Personality disorders usually include the problems below EXCEPT for A. difficulties with social relationships. B. emotional problems. C. deficits in intelligence. D. problems with self concept Answer: C. deficits in intelligence. 3. Personality disorders can be thought of as A. exaggerated levels of cognitive activity. B. maladaptive variations or combinations of normal personality traits. C. special categories of abnormal personality traits. D. extreme levels of emotionality unaffected by personality traits. Answer: B. maladaptive variations or combinations of normal personality traits. 4. Which of the following is NOT a reason motives are important in understanding maladaptive personality disorders A. an exaggerated need for power at high levels may result in a maladaptive personality disorder. B. variations in normal personality traits are not related to maladaptive personality disorders. C. individuals with maladaptive personality disorders may have a lack of motivation for intimacy. D. an extreme need for superiority is found in individuals with narcissistic personality disorder. Answer: B. variations in normal personality traits are not related to maladaptive personality disorders. 5. The field of _______________ psychology mainly studies mental disorders. A. differential B. abnormal C. health D. social Answer: B. abnormal 6. The statistical definition of abnormal focuses on A. ways that behavior cause an individual to suffer. B. ways that behaviors cause the community to suffer. C. characteristics that are rare in the population. D. ways standard personality traits can be seen as abnormal. Answer: C. characteristics that are rare in the population. 7. Which of the following is one of the biggest problems in using social and statistical definitions of abnormal? A. Societal norms change over time. B. It is difficult to determine what behaviors are not acceptable in a society. C. It is difficult to collect data on atypical behaviors. D. Every person is unique. Answer: A. Societal norms change over time. 8. Psychological definitions of abnormality focus on A. how rare personality characteristics are. B. the objective experience of people. C. behavior patterns that put people at higher risk for problems. D. social definitions of abnormality. Answer: D. social definitions of abnormality. 9. The DSM-IV is A. a gene related to dopamine. B. a manual that describes categories of mental disorders. C. a personality disorder. D. a statistical technique to determine validity. Answer: B. a manual that describes categories of mental disorders. 10. _______________ is defined as enduring patterns of behavior or experience that differs greatly from the expectations of a person's culture. A. Abnormal psychology B. A disorder C. A personality disorder D. Psychopathy Answer: C. A personality disorder 11. A behavioral problem is not considered a personality disorder if it A. is the result of drug abuse. B. has been evident since childhood. C. is an enduring pattern of behavior. D. leads to clinically significant stress. Answer: A. is the result of drug abuse. 12. A characteristic common to all personality disorders is A. avoidance of social situations. B. impaired social relations. C. indifference to social rules. D. an erratic pattern of behaviors Answer: B. impaired social relations. 13. According to _______________, a person either has a disorder or does not. A. abnormal psychologists B. the neurotic paradox C. the dimensional view D. the categorical view Answer: D. the categorical view 14. The _______________ states that there is a qualitative break between abnormal and normal personalities. A. dimensional view B. categorical view C. neurotic paradox D. narcissistic paradox Answer: B. categorical view 15. According to the dimensional view of personality disorders each disorder A. is seen as a quantitative break between abnormal and normal personalities. B. is seen as a continuum ranging from normality at one end to severe disability and disturbance at the other. C. is bimodal, with both normal and abnormal modes of behaviors. D. has a different mean level of abnormality in the population. Answer: B. is seen as a continuum ranging from normality at one end to severe disability and disturbance at the other. 16. Modern theorists believe the _______________ view of personality disorders provides a reliable and meaningful way of describing _______________. A. dimensional; extreme forms of normal personality traits B. categorical; qualitative breaks between normal and abnormal personality C. dimensional; qualitative breaks between normal and abnormal personality D. categorical; extreme forms of normal personality traits Answer: A. dimensional; extreme forms of normal personality traits 17. A psychologist should be especially hesitant before diagnosing a personality disorder in all of these groups EXCEPT A. adolescent populations. B. criminal populations. C. adults undergoing a severe loss. D. immigrant populations. Answer: B. criminal populations. 18. Adolescents who experiment with different identities A. will most likely grow out of this stage. B. likely have narcissistic personality disorder. C. likely have borderline personality disorder. D. likely have histrionic personality disorder. Answer: A. will most likely grow out of this stage. 19. Chinn has just immigrated to Buffalo, New York from Singapore. He seems depressed and quite withdrawn. A friend suggests that he makes an appointment with a psychologist. Chinn's problems are most likely the result of A. an antisocial personality disorder. B. his recent immigration to Buffalo. C. the narcissistic American culture. D. his basic personality traits. Answer: B. his recent immigration to Buffalo. 20. Men tend to have more personality disorders than women in which they A. internalize behaviors like depression and self harm. B. externalize behaviors like fighting and violence. C. exhibit narcissistic behaviors like self aggrandizement. D. exhibit obsessive-compulsive behaviors like repeatedly checking locks. Answer: B. externalize behaviors like fighting and violence. 21. People with _______________ personality disorders have also been described as sociopaths or psychopaths. A. borderline B. antisocial C. obsessive-compulsive D. schizoid Answer: B. antisocial 22. Ron is 11 years old and enjoys nothing better then torturing snakes. He also defiantly disobeys his parents and frequently stays out almost all night. Ron most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. antisocial C. histrionic D. schizotypal Answer: B. antisocial 23. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with A. withdrawn behavior in childhood. B. aggression and cruelty in childhood. C. hallucinations in childhood. D. paranoid behavior in childhood Answer: B. aggression and cruelty in childhood. 24. If a child does not display signs of conduct disorder by the age of 16, it is very A. unlikely that he or she will develop antisocial personality disorder. B. likely that he or she will develop antisocial personality disorder. C. likely that that he or she will develop avoidant personality disorder. D. unlikely that he or she will develop avoidant personality disorder. Answer: A. unlikely that he or she will develop antisocial personality disorder. 25. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of antisocial personality disorder? A. Little concern for others. B. Impulsivity. C. Strong emotions. D. Lack of guilt. Answer: C. Strong emotions. 26. Mark walked by a car he liked and just decided to steal it. After he was incarcerated for his crime, Mark confided to his cellmate that he did not plan to take the car in advance, and did not even look in the back seat where Detective Johnson was taking a nap. Mark most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. antisocial C. borderline D. histrionic Answer: B. antisocial 27. Which of the following is NOT a trait related to antisocial personality disorder? A. Irresponsibility B. Excessive attention-seeking C. Superficial charm D. Recklessness Answer: B. Excessive attention-seeking 28. People with _______________ personality disorder are unlikely to feel remorse if they cause others to suffer. A. schizoid B. antisocial C. avoidant D. histrionic Answer: B. antisocial 29. Some researchers have theorized that one cause of _______________ personality disorder might be an inability to experience fear. A. antisocial B. paranoid C. histrionic D. schizoid Answer: A. antisocial 30. Research suggests that, as compared to other people, in fearful situations psychopaths _______________. A. self-report more fear. B. self-report less fear. C. exhibit smaller physiological reactions. D. exhibit larger physiological reactions. Answer: C. exhibit smaller physiological reactions. 31. The social learning perspective on antisocial personality disorder suggests that A. people with antisocial personality disorder were that way since infancy. B. people with antisocial personality disorder were likely abused as children. C. people with antisocial personality disorder are unconcerned with power. D. Both B and C. Answer: B. people with antisocial personality disorder were likely abused as children. 32. Using Gray's theory to explain the antisocial personality disorder, we might hypothesize that such psychopaths have a A. strong BIS. B. weak BIS. C. strong BAS D. weak BAS. Answer: B. weak BIS. 33. From the social learning perspective, antisocial personality disorder may be the result of A. having an extremely strong fear response. B. operant conditioning of the behavioral inhibition system. C. desensitization and repetition of antisocial behaviors. D. the presence of a strong behavioral inhibition system. Answer: C. desensitization and repetition of antisocial behaviors. 34. The lives of individuals with borderline personality disorders are primarily marked by A. insanity. B. instability. C. impotence. D. insecurity. Answer: B. instability. 35. Lillian has been married three times, she has trouble keeping a job for more than a couple of years, and is very emotionally unstable. Lillian most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. antisocial C. borderline D. histrionic Answer: C. borderline 36. People with _______________ personality disorder have unstable emotions, relationships, and images of themselves. A. borderline B. dependent C. narcissistic D. schizotypal Answer: A. borderline 37. Individuals with which of the following personality disorders might attempt suicide or self-mutilation in an attempt to manipulate people with whom they have relationships? A. Schizoid B. Dependent C. Borderline D. Histrionic Answer: C. Borderline 38. People with _______________ personality disorder are likely to have romantic relationships that are intense and unstable. A. antisocial B. schizoid C. borderline D. dependent Answer: C. borderline 39. Glen Close's character in the movie "Fatal Attraction" most likely has a _______________ personality disorder. A. borderline B. dependent C. narcissistic D. schizotypal Answer: A. borderline 40. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of borderline personality disorder? A. Strong emotions B. Aggressiveness C. Prone to self-harm D. Detachment from social relationships Answer: D. Detachment from social relationships 41. _______________ personality disorder is thought to be the result of abuse in early childhood. A. Obsessive-compulsive B. Histrionic C. Borderline D. Dependent Answer: C. Borderline 42. The following are all things a person married to an individual with borderline personality disorder may do to help form a stable relationship with their partner EXCEPT A. Provide structure and support. B. Be accepting and stable. C. Concentrate on trouble as it occurs. D. Meets expectations for commitment. Answer: C. Concentrate on trouble as it occurs. 43. Many researchers believe that borderline personality disorder is caused by A. being very spoiled as a child. B. a strong behavioral activating system. C. childhood physical or sexual abuse or an early loss of love from parents. D. desensitization to the emotions of other individuals. Answer: C. childhood physical or sexual abuse or an early loss of love from parents. 44. If a child comes to believe that other people are not to be trusted, he or she may be at risk of developing a(n) _______________ personality disorder. A. obsessive-compulsive B. histrionic C. borderline D. narcissistic Answer: C. borderline 45. People with _______________ personality disorder are often sexually provocative in inappropriate ways. A. schizotypal B. histrionic C. obsessive-compulsive D. borderline Answer: B. histrionic 46. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of people with histrionic personality disorder? A. Strong need for attention B. Suspiciousness C. Shallow opinions D. Strong emotions Answer: B. Suspiciousness 47. Roger always has to be the center of attention. Often he will seek attention by being overly dramatic. He always has an opinion about everything, even if he does not know what is talking about. Roger most likely has a(n) _______________ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. impulsive C. borderline D. dependent Answer: A. histrionic 48. If a woman who wears an excessive amount of carefully applied makeup, an overly elaborate hairstyle, and flashy clothes has a personality disorder, it is most likely a(n) _______________ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. antisocial C. borderline D. dependent Answer: A. histrionic 49. Histrionic individuals are difficult to get along with due to their excessive need for A. intimacy. B. achievement. C. attention. D. power. Answer: C. attention. 50. A person with a need to be admired and an inflated sense of self-importance most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. borderline B. antisocial C. schizoid D. narcissistic Answer: D. narcissistic 51. The _______________ paradox refers to the finding that some people have apparently high self-esteem, but actually are very emotionally fragile. A. neurotic B. narcissistic C. dependent D. histrionic Answer: B. narcissistic 52. People with _______________ personality disorder often achieve much because of their drive and ambition. A. antisocial B. narcissistic C. schizoid D. dependent Answer: B. narcissistic 53. Kim has an extremely strong sense of entitlement. She believes she is the most important supervisor in her firm. She routinely expects that her employees give her praise and adulation. Kim most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. narcissistic C. schizoid D. dependent Answer: B. narcissistic 54. People who have narcissistic personality disorder A. generally do not achieve much in life. B. are insensitive to the needs of others. C. tend to be very suggestible. D. have shallow opinions about issues. Answer: B. are insensitive to the needs of others. 55. People with _______________ personality disorder most likely experience little pleasure from sex or eating. A. antisocial B. histrionic C. avoidant D. schizoid Answer: D. schizoid 56. Individuals with a schizoid personality disorder have A. strong emotions. B. an inflated sense of self-importance. C. suspicions of others people. D. appear socially clumsy. Answer: D. appear socially clumsy. 57. People with _______________ personality disorder are more likely to stare at other people without initiating any social interaction. A. avoidant B. schizoid C. schizotypal D. obsessive-compulsive Answer: B. schizoid 58. Sam has just relocated to New York City after growing up on a farm in rural Nebraska. He has great difficulty in adapting to life in the big city and appears socially numb and passive. Sam's behavior is A. diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder. B. mimicking schizoid personality disorder. C. related to schizotypal type behaviors. D. representative of avoidant personality disorder. Answer: B. mimicking schizoid personality disorder. 59. People who feel anxious because they feel they do not fit into social groups most likely have _______________ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. schizotypal C. antisocial D. borderline Answer: B. schizotypal 60. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of schizotypal personality disorder? A. Suspiciousness. B. Odd and unusual habits. C. A propensity to be jealous. D. Anxiety in social situations. Answer: C. A propensity to be jealous. 61. A person who experiences odd sensations that border on hallucinations most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. schizotypal B. schizoid C. antisocial D. avoidant Answer: A. schizotypal 62. Francis believes in ghosts and spends much of his time going to séances, reading about ghosts, and visiting haunted houses. If Francis had a personality disorder, it most likely would be a _______________ personality disorder. A. schizotypal B. schizoid C. eccentric D. histrionic Answer: A. schizotypal 63. Which of the following traits is NOT one of the traits Mason and his colleagues have developed to measure schizotypal personality disorder? A. Cognitive disorganization B. Unusual experiences C. Conformity D. Tendency to avoid people Answer: C. Conformity 64. People with _______________ personality disorder tend to be distrustful of others and see others as constant threats. A. avoidant B. antisocial C. histrionic D. paranoid Answer: D. paranoid 65. A person with a paranoid personality disorder would most likely A. disregard the feelings of his or her spouse. B. accuse his or her spouse of cheating on them. C. abuse his or her spouse without remorse. D. leave his or her spouse to pursue short-term sexual relationships. Answer: B. accuse his or her spouse of cheating on them. 66. Gerta suspects that her husband is being unfaithful. She goes to great lengths to find support for her jealous beliefs despite that there is no evidence to show that he is cheating. Her husband cannot to anything to quell her jealous beliefs. Gerta's pathological jealousy is probably related to _______________ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. histrionic C. paranoid D. schizotypal Answer: C. paranoid 67. Scarf has argued that the "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski has _______________ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. narcissistic C. borderline D. avoidant Answer: B. narcissistic 68. Reporter Maggie Scarf argued that the Ted Kaczynski began mailing bombs to people because A. his sense of self-esteem was threatened. B. he had antisocial personality disorder. C. he was not very smart. D. he wanted attention, even if it was negative. Answer: A. his sense of self-esteem was threatened. 69. The _______________ paradox refers to behavior patterns that avoid one problem, but create other problems. A. neurotic B. narcissistic C. schizoid D. disorder Answer: A. neurotic 70. People with _______________ personality disorder are motivated by feelings of inadequacy and sensitivity to criticism. A. antisocial B. avoidant C. obsessive-compulsive D. schizoid Answer: B. avoidant 71. People who have avoidant personality disorder A. have extremely high self-esteem. B. have an aloof interactional style. C. restrict their activities to avoid embarrassment. D. reject any external criticism of their behavior. Answer: C. restrict their activities to avoid embarrassment. 72. Which of the following is a characteristic of the avoidant personality disorder? A. Feelings of inadequacy. B. Lack of concern for other people. C. Seeks reassurance from others. D. Strong pathological jealousy. Answer: A. Feelings of inadequacy. 73. Elika refuses to complete her term paper. She is very worried about the reaction of her professor to her ideas that are diametrically opposed to his ideas about a topic in psychology. Her refusal to complete this paper is probably a sign that she has a _______________ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. histrionic C. nervous D. distressed Answer: A. avoidant 74. People with an excessive need to be taken care of most likely have _______________ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. histrionic C. dependent D. narcissistic Answer: C. dependent 75. Lynne has trouble working independently. Instead of working independently, he will tolerate the abuse of others at work, avoiding disagreements at all costs. Lynne most likely has a(n) _______________ personality disorder. A. dependent B. eccentric C. obsessive D. paranoid Answer: A. dependent 76. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an individual with a dependent personality disorder? A. They have a strong need for praise from others. B. They perform many submissive behaviors. C. They do not work well independently. D. They have an excessive need for someone to take care of them. Answer: A. They have a strong need for praise from others. 77. A person who is preoccupied with order and perfection most likely has _______________ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. dependent C. antisocial D. obsessive-compulsive Answer: D. obsessive-compulsive 78. A person with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is likely to A. put play before work. B. hold very high personal standards. C. avoid social contact. D. have a poor self-concept Answer: B. hold very high personal standards. 79. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder? A. Striving for perfection. B. Rigid and inflexible. C. Frequently stingy. D. Does not work well independently. Answer: D. Does not work well independently. 80. Alejandro, who attends church every Sunday, has a strong moral and ethical code. If Alejandro has a personality disorder, it most likely will be a(n) _______________ disorder. A. obsessive compulsive B. dependent C. paranoid D. histrionic Answer: A. obsessive compulsive 81. The most prevalent personality disorder discussed in your text is A. histrionic. B. dependent. C. avoidant. D. obsessive compulsive. Answer: D. obsessive compulsive. 82. The least prevalent personality disorder discussed in your text is A. antisocial. B. borderline. C. narcissistic. D. schizoid. Answer: D. schizoid. 83. At any given time, approximately _______________ percent of the population is diagnosed with at least one type of personality disorder. A. .02 B. 5 C. 13 D. 25 Answer: C. 13 84. Comorbidity is the notion that A. individuals may have symptoms that meet the criteria for more then one personality disorder. B. two or more individuals in a relationship may share the traits for the same personality disorder. C. personality disorders are heritable between parents and their children. D. one individual may morbidly transmit their personality disorder to another person. Answer: A. individuals may have symptoms that meet the criteria for more then one personality disorder. 85. According to the dimensional view of personality disorders, an avoidant personality disorder is A. high conscientiousness. B. low neuroticism and high extraversion. C. high introversion and high neuroticism. D. low agreeableness and high openness. Answer: C. high introversion and high neuroticism. 86. According to the dimensional view of personality disorders, a histrionic personality disorder is extreme A. extraversion. B. agreeableness. C. conscientiousness. D. neuroticism. Answer: A. extraversion. 87. Currently the DSM-IV utilizes a _______________ view to classify mental disorders. A. dimensional B. categorical C. qualitative D. taxonomic Answer: B. categorical Chapter 20 Summary and Future Directions Multiple Choice Questions 1. The goal of personality psychology is to understand A. differences between people. B. how people behave across different cultures. C. how people are similar to one another. D. the whole of personality. Answer: D. the whole of personality. 2. Current research in personality psychology focuses mostly on A. grand theories of personality. B. the cognitive/experiential domain. C. the biological domain. D. specific components of personality. Answer: D. specific components of personality. 3. An understanding of the totality of human personality A. will never be possible because human personality is much too complex to completely understand. B. can be accomplished by gaining and integrating knowledge about its many parts. C. has been accomplished by modern personality psychologists using the latest personality research methods. D. cannot be accomplished by modern personality psychology in the foreseeable future of the science. Answer: B. can be accomplished by gaining and integrating knowledge about its many parts. 4. To gain an understanding of the complete picture of human personality researchers must A. all work together to gain an understanding of the human nature level of human behavior. B. be systematic in their approaches, use diverse methods and approaches of study, and communicate clearly with other researchers working in various areas of personality psychology. C. build upon the foundation of the knowledge developed by researchers investigating the intrapsychic domain. D. continue to work in even narrower specialty areas within personality psychology. Answer: B. be systematic in their approaches, use diverse methods and approaches of study, and communicate clearly with other researchers working in various areas of personality psychology. 5. Researchers working in which of the following domains are most interested in stable characteristics that make people different from one another? A. Adjustment B. Dispositional C. Social and cultural D. Cognitive/experiential Answer: B. Dispositional 6. All of the following are questions personality psychologists that study the dispositional domain will continue to ask in the future EXCEPT A. How many new personality traits exist? B. How will future advancements in measurement theory affect the study of personality dispositions? C. How do personality traits interact with situations to produce behaviors? D. Are the major personality traits of human personality moderately heritable? Answer: D. Are the major personality traits of human personality moderately heritable? 7. This approach to personality dispositions suggests that each person has a distinct psychological signature in terms of the specific _______________ relationships between traits and dispositions. A. temporal B. if-then C. cause-effect D. yin-yang Answer: B. if-then 8. Further research using the lexical approach is A. unnecessary. B. likely to find new traits related to sociability. C. likely to find new traits related to sexuality or sex differences. D. likely to find new traits related to agreeableness. Answer: C. likely to find new traits related to sexuality or sex differences. 9. Which of the following topics do the authors of your text believe will be a focus of much of the future research in the biological domain of personality? A. Approach and avoidance relationships B. The number of basic personality dispositions C. The genetic bases of human personality D. The molecular level of genetic analysis Answer: A. Approach and avoidance relationships 10. Research has found that _______________ percent of the variation in most of the major personality traits can be attributed to genetic variations. A. 10-20 B. 20-50 C. 60 to 80 D. 100 Answer: B. 20-50 11. Future research on genetics and behavior is likely to lead to new discoveries in all of these areas EXCEPT A. the identification of specific genes that contribute to explaining the genetic variance in behavioral dimensions and disorders. B. how our genetic makeup contributes to physiological features like eye color or height. C. genetics researchers studying the effects of shared and non-shared family environments. D. genes will be found that synthesize specific neurotransmitters that will be related to specific personality traits. Answer: B. how our genetic makeup contributes to physiological features like eye color or height. 12. Researchers investigating personality from the evolutionary perspective will most likely find _______________ in the future. A. a few basic adaptations B. a set of new adaptive problems C. a few basic traits D. many more psychological mechanisms than we are now aware of Answer: D. many more psychological mechanisms than we are now aware of 13. Proponents of the evolutionary perspective on personality will continue to ask which of the following basic questions? A. "What are the basic traits of personality?" B. "What is the adaptive function of each psychological mechanism?" C. "Are there sex differences in every domain of personality?" D. "How close have evolutionary adaptations come to perfection?" Answer: B. "What is the adaptive function of each psychological mechanism?" 14. The authors of your textbook believe that in the future evolutionary psychology will A. supplant the other domains of personality as the dominant force in personality psychology. B. continue to gain in importance, but will not supplant other perspectives. C. replace the cognitive domain by basing mental functioning on a variety of psychological mechanisms. D. provide a layer of insight into human nature for discovering a universal set of personality dispositions. Answer: B. continue to gain in importance, but will not supplant other perspectives. 15. The domain of personality most concerned with unconscious motivation is the _______________ domain A. intrapsychic B. dispositional C. biological D. cognitive/experiential Answer: A. intrapsychic 16. Research in modern personality psychology from the perspective of the intrapsychic domain A. does not believe there is such a thing as an unconscious. B. does not study the unconscious. C. uses many innovative methods to study the unconscious, such as priming and subliminal exposure. D. believes the unconscious is a cognitive byproduct. Answer: C. uses many innovative methods to study the unconscious, such as priming and subliminal exposure. 17. Much current research in the intrapsychic domain addresses A. the oedipal complex. B. libido. C. thanatos. D. repression. Answer: D. repression. 18. Recent experimental demonstrations of false memories are A. indicating that patterns of memories are inconsistent over time. B. a long way from the issue of repressed or false childhood memories of traumatic events. C. showing that there are higher instances of childhood sexual abuse then previously believed. D. questioning the id's responsibility for repressed and false memories. Answer: B. a long way from the issue of repressed or false childhood memories of traumatic events. 19. One modern view on the unconscious is that A. there is no empirical support for the notion of an unconscious mind as there has been little support for most of Freud's other theories. B. is is an automatic information processing mechanism that can influence conscious awareness. C. the unconscious is irrelevant as it can be shown to hold inaccurate or false memories. D. Freud's view of a motivated unconscious based on sexual and aggressive energy is still the dominant perspective in the intrapsychic domain. Answer: B. is is an automatic information processing mechanism that can influence conscious awareness. 20. The metaphor most commonly used within the cognitive/experiential domain to describe human information processing is a A. telephone switching box. B. computer. C. blank slate. D. suitcase. Answer: B. computer. 21. The following are all concepts subsumed by the cognitive-experiential domain EXCEPT A. emotions. B. dispositions. C. goals. D. information processing. Answer: B. dispositions. 22. The _______________ domain is most concerned with understanding subjective experiences. A. intrapsychic B. dispositional C. biological D. cognitive/experiential Answer: D. cognitive/experiential 23. Researchers working in which of the following domains are especially interested in how people influence the environment, and how the environment influences personality? A. Intrapsychic B. Social and cultural C. Biological D. Cognitive/experiential Answer: B. Social and cultural 24. The fact that our world is becoming "smaller" demonstrates the importance of the _______________ domain. A. intrapsychic B. social and cultural C. biological D. cognitive/experiential Answer: B. social and cultural 25. The study of gender most often takes place in the _______________ domain. A. intrapsychic B. dispositional C. social and cultural D. cognitive/experiential Answer: C. social and cultural 26. Which of the following concepts is studied by researchers examining the social and cultural domain of personality? A. Individualism/Collectivism B. Psychopathology C. Pleasantness/Unpleasantness D. Introversion/Extraversion Answer: A. Individualism/Collectivism 27. Research on the relationship between personality and health will likely NOT benefit in the future from A. studies of positive emotions. B. longitudinal studies. C. studies of unconscious goals. D. studies of heart disease. Answer: C. studies of unconscious goals. 28. Relationships between personality characteristics and health are addressed in the _______________ domain. A. adjustment B. dispositional C. social and cultural D. cognitive/experiential Answer: A. adjustment 29. The most exciting work in personality psychology in the new millennium will be based on the A. work of many personality researchers working on their own in narrow slices of the domains they have specialized in over time. B. convergence of teams of researchers across different domains using methods that span multiple levels of analysis. C. syntheses of all personality psychology under a common framework based on evolutionary psychology. D. foundation of biological determinism using the results of the human genome project as the basis for studying human personality. Answer: B. convergence of teams of researchers across different domains using methods that span multiple levels of analysis. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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