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Chapter 17 Groups and Teams
1) As used in management-related discussions, a group is simply a gathering of people.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In management discussions, a group is more than just a gathering of people. It typically refers
to a collection of individuals who come together for a common purpose, such as to achieve
specific goals or tasks.
2) A task group is a formal group outlined in the chain of command on an organization chart.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A task group is not necessarily a formal group outlined in the chain of command. It is a group
formed for a specific purpose or task, which can be either formal or informal, depending on
the context.
3) The larger the organization, the greater the probability that it will use committees on a
regular basis.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Larger organizations often use committees more frequently because they have more complex
operations and decision-making processes that require input from various stakeholders.
4) The ideal number of committee members for most tasks seems to be from 15 to 20.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The ideal number of committee members can vary depending on the task and context. For
most tasks, a smaller number of members (around 5 to 7) is often more effective in ensuring
efficient decision-making and active participation.

5) Groupthink is the mode of thinking group members engage in when the desire for
agreement and the "we-feeling" is so dominant it overrides realistic alternative problem
solutions.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Groupthink occurs when group members prioritize harmony and consensus over critical
evaluation of alternative solutions, which can lead to flawed decision-making.
6) Problem-solving teams consist of 5 to 12 volunteer members from different areas of the
department who meet weekly to discuss ways to improve quality and efficiency.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Problem-solving teams typically consist of a small number of members (5 to 12) who
volunteer to work together to identify, analyze, and solve problems related to quality and
efficiency.
7) When a group reaches the group solidarity stage, the members are likely to compete with
each other.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In the group solidarity stage, group members are more likely to cooperate and work together
toward common goals, rather than compete with each other.
8) The stage of formal group development in which group members attempt to maximize the
group's success by matching individual abilities with group activities by assisting one another
is the group control stage.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The group control stage, also known as the norming stage, is characterized by members
working together to maximize the group's success by utilizing individual abilities and
assisting one another in achieving common goals.

9) An informal group is a collection of individuals whose common work experiences result in
the development of a system of interpersonal relations that extend beyond those established
by management.
Answer: True
Rationale:
An informal group is formed based on common interests or experiences among individuals,
and it often develops its own interpersonal relations and norms that may not be established by
management.
10) An interest group is an informal group that forms in organizations because of the personal
affiliation members have with one another.
Answer: False
Rationale:
An interest group is a formal group that forms in organizations based on the common
interests or goals of its members, rather than personal affiliation.
11) Once the interest or concern that caused an interest group to form has been eliminated,
the group tends to disband.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Interest groups form around a specific interest or concern. Once that issue is resolved or is no
longer relevant, the group's reason for existence diminishes, leading to disbandment.
12) The membership of friendship groups in an organization tend to remain static over long
periods of time.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Membership in friendship groups can change over time due to various factors such as people
leaving or joining the organization, changes in work assignments, or shifts in personal
relationships.

13) The most important step managers need to take in managing work groups is to determine
what informal groups exist in the organization, and who their members are.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Understanding the informal groups within an organization is crucial for managers to
effectively manage work groups, as these informal groups can influence behavior and
performance.
14) The procedure for conducting a sociometric analysis in an organization is highly
complex, and managers should weigh the expected benefits before embarking on it.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While sociometric analysis can provide valuable insights into group dynamics and
relationships, it does not have to be highly complex. Managers should consider the potential
benefits of conducting such an analysis in relation to the effort and resources required.
15) According to Homans' Model, the informal group is established to provide satisfaction
and growth for its members.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Homans' Model suggests that informal groups form based on the social needs of individuals,
including the need for satisfaction and personal growth through interactions with others in the
group.
16) Good managers constantly try to help groups become teams.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Managers should aim to develop groups into teams by fostering collaboration, establishing
clear goals, and promoting a sense of unity and shared purpose among team members.
17) Cross-functional team members are from the same department within the organization.

Answer: False
Rationale:
Cross-functional team members come from different departments or functional areas within
the organization, bringing diverse perspectives and expertise to the team.
18) The first stage in team development is "storming."
Answer: False
Rationale:
The first stage in team development, according to Tuckman's model, is forming, where team
members get acquainted and start to understand the task at hand. Storming comes next, where
conflicts may arise.
19) A people-related step in building an effective team is setting stable goals and priorities for
the team.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Setting stable goals and priorities is a task-related step in building an effective team. Peoplerelated steps focus more on fostering relationships, trust, and communication among team
members.
20) The most fundamental ingredient of effective teams is member satisfaction.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While member satisfaction is important, the most fundamental ingredient of effective teams
is a shared vision or goal, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication, and trust
among team members.
21) Which of the following is one of the characteristics of a group as used in managementrelated discussions?
A) A group is simply a gathering of people.
B) Groups always work toward the accomplishment of an organizational goal.

C) A group must consist of 5 or more people.
D) Groups are characterized by occasional communication among members over time.
E) A group consists of members who are psychologically aware of one another.
Answer: E
Rationale:
In management discussions, a group is often defined by the psychological awareness of its
members towards each other. This awareness implies some level of interaction and
relationship beyond just being physically present in the same location.
22) Which of the following statements about a group is true?
A) They are characterized by occasional communication among members over time and a
size small enough to permit face-to-face communication.
B) The most common technique for accomplishing work through people is dividing them into
work groups.
C) Groups invariably cause desirable consequences within the organization.
D) Groups are a simple gathering of people consisting of 5 or more people.
E) Groups exist only in some organizational structures.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Dividing people into work groups is a common technique for organizing work and achieving
goals in organizations, making this statement true.
23) Which of the following is least accurate regarding groups?
A) They are found in all organizations.
B) An understanding of groups can help managers raise the probability that the groups will
cause desirable consequences for the organization.
C) Groups inevitably form in all facets of organizational existence.
D) Groups invariably cause desirable consequences within the organization.

E) Groups are characterized by a size small enough to permit each member to communicate
with all other members on a face-to-face basis.
Answer: D
Rationale:
While groups can have many benefits, such as increased collaboration and innovation, they
do not invariably cause desirable consequences within the organization. Group dynamics and
effectiveness can vary based on various factors.
24) A formal group is a group that ________.
A) is formed by management to perform organizational tasks
B) is normally defined but unstructured
C) is formed by the common interests of group members
D) is formed by the affiliation of the group members
E) is normally unstructured and undefined
Answer: A
Rationale:
A formal group is intentionally created by management to achieve specific organizational
objectives, making option A the correct choice.
25) Which of the following statements about formal groups is true?
A) The placements of organization members in such areas as marketing departments and
personnel departments are examples of establishing formal groups.
B) Formal groups are a collection of individuals whose common work experiences result in
the development of a system of interpersonal relations that extend beyond those established
by management.
C) The coordination of and communication among the formal groups is the responsibility of
employees commonly called "cotter pins."
D) Formal groups are divided into two general types: interest groups and command groups.
E) The formal relationships among group members is summarized using a sociogram.

Answer: A
Rationale:
Placing organization members in specific departments or areas, such as marketing or
personnel, is an example of establishing formal groups, making option A correct.
26) Formal groups are commonly divided into ________ and ________.
A) transitory groups; recurrent groups
B) in-groups; out-groups
C) command groups; task groups
D) interest groups; friendship groups
E) primary groups; secondary groups
Answer: C
Rationale:
Formal groups are often divided into command groups, which are established by the
organization's hierarchy for specific purposes, and task groups, which are formed to
accomplish particular objectives or tasks.
27) Which of the following is an example of a command group?
A) a group of employees focused on providing excellent customers service
B) a group meeting to consider the feasibility of a new product
C) a department head with managers reporting to him
D) students coming together to form a study group for a specific class
E) a group of employees forming an exercise group
Answer: C
Rationale:
A command group is typically a part of the formal organization structure, consisting of a
supervisor and their direct subordinates, as described in option C.

28) Formal groups that handle routine activities and are outlined on an organization chart are
called ________.
A) task groups
B) committees
C) transitory groups
D) work teams
E) command groups
Answer: E
Rationale:
Command groups, as described in option E, are formal groups that handle routine activities
and are outlined on an organization chart.
29) A formal group of organization members who interact with one another to accomplish
some nonroutine task is a(n) ________.
A) lobby
B) command group
C) interest group
D) task group
E) in-group
Answer: D
Rationale:
Task groups are formal groups within an organization that are formed to address specific
nonroutine tasks or projects.
30) Two formal groups that are often established in organizations are ________ and
________.
A) transitory groups; recurrent groups
B) interest groups; committees

C) in-groups; out-groups
D) committees; work teams
E) interest groups; work teams
Answer: D
Rationale:
Committees and work teams are two common types of formal groups established in
organizations to accomplish specific tasks or goals.
31) Which of the following would be an example of a task group?
A) a group meeting to prepare the routine financial reports
B) a group set up to consider the feasibility of a new product
C) a group of employees forming an exercise group
D) a group of supervisors responsible for scheduling weekly work
E) a group of students coming together because of their music preferences
Answer: B
Rationale:
A task group is formed to accomplish a specific task or goal, such as considering the
feasibility of a new product, as described in option B.
32) Which of the following statements about a task groups is true?
A) They typically handle routine organizational activities.
B) They are a formal group outlined in the chain of command on an organizational chart.
C) They are usually made up of members on the same organizational level.
D) They cannot consist of people from different levels in the organizational hierarchy.
E) An interest group is a task group often established in organizations.
Answer: C
Rationale:

Task groups are typically composed of members from different organizational levels who
come together to accomplish a specific task or goal, making option C correct.
33) A task group charged with performing some type of specific activity is a(n) ________.
A) committee
B) command group
C) in-group
D) transitory group
E) interest group
Answer: A
Rationale:
A committee is a formal group within an organization that is charged with performing a
specific activity or task, as described in option A.
34) Which of the following is one of the major reasons to establish a committee?
A) to obtain status and social satisfaction that people might not enjoy without group
membership
B) to perpetuate social and cultural values that group members consider important
C) to encourage groupthink
D) to handle routine organizational activities
E) to develop new ideas for solving existing organizational problems
Answer: E
Rationale:
One of the primary reasons for establishing a committee is to bring together diverse
perspectives and expertise to develop new ideas and solutions for existing organizational
problems, making option E correct.
35) One of the benefits of utilizing committees is that ________.
A) the decision-making process is much quicker than individual decision making

B) there is no limit on the size of the committee
C) a committee does need a leader or a secretary
D) committees improve the quality of decision making
E) decision makers don't have to represent the group they come from
Answer: D
Rationale:
Committees can improve the quality of decision making by providing a forum for diverse
perspectives and expertise to be considered, leading to more informed decisions, making
option D correct.
36) According to the study conducted by McLeod and Jones, why did managers favor
committees?
A) They could blame committees for their own failures.
B) They got more information from committees than other organizational sources.
C) The information they got from committees was more valuable than from other sources.
D) Committees arrive at solutions to problems more quickly.
E) Most executives do not favor committees or do not display qualified acceptance of them.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The study by McLeod and Jones suggested that managers favored committees because they
perceived the information obtained from committees to be more valuable than from other
sources, making option C correct.
37) Which of the following is a purely procedural step that could be taken to increase the
probability that a committee will be successful?
A) rephrasing ideas already expressed
B) specifying the authority of the committee
C) bringing all members into active participation

D) stimulating further thought by members
E) keeping the goals of the group flexible
Answer: B
Rationale:
Specifying the authority of the committee helps clarify its role and responsibilities, reducing
ambiguity and increasing the likelihood of success, making option B correct.
38) Peter Parker, the HR vice-president of a well known IT firm, called his team members for
a meeting to discuss the measures to be taken by the company to fight recession. Peter
suggested downsizing the workforce and also cutting salaries and benefits of the rest of the
employees. Peter's team reached a consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and
evaluating his ideas. This is an example of ________.
A) groupthink
B) double think
C) cognitive dissonance
D) group polarization
E) collective intelligence
Answer: A
Rationale:
This scenario exemplifies groupthink, where the desire for agreement and harmony in the
group overrides critical evaluation of alternative solutions, leading to a flawed decisionmaking process, making option A correct.
39) ________ is the mode of thinking that group members engage in when the desire for
agreement so dominates the group that it overrides the need to realistically appraise
alternative problem solutions.
A) Social loafing
B) Group polarization
C) Groupthink

D) Cognitive dissonance
E) Collective intelligence
Answer: C
Rationale:
Groupthink occurs when the desire for agreement within a group overrides the need for
critical evaluation of alternative solutions, leading to potentially poor decision-making,
making option C correct.
40) Which stage of groupthink describes what precursors are associated with the development
of groupthink?
A) concurrence seeking
B) decision-making defects
C) antecedents
D) symptoms of groupthink
E) poor decision outcomes
Answer: C
Rationale:
The stage of antecedents in the development of groupthink refers to the precursors or factors
that contribute to the development of groupthink, such as group cohesion and isolation from
external viewpoints, making option C correct.
41) Which of the following is the correct sequence of the stages of groupthink?
A) antecedents, concurrence seeking, symptoms of groupthink, decision-making defects, poor
decision outcomes
B) concurrence seeking, antecedents, symptoms of groupthink, decision-making defects, poor
decision outcomes
C) antecedents, symptoms of groupthink, decision-making defects, concurrence seeking, poor
decision outcomes

D) symptoms of groupthink, antecedents, concurrence seeking, decision-making defects, poor
decision outcomes
E) concurrence seeking, symptoms of groupthink, antecedents, decision-making defects, poor
decision outcomes
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct sequence of stages of groupthink is as follows: antecedents (conditions that make
groupthink more likely), concurrence seeking (members seek consensus), symptoms of
groupthink (pressure to conform), decision-making defects (faulty decision-making
processes), and poor decision outcomes.
42) Which of the following statements about groupthink is true?
A) Groupthink cannot take place in a newly formed group.
B) A group with high levels of mistrust and conflicts is likely to be most susceptible to
groupthink.
C) A group with a high level of cohesiveness is likely to be susceptible to groupthink.
D) Managers must help committees to establish groupthink to generate alternative problem
solutions.
E) A group which is highly competitive will most probably result in groupthink.
Answer: C
Rationale:
A high level of cohesiveness in a group, where members are strongly connected and
committed to the group, can lead to groupthink as members may prioritize maintaining
harmony within the group over critically evaluating alternative ideas.
43) In which stage of groupthink does a group member agree with the entire group's position,
even when the group member might privately oppose the entire group's position?
A) antecedents
B) concurrence seeking

C) poor decision outcomes
D) decision-making defects
E) symptoms of groupthink
Answer: B
Rationale:
In the concurrence seeking stage, group members seek consensus and may conform to the
group's position even if they privately disagree.
44) Which stage of groupthink occurs when group members feel pressure to conform and
censor their own ideas?
A) symptoms of groupthink
B) poor decision outcomes
C) concurrence seeking
D) antecedents
E) decision-making defects
Answer: A
Rationale:
Symptoms of groupthink include pressure to conform, self-censorship, and an illusion of
invulnerability, leading to a lack of critical evaluation of ideas.
45) Which of the following stages of groupthink occurs when group members fail to make
effective decisions?
A) antecedents
B) symptoms of groupthink
C) poor decision outcomes
D) decision-making defects
E) concurrence seeking

Answer: D
Rationale:
Decision-making defects occur when group members fail to consider all alternatives,
overlook potential risks, and do not engage in thorough analysis, leading to ineffective
decision-making.
46) The ________ stage of groupthink occurs when a group does not collect the needed
information to make an effective decision.
A) decision-making defects
B) antecedents
C) poor decision outcomes
D) symptoms of groupthink
E) concurrence seeking
Answer: A
Rationale:
Decision-making defects include a failure to gather necessary information, which can result
in poor decision outcomes.
47) Which stage of groupthink occurs when the group exhibits unsatisfactory performance?
A) poor decision outcomes
B) concurrence seeking
C) symptoms of groupthink
D) decision-making defects
E) antecedents
Answer: A
Rationale:
Poor decision outcomes occur when the group's decision-making process is flawed, leading to
unsatisfactory performance or results.

48) Contemporary work teams in the United States evolved out of the problem-solving teams
based on ________.
A) scientific management principle
B) time and motion studies
C) assembly line models
D) Japanese-style quality circles
E) contingency approach
Answer: D
Rationale:
Contemporary work teams in the United States evolved from the concept of Japanese-style
quality circles, which emphasized employee involvement in problem-solving and decisionmaking processes.
49) Which of the following statements about self-managed work teams is true?
A) Members of a self-managed team learn specific tasks required to produce a product and
avoid job rotation.
B) Self-managed teams consist of 5 to 15 employees who work together to produce an entire
product.
C) Self-managed work teams evolved out of problem-solving teams.
D) Self-managed work teams laid the foundation for the emergence of special-purpose teams.
E) Self-managed teams never take over managerial duties as scheduling work and vacations
and ordering materials.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Self-managed teams are typically small groups of 5 to 15 employees who work together to
produce an entire product or deliver a service, making option B correct.
50) Identify the correct sequence of the stages of formal group development suggested by
Bernard Bass.

A) group control, acceptance, communication/decision making, group solidarity
B) acceptance, group solidarity, group control, communication/decision making
C) group solidarity, acceptance, communication/decision making, group control
D) group control, group solidarity, acceptance, communication/decision making
E) acceptance, communication/decision making, group solidarity, group control
Answer: E
Rationale:
The correct sequence of stages of formal group development suggested by Bernard Bass is
acceptance, communication/decision making, group solidarity, and group control.
51) At which stage of the group development process suggested by Bernard Bass is mistrust
of one another replaced by mutual trust?
A) group control
B) decision making
C) group solidarity
D) communication
E) acceptance
Answer: E
Rationale:
The stage of acceptance in the group development process is where mistrust is replaced by
mutual trust as members begin to accept each other and their roles within the group, fostering
a sense of cohesion and trust.
52) ________ comes naturally as the mutual acceptance of group members increases and
communication and decision making continue within the group.
A) Conformance threat
B) Group polarization
C) Groupthink

D) Cognitive dissonance
E) Group solidarity
Answer: E
Rationale:
Group solidarity naturally emerges as members accept each other and work together, leading
to increased cohesion and solidarity within the group.
53) At which stage of the formal group development process do members become more
involved in group activities and cooperate, rather than compete, with one another?
A) decision making
B) communication
C) acceptance
D) groupthink
E) group solidarity
Answer: E
Rationale:
Group solidarity is characterized by increased involvement in group activities and a shift
towards cooperation rather than competition among members, as they work together towards
common goals.
54) At which stage of the formal group development process do members find belonging to
the group extremely satisfying and are committed to enhancing the group's overall success?
A) group solidarity
B) forming
C) acceptance
D) groupthink
E) communication
Answer: A

Rationale:
Group solidarity is marked by a sense of satisfaction and commitment among members, who
find belonging to the group rewarding and are dedicated to its success.
55) A natural result of group solidarity is ________.
A) social loafing
B) exclusion
C) group control
D) groupthink
E) group conflict
Answer: C
Rationale:
Group control, where members work together to maximize the group's success, is a natural
result of the cohesion and cooperation fostered by group solidarity.
56) Identify the most mature stage of the formal group development process.
A) decision making
B) acceptance
C) group solidarity
D) communication
E) group control
Answer: E
Rationale:
Group control is considered the most mature stage of formal group development, where
members work together to maximize the group's success and coordinate their efforts
effectively.

57) In the ________ stage of the formal group development process, group members attempt
to maximize the group's success by matching individual abilities with group activities and by
assisting one another.
A) groupthink
B) acceptance
C) group control
D) communication
E) decision making
Answer: C
Rationale:
Group control is the stage where members work together to maximize the group's success by
matching individual abilities with group activities and assisting one another, ensuring that
tasks are completed efficiently.
58) A collection of individuals whose common work experiences result in the development of
a system of interpersonal relationships that extend beyond those established by management
is a(n) ________.
A) work team
B) task group
C) informal group
D) command group
E) committee
Answer: C
Rationale:
An informal group is formed based on common work experiences and develops relationships
beyond those established by management, typically arising spontaneously within an
organization.
59) Informal groups are divided into ________ and ________.

A) committees; work teams
B) virtual groups; task groups
C) command groups; task groups
D) committees; venture groups
E) interest groups; friendship groups
Answer: E
Rationale:
Informal groups are categorized into interest groups, based on common interests or goals, and
friendship groups, formed around personal affiliations and social interactions.
60) Which of the following is an example of an interest group?
A) a group of friends interested in rock music
B) a quarterly work planning group
C) a group meeting to consider the feasibility of a new product
D) a group meeting to prepare the monthly financial reports
E) a group of workers pressing management for better pay
Answer: E
Rationale:
An interest group is formed around a common interest or goal, such as workers advocating
for better pay, as described in option E.
61) An informal group that gains and maintains membership primarily because of a common
concern members have about a specific issue is called ________.
A) a work team
B) a friendship group
C) a command group
D) an interest group

E) a committee
Answer: D
Rationale:
Interest groups are informal groups that form around a common concern or issue that
members share, such as advocating for a particular cause or addressing a specific problem.
62) Interest groups are ________.
A) command groups
B) self-managed work teams
C) formal groups
D) task groups
E) informal groups
Answer: E
Rationale:
Interest groups are informal groups that are not part of the formal organizational structure, as
they form around shared interests or concerns among members.
63) Informal groups that form in organizations because of the personal affiliation members
have with one another are called ________.
A) interest groups
B) friendship groups
C) formal groups
D) work groups
E) task groups
Answer: B
Rationale:

Friendship groups are informal groups that form based on personal relationships and
affiliations among members, rather than around specific issues or interests.
64) Personal factors as recreational interests, race, gender, and religion serve as foundations
for ________.
A) interest groups
B) work teams
C) friendship groups
D) committees
E) special-purpose teams
Answer: C
Rationale:
Friendship groups form based on personal factors such as shared interests, backgrounds, or
characteristics, which create a foundation for the development of personal relationships
within the group.
65) Betty, working for Creative Minds Advertising, decided with a few of her colleagues to
have a potluck lunch once in a month. This is an example of ________.
A) a friendship group
B) an interest group
C) a committee
D) a task group
E) a special-purpose team
Answer: A
Rationale:
Betty and her colleagues forming a group to have a potluck lunch once a month is an example
of a friendship group, as it is based on personal affiliation and social interaction rather than a
specific task or issue.

66) Which of the following is one of the primary benefits of informal group membership?
A) developing new ideas for solving existing organizational problems
B) promoting discipline in the organization
C) perpetuating social and cultural values that group members consider important
D) providing basic structure of division of work and responsibilities
E) generating clarity on what support and input each employee can expect from others
Answer: C
Rationale:
One of the primary benefits of informal group membership is the perpetuation of social and
cultural values that members consider important, as these groups provide a sense of
belonging and identity within the organization.
67) Which of the following is an analytical tool that can be used to determine what informal
groups exist in an organization and who the members of those groups are?
A) informal matrix
B) sociometry
C) social network diagram
D) PERT
E) reciprocity diagram
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sociometry is an analytical tool used to study social relationships within groups, including
informal groups, by identifying patterns of interaction and group dynamics.
68) The HR team of Graphix, a web designing company, decides to conduct an online survey
within the company to analyze the informal relationships among the employees by sending
them a questionnaire consisting of simple questions like naming some organization members
with whom they would like to spend their free time and listing the members of their lunch

groups at work. Which of the following analytical tools can be used by the HR team for
conducting the survey?
A) Myers-Briggs type indicator
B) PERT
C) Pareto chart
D) sociometry
E) Wechsler intelligence tool
Answer: D
Rationale:
Sociometry, as described in the scenario, involves using questionnaires to analyze informal
relationships among employees, making it the appropriate analytical tool for the HR team's
survey.
69) A sociometric diagram that summarizes the personal feelings of organization members
about the people in the organization with whom they would like to spend free time is a
________.
A) social audit
B) sociogram
C) social network diagram
D) formal group development diagram
E) friendship chart
Answer: B
Rationale:
A sociogram is a graphical representation of social relationships within a group, including
personal preferences for spending free time with specific individuals, providing insights into
group dynamics and interactions.

70) According to ________, the feedback on the functioning of the informal group can give
managers ideas about how to modify the formal group so as to increase the probability that
informal group members will achieve the satisfaction and growth they desire.
A) Bernard Bass
B) the sociometric framework
C) Maslow's hierarchy
D) Homans model
E) the group communication framework
Answer: D
Rationale:
Homans' model suggests that feedback on the functioning of informal groups can inform
managers on how to modify formal groups to align with the needs and desires of informal
group members, promoting satisfaction and growth.
71) The model of the evolution of informal groups proposed by George Homans suggests that
________.
A) once established, informal groups will resist changes in the formal work group that
threaten the satisfaction of the informal group's members
B) informal groups will naturally evolve into problem-solving groups
C) the sentiments and activities that emerge within an informal group rarely result from the
sentiments, interactions, and activities that already exist within a formal group
D) managers should refrain from implementing ideas generated from the feedback received
from informal groups as they tend to be biased
E) informal groups instituted at the behest of management are more fruitful from an
organizational perspective than ones that naturally evolve
Answer: A
Rationale:

Homans' model suggests that informal groups develop within formal groups to fulfill
members' social needs. Once formed, these groups establish their own norms and resist
changes from the formal group that may threaten their cohesion or satisfaction.
72) Which of the following statements is true?
A) A team qualifies as a group only if its members focus on helping one another accomplish
organizational objectives.
B) The terms "group" and "team" are not synonymous.
C) A team consists of any number of people who interact with one another, are
psychologically aware of one another, and think of themselves as a team.
D) Not all teams in organizations are groups, but all groups are teams.
E) A team is a group whose members influence one another toward the accomplishment of an
organizational objective.
Answer: E
Rationale:
A team is a specific type of group where members collaborate and influence each other to
achieve a common goal or organizational objective. This distinguishes a team from a mere
group of individuals.
73) An organizational team established to help eliminate a specified issue within the
organization is a ________.
A) committee
B) virtual team
C) problem-solving team
D) cross-functional team
E) self-managed team
Answer: C
Rationale:

A problem-solving team is formed to address a specific issue or challenge within the
organization, working together to develop solutions and implement them.
74) Which of the following statements about a problem-solving team is true?
A) It is typically formed to discuss ways to improve quality in all phases of the organization,
to make organizational processes more efficient, or to improve the overall work environment.
B) It is a creative team which involves a highly integrated group of several skilled individuals
who are cross-trained and have the responsibility and authority to perform some specified
activity.
C) Management must respond to the problem-solving team's recommendations by
implementing them in their entirety.
D) Generally responsible for whole tasks as opposed to "parts" of a job, the problem-solving
team is an important new way of structuring, managing, and rewarding work.
E) It is generally permanent in nature, with the focus of the team shifting from one problem
to another over time.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Problem-solving teams are formed to address specific issues or challenges within the
organization, such as improving quality, efficiency, or the work environment. They focus on
developing solutions for these targeted problems.
75) A work team composed of people from different functional areas of the organization who
are all focused on a specified objective is known as a ________.
A) task group
B) cross-functional team
C) command group
D) special-purpose group
E) self-directed team
Answer: B

Rationale:
Cross-functional teams are formed by individuals from different functional areas of an
organization to work together on a specific objective or project, leveraging their diverse skills
and perspectives.
76) The ________ stage of team development is usually characterized by uncertainty and
stress, because the team is new.
A) performing
B) adjourning
C) storming
D) norming
E) forming
Answer: E
Rationale:
The forming stage is the initial stage of team development, where members are getting to
know each other and the team's goals. There is often uncertainty and stress during this stage
as roles and expectations are not yet clear.
77) Jane, a project manager at Global Business Solutions, has decided to have a team meeting
on a daily basis for a week to help the team members from different departments get
accustomed to each other and assist them in learning about the opportunities and challenges
coming their way through a new project. Jane's team is in the ________ stage of
development.
A) forming
B) storming
C) norming
D) adjourning
E) performing
Answer: A

Rationale:
Jane's team is in the forming stage, where members are getting to know each other and
familiarizing themselves with the project's goals and challenges. Daily team meetings are
common in this stage to establish a foundation for future collaboration.
78) Which stage of team development is characterized by conflict and disagreement as team
members try to clarify their individual roles and challenge the way the team functions?
A) forming
B) norming
C) performing
D) storming
E) adjourning
Answer: D
Rationale:
The storming stage is characterized by conflict and disagreement as team members establish
their roles and challenge the team's direction and processes. This stage is necessary for the
team to clarify its purpose and function effectively.
79) Linda, a project manager at a cosmetic company, is handling an assignment to rejuvenate
the company's supply chain management. Linda is working with a new team of experts who
have never worked with each other before. In a recent meeting, her team members expressed
radically different opinions on what should be done to update the company's supply chain.
Linda had to intervene a couple of times during the meeting to bring the discussion back on
track. Linda's team is in the ________ stage of team development.
A) storming
B) learning
C) adjourning
D) performing
E) norming

Answer: A
Rationale:
Linda's team is in the storming stage, where conflicts and disagreements arise as team
members establish their roles and work through differences in opinions and approaches.
Interventions from the leader are common during this stage to guide the team toward
resolution.
80) Linda, a project manager at a cosmetic company, is handling an assignment to rejuvenate
the company's supply chain management. Linda is working with a new team of experts who
have never worked with each other before. Linda, having the experience of handling different
kinds of teams helped her team members sort out their difference of opinion on how to update
the company's supply chain. Eventually, her team started respecting each other's opinions and
valuing their differences. Linda was no more involved in decision making and problem
solving since her team members were working better together and were in a position to take
on more responsibility. This is an example of the ________.
A) learning stage of team development
B) storming stage of team development
C) norming stage of team development
D) adjourning stage of team development
E) forming stage of team development
Answer: C
Rationale:
Linda's team has moved into the norming stage, where conflicts are resolved, and team
members begin to respect each other's opinions and work together effectively. In this stage,
the team becomes more cohesive and self-managing, allowing the leader to step back from
decision-making and problem-solving.
81) Which stage of team development is characterized by a focus on solving organizational
problems and meeting assigned challenges?
A) forming

B) storming
C) acceptance
D) performing
E) adjourning
Answer: D
Rationale:
The performing stage of team development is characterized by a focus on achieving the
team's goals, solving problems, and meeting challenges. Team members work together
efficiently and effectively to accomplish tasks.
82) The ________ stage of team development normally occurs only in teams established for
some special purpose to be accomplished in a limited time period.
A) adjourning
B) performing
C) norming
D) storming
E) forming
Answer: A
Rationale:
The adjourning stage occurs when a team disbands after completing its task or project. This
stage is not always present in ongoing teams but is common in teams with a specific, timelimited objective.
83) Which of the following is considered a people-related factor that leads to effective team
performance?
A) mutual trust and team spirit
B) stable goals and priorities
C) high power struggle within the team

D) proper technical direction and leadership
E) organizational stability and job security
Answer: A
Rationale:
Mutual trust and team spirit are essential people-related factors that contribute to effective
team performance. They promote collaboration, open communication, and a positive team
environment.
84) The most fundamental ingredient for an effective team is ________.
A) monetary compensation
B) self-management
C) common interests
D) trust
E) talent
Answer: D
Rationale:
Trust is considered the most fundamental ingredient for an effective team. Without trust
among team members, collaboration, communication, and goal achievement are significantly
hindered.
85) Which of the following would be least likely to build trust within a group?
A) provide differential rewards based on subjective criterion
B) show respect for team members
C) demonstrate competence
D) communicate often to team members
E) be predictable
Answer: A

Rationale:
Providing differential rewards based on subjective criteria can create perceptions of
unfairness and favoritism, which can undermine trust within a group. Building trust is more
likely to be achieved through actions that demonstrate respect, competence, open
communication, and predictability.
86) Define a group as used in the context of management. Why is study of groups important
to managers?
Answer: A group is not simply a gathering of people. Rather, it is "any number of people who
(1) interact with one another, (2) are psychologically aware of one another, and (3) perceive
themselves to be a group."
The study of groups is important to managers because the most common ingredient of all
organizations is people and the most common technique for accomplishing work through
these people is dividing them into work groups. In a classic article, Cartwright and Lippitt list
four additional reasons why managers should study groups:
1. Groups exist in all kinds of organizations.
2. Groups inevitably form in all facets of organizational existence.
3. Groups can cause either desirable or undesirable consequences within the organization.
4. An understanding of groups can help managers raise the probability that the groups with
which they work will cause desirable consequences within the organization.
87) Define a committee. Explain the four major reasons for establishing committees within an
organization.
Answer: A committee is a group of individuals charged with performing some type of
specific activity and is usually classified as a task group. From a managerial viewpoint,
committees are established for four major reasons:
1. To allow organization members to exchange ideas
2. To generate suggestions and recommendations that can be offered to other organizational
units
3. To develop new ideas for solving existing organizational problems

4. To assist in the development of organizational policies.
88) List the stages of formal group development.
Answer: The four stages of formal group development are:
1. The acceptance stage
2. The communication and decision-making stage
3. The group solidarity stage
4. The group control stage
89) What is a sociogram? How would a manager construct a sociogram, and why might it be
useful?
Answer: A sociogram is a diagram that displays the links that individuals within a population
report. They are constructed by asking people (organizational members) the person with
whom they would like to spend free time. A sociogram summarizes the responses of these
reports of informal relationships. A manager could use a sociogram to help him/her
understand the informal groups within her/her organization, which would help to understand
the overall patterns of communication and association.
90) Define the six task-related steps that help managers build effective work teams.
Answer: Task-related steps that help managers build effective work teams include:
1. Developing clear objectives, directions, and project plans for the team
2. Providing proper technical direction and leadership for the team
3. Establishing autonomy for the team and challenging work within the team
4. Appointing experienced and qualified team personnel
5. Encouraging team involvement
6. Building visibility within the organization for the team's work.

Test Bank for Modern Management: Concepts and Skills
Samuel C. Certo, S. Trevis Certo
9780133059922, 9780133254105, 9780135983546

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