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Chapter 17
Question 1
____________ is defined as the electronic movement of health-related information among
organizations according to nationally recognized standards.
Correct Answer: Health information exchange
Rationale:
Health information exchange is defined as the electronic movement of health-related
information among organizations according to nationally recognized standards.
Question 2
Which of the following answers best describes the relationship between the health
information exchange (HIE) and regional health information organization (RHIO)?
1. The HIE provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the secure
transfer and reuse of that health information electronically.
2. RHIO provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the unsecured
transfer and reuse of that health information electronically.
3. RHIO provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the secure
transfer and reuse of that health information electronically.
4. RHIO provides analysis of health information and the secure transfer and reuse of that
health information electronically.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1:
The organization provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the
secure transfer and reuse of that health information electronically. The RHIO is defined as a
health information organization that brings together health care stakeholders within a defined
geographic area and governs health information exchange among them for the purpose of
improving health and care in that community.
Rationale 2:

The organization provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the
secure transfer and reuse of that health information electronically.
Rationale 3:
The organization provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the
secure transfer and reuse of that health information electronically. The RHIO is defined as a
health information organization that brings together health care stakeholders within a defined
geographic area and governs health information exchange among them for the purpose of
improving health and care in that community.
Rationale 4:
The organization provides oversight to authorize the location of health information and the
secure transfer and reuse of that health information electronically. The RHIO is defined as a
health information organization that brings together health care stakeholders within a defined
geographic area and governs health information exchange among them for the purpose of
improving health and care in that community.
Question 3
Health information exchanges can be useful for more than patient care, and the uses are
described at various levels. Which of the following are considered levels?
1. Public health
2. National
3. Individual
4. Agency/organization
5. Professional
Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Rationale 1:
Health information exchanges can benefit public health efforts by providing timely access to
population health data, facilitating disease surveillance, outbreak detection, and monitoring of
health trends at the community or population level.
Rationale 2:

At the national level, health information exchanges can support interoperability and the
exchange of health information between different healthcare organizations and regions within
a country. This facilitates continuity of care, reduces duplicate testing, and improves
coordination of services.
Rationale 3:
Health information exchanges benefit individuals by allowing them to access their health
records, share information with healthcare providers, and actively participate in their own
care management. Individuals can also use health information exchanges to securely
communicate with their healthcare providers and access educational resources.
Rationale 4:
Health information exchanges can be utilized by agencies and organizations involved in
healthcare delivery, administration, and regulation. These entities can access aggregated
health data to inform policy-making, quality improvement initiatives, resource allocation, and
strategic planning efforts.
Rationale 5:
Health information exchanges support professional activities by providing healthcare
professionals with access to comprehensive patient information, facilitating care
coordination, and supporting clinical decision-making. Healthcare professionals can use
health information exchanges to exchange information with colleagues, access patient records
remotely, and collaborate on patient care across different healthcare settings.
Question 4
To accomplish exchanges, an HIE infrastructure requires not only technology but an
organizing structure for processes. The organizing structure establishes which of the
following?
1. Nontechnical standardization
2. Secure application and rules of operation
3. Transoperational exchanges
4. Standardized workflow to obtain nonessential information
Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1:
To accomplish exchanges for four levels, an HIE infrastructure requires not only technology
but an organizing structure for processes. The organizing structure establishes secure
application and rules of operation, technical and content standardization for interoperable
exchanges among entities, and outlines the use cases and workflow to obtain meaningful
information use across the four levels (Iowa e-Health, 2010).
Rationale 2:
To accomplish exchanges for four levels, an HIE infrastructure requires not only technology
but an organizing structure for processes. The organizing structure establishes secure
application and rules of operation, technical and content standardization for interoperable
exchanges among entities, and outlines the use cases and workflow to obtain meaningful
information use across the four levels (Iowa e-Health, 2010).
Rationale 3:
To accomplish exchanges for four levels, an HIE infrastructure requires not only technology
but an organizing structure for processes. The organizing structure establishes secure
application and rules of operation, technical and content standardization for interoperable
exchanges among entities, and outlines the use cases and workflow to obtain meaningful
information use across the four levels (Iowa e-Health, 2010).
Rationale 4:
To accomplish exchanges for four levels, an HIE infrastructure requires not only technology
but an organizing structure for processes. The organizing structure establishes secure
application and rules of operation, technical and content standardization for interoperable
exchanges among entities, and outlines the use cases and workflow to obtain meaningful
information use across the four levels (Iowa e-Health, 2010).
Question 5
According to Iowa e-Health, which of the following are key factors that are indispensable
prerequisites to consider for the HIE organizing infrastructure?
1. Master person index

2. Record locator service used to access and find health information that matches the
identified individual
3. Methods of authentication
4. Provide authorization for users
5. Scope of services provided
Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Rationale 1:
A master person index is a crucial component of health information exchange (HIE)
organizing infrastructure as it serves as a centralized database that uniquely identifies
individuals and links their health information across different systems and organizations.
Rationale 2:
A record locator service is essential for HIE organizing infrastructure as it enables users to
locate and access health information about a specific individual from various sources within
the HIE network. This service helps ensure that relevant health information is accessible
when needed for patient care.
Rationale 3:
Methods of authentication are indispensable prerequisites for HIE organizing infrastructure to
ensure that only authorized users can access sensitive health information. Authentication
methods such as username/password, biometrics, or two-factor authentication help verify the
identity of users before granting access to health data.
Rationale 4:
Providing authorization for users is essential for HIE organizing infrastructure to control
access to different levels of health information based on users' roles and responsibilities.
Authorization mechanisms define the permissions granted to users, ensuring that they only
access the information necessary for their tasks while safeguarding patient privacy and
security.
Rationale 5:

The scope of services provided is a critical factor to consider for HIE organizing
infrastructure as it defines the range of functionalities and capabilities available within the
HIE network. This includes services such as data exchange, patient matching, clinical
messaging, public health reporting, and analytics, among others, which contribute to the
effectiveness and usefulness of the HIE system.
Question 6
The preparations for an HIE include organizing a governing body and establishing financial
sustainability. Which of the following is considered a conceptual and sustainable public
governance model?
1. Public utility HIE with government oversight
2. Public utility HIE with no government oversight
3. Private sector-led HIE with local collaboration
4. Private sector-led HIE with corporation collaboration
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1:
A public utility HIE with government oversight is a conceptual and sustainable public
governance model for health information exchange (HIE). In this model, the HIE operates as
a public utility, providing essential services for exchanging health information among
healthcare providers and organizations. Government oversight ensures accountability,
transparency, and adherence to regulatory standards, while also fostering collaboration and
coordination among stakeholders. This model promotes public interest and supports the longterm sustainability of the HIE by leveraging public resources and infrastructure to benefit the
community.
Rationale 2:
A public utility HIE with no government oversight may lack the necessary regulatory
framework and accountability mechanisms to ensure the effective and responsible operation
of the HIE. Without government oversight, there may be challenges in addressing privacy
concerns, resolving disputes, and ensuring equitable access to HIE services, which could
undermine the sustainability and trustworthiness of the system.

Rationale 3:
While a private sector-led HIE with local collaboration may be effective in certain contexts, it
may not provide the same level of accountability, transparency, and public trust as a model
with government oversight. Private sector-led initiatives may prioritize profit motives over
public interests and may face challenges in achieving broad stakeholder participation and
buy-in.
Rationale 4:
A private sector-led HIE with corporation collaboration may prioritize the interests of
corporate entities over those of patients and the public. While collaboration with corporations
can bring resources and expertise to the HIE, it may also raise concerns about conflicts of
interest, data ownership, and privacy. Without adequate governance and oversight
mechanisms, this model may not adequately address the needs and concerns of all
stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem.
Question 7
_________________ and health systems with nursing homes, hospice, homecare, and clinics
integrated with hospitals are able to exchange with standard content and identifiers adopted
across settings.
Correct Answer: Integrated delivery networks (IDN)
Rationale:
Integrated delivery networks (IDN) and health systems with nursing homes, hospice,
homecare, and clinics integrated with hospitals are able to exchange with standard content
and identifiers adopted across settings. All IDNs experienced the challenges of adopting
common information formats and learning new workflows for use cases. Current HIEs are
becoming geographically defined and involve organizations that are led by multiple
representatives from professional and healthcare entities to exchange information for the
good of the individual and public services. Furthermore, sustainability can be achieved with
adequate funding.
Question 8
Which of the following are considered barriers to the implementation of the HIE?

1. Equipment
2. Financial
3. Local
4. Personnel
5. Legal procedures
Correct Answer: 1, 2, 5
Rationale 1:
Equipment barriers can include the lack of necessary hardware, software, networking
infrastructure, and interoperability tools needed to support health information exchange (HIE)
initiatives. Insufficient or outdated equipment can hinder the efficient sharing and access of
health information among healthcare providers.
Rationale 2:
Financial barriers are a significant obstacle to the implementation of HIE. Costs associated
with establishing and maintaining HIE infrastructure, purchasing technology, training staff,
and ensuring ongoing sustainability can be prohibitive for healthcare organizations and
stakeholders. Financial challenges may also arise from uncertain return on investment (ROI),
reimbursement models, and funding sources for HIE initiatives.
Rationale 3:
While local factors such as community engagement and stakeholder collaboration are
important considerations for successful HIE implementation, they are not typically
considered barriers in themselves. In fact, local support and engagement are often critical
drivers of HIE adoption and sustainability.
Rationale 4:
Personnel barriers, such as inadequate staffing, training, and expertise in health information
technology (HIT), can impede the effective implementation and operation of HIE initiatives.
Healthcare organizations may struggle to recruit and retain qualified personnel with the
necessary skills and knowledge to support HIE development, deployment, and maintenance.
Rationale 5:

Legal procedures, including regulatory requirements, privacy concerns, and compliance with
laws such as HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), can pose
significant barriers to HIE implementation. Addressing legal and regulatory challenges
related to data sharing, consent management, data security, and patient privacy is essential for
ensuring compliance and building trust among stakeholders involved in HIE initiatives.
Question 9
Which of the following is true about the sustainability of the HIE?
1. Sustainability discussions occur after the implementation phase.
2. Sustainability is no longer an issue in HIE.
3. A system that is not sustainable is not an effective one.
4. Sustainable technology is not cost effective.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1:
Funding is often associated with the perceived and measured sustainability of the HIE.
Planners design methods to sustain or to keep the system working once it has been
implemented. A system that is not sustainable is not an effective one. Sustainability
discussions occur before the implementation phase.
Rationale 2:
Funding is often associated with the perceived and measured sustainability of the HIE.
Planners design methods to sustain or to keep the system working once it has been
implemented. A system that is not sustainable is not an effective one.
Rationale 3:
Funding is often associated with the perceived and measured sustainability of the HIE.
Planners design methods to sustain or to keep the system working once it has been
implemented. A system that is not sustainable is not an effective one.
Rationale 4:

Funding is often associated with the perceived and measured sustainability of the HIE.
Planners design methods to sustain or to keep the system working once it has been
implemented. A system that is not sustainable is not an effective one.
Question 10
Which of the following are considered obstacles to sustainability?
1. Underestimating the size and scope of the project
2. Identifying critical mass of data to exchange
3. Identifying critical mass of participants
4. The collaboration between common competitors in communities
5. The resistance to changes in workflow
Correct Answer: 1,2,3,4,5
Rationale 1:
The obstacles to sustainability result from underestimating the size and scope of the project,
identifying critical mass of data to exchange (e.g. standards for medication history, allergies,
side effects, indications, weight/height), identifying critical mass of participants (e.g.
pharmacies), the collaboration between common competitors in communities, the resistance
to changes in workflow, and the numbers of unskilled workforce with HIT.
Rationale 2:
The obstacles to sustainability result from underestimating the size and scope of the project,
identifying critical mass of data to exchange (e.g. standards for medication history, allergies,
side effects, indications, weight/height), identifying critical mass of participants (e.g.
pharmacies), the collaboration between common competitors in communities, the resistance
to changes in workflow, and the numbers of unskilled workforce with HIT.
Rationale 3:
The obstacles to sustainability result from underestimating the size and scope of the project,
identifying critical mass of data to exchange (e.g. standards for medication history, allergies,
side effects, indications, weight/height), identifying critical mass of participants (e.g.

pharmacies), the collaboration between common competitors in communities, the resistance
to changes in workflow, and the numbers of unskilled workforce with HIT.
Rationale 4:
The obstacles to sustainability result from underestimating the size and scope of the project,
identifying critical mass of data to exchange (e.g. standards for medication history, allergies,
side effects, indications, weight/height), identifying critical mass of participants (e.g.
pharmacies), the collaboration between common competitors in communities, the resistance
to changes in workflow, and the numbers of unskilled workforce with HIT.
Rationale 5:
The obstacles to sustainability result from underestimating the size and scope of the project,
identifying critical mass of data to exchange (e.g. standards for medication history, allergies,
side effects, indications, weight/height), identifying critical mass of participants (e.g.
pharmacies), the collaboration between common competitors in communities, the resistance
to changes in workflow, and the numbers of unskilled workforce with HIT.
Question 11
Which of the following statements is most accurate about the relationship between the
national health information network (NHIN) and the health information exchanges (HIE) in
the United States?
1. The success of the NHIN is dependent on the state-wide HIEs.
2. The success of the NHIN is not dependent on the state-wide HIEs.
3. The success of the state-wide HIEs is dependent on the NHIN.
4. The success of the state-wide HIEs is not dependent on the NHIN.
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1:
The NHIN is a structure that will bring together the state-level HIE and regional HIOs when
all stakeholders are using the evolving information exchange standards. The state-level HIE
programs have the responsibility to organize and facilitate the implementation of
interoperability standards with stakeholders through state-wide operational planning. The role
of the state-level HIE program can adapt to the state’s needs and priorities based on

characteristics of providers from evaluation of current HIT use. The agencies such as public
health and Medicaid services within the state government are stakeholders and will be
involved with HIE services. The success for the NHIN is dependent on the state-wide HIEs.
Rationale 2:
The NHIN is a structure that will bring together the state-level HIE and regional HIOs when
all stakeholders are using the evolving information exchange standards. The state-level HIE
programs have the responsibility to organize and facilitate the implementation of
interoperability standards with stakeholders through state-wide operational planning. The role
of the state-level HIE program can adapt to the state’s needs and priorities based on
characteristics of providers from evaluation of current HIT use. The agencies such as public
health and Medicaid services within the state government are stakeholders and will be
involved with HIE services. The success for the NHIN is dependent on the state-wide HIEs.
Rationale 3:
The NHIN is a structure that will bring together the state-level HIE and regional HIOs when
all stakeholders are using the evolving information exchange standards. The state-level HIE
programs have the responsibility to organize and facilitate the implementation of
interoperability standards with stakeholders through state-wide operational planning. The role
of the state-level HIE program can adapt to the state’s needs and priorities based on
characteristics of providers from evaluation of current HIT use. The agencies such as public
health and Medicaid services within the state government are stakeholders and will be
involved with HIE services. The success for the NHIN is dependent on the state-wide HIEs.
Rationale 4:
The NHIN is a structure that will bring together the state-level HIE and regional HIOs when
all stakeholders are using the evolving information exchange standards. The state-level HIE
programs have the responsibility to organize and facilitate the implementation of
interoperability standards with stakeholders through state-wide operational planning. The role
of the state-level HIE program can adapt to the state’s needs and priorities based on
characteristics of providers from evaluation of current HIT use. The agencies such as public
health and Medicaid services within the state government are stakeholders and will be
involved with HIE services. The success for the NHIN is dependent on the state-wide HIEs.
Question 12

The overall role of the state-level HIE initiatives can be loosely grouped into three broad
categories. Which of the following is not considered a category?
1. HIE enabler/readiness
2. HIE sustainability
3. HIE outsourcing/technical partnership
4. HIE operator
Correct Answer: 2
Rationale 1:
HIE enabler/readiness is considered one of the categories and focuses on coordinating and
enabling ongoing regional HIE initiatives.
Rationale 2:
HIE operator. Focuses on implementation and management of the technical and business
operations of HIE (CPHR, 2008).
Rationale 3:
HIE outsourcing/technical partnership is considered a category and focuses on the business
and policy aspects of HIE, but outsources the technology implementation and services.
Rationale 4:
HIE operator is considered a category and focuses on implementation and management of the
technical and business operations of HIE.
Question 13
The HIE initiatives are often started by which of the following?
1. Research teams, advisory councils, and executive committees
2. Informaticians
3. LeapFrog Group
4. TIGER
Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1:
The HIE initiatives are often started by research teams, advisory councils, and executive
committees which can serve as the steering committee to coordinate the communication,
education, foundational planning, and adoption activities to initiate and sustain standards for
a state-level HIE program.
Rationale 2:
The HIE initiatives are often started by research teams, advisory councils, and executive
committees which can serve as the steering committee to coordinate the communication,
education, foundational planning, and adoption activities to initiate and sustain standards for
a state-level HIE program.
Rationale 3:
The HIE initiatives are often started by research teams, advisory councils, and executive
committees which can serve as the steering committee to coordinate the communication,
education, foundational planning, and adoption activities to initiate and sustain standards for
a state-level HIE program.
Rationale 4:
The HIE initiatives are often started by research teams, advisory councils, and executive
committees which can serve as the steering committee to coordinate the communication,
education, foundational planning, and adoption activities to initiate and sustain standards for
a state-level HIE program.
Question 14
As national standards for interoperability are developed, the future of HIEs seems to be in the
hands of which of the following?
1. Nationwide Health Information Network
2. The Department of Homeland Security
3. HIPAA
4. HIMSS
Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1:
The Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) plays a crucial role in the future of
health information exchange (HIE) as it aims to establish standards and infrastructure for
secure and interoperable exchange of health information at the national level. By providing a
framework for data exchange, NwHIN facilitates collaboration among healthcare
organizations, government agencies, and other stakeholders to promote the adoption and
implementation of HIE initiatives across the country.
Rationale 2:
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is primarily focused on homeland security and
emergency preparedness initiatives, and its role does not directly relate to the development or
oversight of health information exchange. While DHS may be involved in certain aspects of
health information security and privacy, it is not the primary entity responsible for shaping
the future of HIEs.
Rationale 3:
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) is a federal law that sets
standards for the protection of sensitive patient health information and regulates its use and
disclosure. While HIPAA is essential for safeguarding patient privacy and security in the
context of health information exchange, it primarily focuses on privacy and security
requirements rather than the development or governance of HIE infrastructure and standards.
Rationale 4:
HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) is a global nonprofit
organization focused on improving healthcare delivery through the effective use of health
information technology (HIT). While HIMSS plays a significant role in promoting HIT
adoption and best practices, it is not directly responsible for developing national standards for
interoperability or governing the future of HIEs.
Question 15
A volunteer federal _________________________ develops interoperable standards.
Correct Answer: Health Informatics Technology Standards Panel (HITSP)
Rationale:

A volunteer federal Health Informatics Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) develops
interoperable standards. The Secretary of Health and Human Services approves the
interoperability standards. The standards are published for the Certification Commission for
Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT) certification process and for state HIE
programs. The published interoperability standards have been and will require more research
in trial sites for the Nationwide Health Information Network. This is an ongoing system.
Question 16
As standards are developed for interoperability, there will be an increased number of vendors
seeking which of the following?
1. Funding
2. Contracts
3. Certification
4. Revenue increases
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1:
While vendors may seek funding to support their interoperability initiatives, such as
developing interoperable products or participating in interoperability projects, seeking
funding is not directly related to standards development for interoperability.
Rationale 2:
Vendors may indeed seek contracts to provide interoperable products or services to healthcare
organizations, government agencies, or other stakeholders interested in implementing
interoperable health information exchange solutions. However, this is not directly tied to
standards development but rather to market demand and opportunities.
Rationale 3:
Certification is a key objective for vendors as standards for interoperability are developed.
Vendors aim to ensure that their products and solutions comply with interoperability
standards and are certified by relevant organizations or certification bodies. Certification
validates the interoperability and compatibility of vendors' products with other systems,
enhancing their marketability and credibility.

Rationale 4:
While interoperability standards may contribute to revenue increases for vendors by
expanding market opportunities and increasing demand for interoperable products and
services, seeking revenue increases is not the primary goal of vendors in response to
standards development. Instead, vendors focus on achieving certification and delivering
interoperable solutions to meet the needs of their customers and stakeholders.
Question 17
Which of the following are considered obstacles to the HIE?
1. Policy
2. Organizational
3. Structure
4. Financial sustainability
5. Technology design
Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Rationale 1:
Policy obstacles can include regulatory barriers, privacy concerns, and legal complexities that
hinder the implementation and operation of health information exchange (HIE) initiatives.
Policy challenges may arise from conflicting regulations, unclear guidelines, or inadequate
governance frameworks, impacting stakeholders' ability to share health information securely
and effectively.
Rationale 2:
Organizational obstacles refer to challenges within healthcare organizations that impede the
adoption and success of HIE initiatives. These obstacles may include resistance to change,
lack of leadership support, cultural barriers, and competing priorities. Overcoming
organizational challenges requires addressing issues related to workflow integration, staff
training, stakeholder engagement, and change management.
Rationale 3:

Structural obstacles relate to the design and infrastructure of HIE systems, networks, and
organizations. These obstacles may include interoperability limitations, data silos, insufficient
connectivity, and data quality issues. Addressing structural challenges involves building
robust HIE architectures, establishing data standards, improving data governance, and
fostering collaboration among stakeholders.
Rationale 4:
Financial sustainability is a significant obstacle to HIE adoption and viability. HIE initiatives
require substantial investments in technology, infrastructure, personnel, and ongoing
operations. Financial challenges may arise from limited funding sources, uncertain revenue
models, high implementation costs, and competing budget priorities. Ensuring financial
sustainability involves developing sustainable business models, securing funding, and
demonstrating the value and return on investment (ROI) of HIE initiatives.
Rationale 5:
Technology design obstacles encompass challenges related to the design, development, and
implementation of HIE systems and solutions. These obstacles may include interoperability
issues, usability concerns, data security vulnerabilities, and scalability limitations.
Overcoming technology design challenges requires adopting standards-based approaches,
leveraging interoperable technologies, implementing robust security measures, and
prioritizing user-centered design principles.
Question 18
A ______________________ model enables the access and exchange of data stored in
existing provider networks and also through a central data repository maintained for smaller
providers who would not be able to maintain 24x7 services for HIE access.
Correct Answer: hybrid infrastructure
Rationale:
A hybrid infrastructure model enables the access and exchange of data stored in existing
provider networks and also through a central data repository maintained for smaller providers
who would not be able to maintain 24x7 services for HIE access. The infrastructure for data
storage may be consolidated with a centralized co-operative central data repository to push
and pull data. The infrastructure may be decentralized or federated with access to information

through multiple health systems. The HIE may be a hybrid infrastructure which is a
combination of the consolidated and federated models.
Question 19
The health information exchange requires exchange of health-related information according
to nationally recognized standards to link into which of the following as it can provide a
standardized, secure, and confidential way to link information systems together for
authorized users to share reliable health-related information?
1. Office of National Coordinator (ONC)
2. Health information exchange (HIE)
3. National health information network (NHIN)
4. Health Information Security and Privacy Collaborative (HISPC)
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1:
The health information exchange requires the exchange of health-related information
according to nationally recognized standards to link into the national health information
network (NHIN). The NHIN will provide a standardized, secure, and confidential way to link
information systems together for authorized users to share reliable health-related information.
Rationale 2:
The health information exchange requires the exchange of health-related information
according to nationally recognized standards to link into the national health information
network (NHIN). The NHIN will provide a standardized, secure, and confidential way to link
information systems together for authorized users to share reliable health-related information.
Rationale 3:
The health information exchange requires the exchange of health-related information
according to nationally recognized standards to link into the national health information
network (NHIN). The NHIN will provide a standardized, secure, and confidential way to link
information systems together for authorized users to share reliable health-related information.
Rationale 4:

The health information exchange requires the exchange of health-related information
according to nationally recognized standards to link into the national health information
network (NHIN). The NHIN will provide a standardized, secure, and confidential way to link
information systems together for authorized users to share reliable health-related information.

Test Bank for Handbook of Informatics for Nurses and Healthcare Professionals
Toni Lee Hebda, Patricia Czar, Theresa Calderone
9780132574952, 9780132959544, 9780134711010, 9780131512627, 9780130311023, 9780805373264, 9780135205433, 9780135043943

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