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This Document Contains Chapters 17 to 18 Chapter 17 Culture and Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. Among lowland Yanomamö men, one of the LEAST desirable personality characteristics is A. cowardice. B. neuroticism. C. low self-esteem. D. aggressiveness. Answer: A. cowardice. 2. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of cultural personality psychology? To discover A. the principles underlying cultural diversity. B. how individual humans differ. C. how human psychology shapes culture. D. how cultural shapes personality. Answer: B. how individual humans differ. 3. The question of whether personality characteristics are universal addresses the _______________ level of analysis. A. human nature B. group differences C. individual differences D. individual uniqueness Answer: A. human nature 4. Tooby and Cosmides define cultural variations as within-group A. similarities and between-group similarities. B. similarities and between-group differences. C. differences and between-group similarities. D. differences and between-group differences. Answer: B. similarities and between-group differences. 5. Almost all members of the Bleeminese tribe go bowling. However, it is rare for a member of the Bloopine tribe to bowl at all. This difference in behavior between the two tribes represents a cultural A. variation. B. stratification. C. deviation. D. norm. Answer: A. variation. 6. Environmental conditions are most responsible for A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. elicited culture. Answer: C. evoked culture. 7. The bulky clothes that people in far northern cultures often wear is an example of A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. a culture of honor. Answer: C. evoked culture. 8. Characteristics that are universally common to all people, but only evident in some cultures are examples of A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. elicited culture. Answer: C. evoked culture. 9. The X people live in a desert where the temperature often exceeds 100 degrees Fahrenheit. They wear lightweight, loose robes and large-brimmed hats. The X people's mode of dress is an example of A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. elicited culture Answer: C. evoked culture. 10. Evoked cooperation is usually the result of _______________ conditions in the environment. A. no variance B. low variance C. medium variance D. high variance Answer: D. high variance 11. If every day all the hunters in a tribe successfully return from the daily hunting expedition with plenty of slain animals, there will be _______________ due to the _______________. A. little evoked cooperation; low-variance conditions B. much evoked cooperation; low-variance conditions C. little evoked cooperation; high-variance conditions D. much evoked cooperation; high-variance conditions Answer: A. little evoked cooperation; low-variance conditions 12. Research suggests that cooperative cultures develop A. in cooler climates. B. in warmer climates. C. where resources are more variable. D. where resources are less variable. Answer: C. where resources are more variable. 13. High-variance conditions are most associated with A. independence. B. aggression. C. sharing. D. social inequality. Answer: C. sharing. 14. Jay Belsky and his colleagues believe that an early environment with harsh, rejecting, and inconsistent child rearing practices, and erratic parental investment will foster A. in children the desire to constantly evoke cooperation across all environmental conditions. B. in children an impulsive personality and a mating strategy marked by earlier reproduction. C. unconscientious children that have lower levels of formal education. D. highly cooperative children with mating strategies marked by delayed reproduction. Answer: B. in children an impulsive personality and a mating strategy marked by earlier reproduction. 15. Children raised in unpredictable environments are more likely to A. pursue a short-term mating strategy. B. pursue a long-term mating strategy. C. expect to be married throughout adulthood. D. develop narcissistic personalities. Answer: A. pursue a short-term mating strategy. 16. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic for cultures that emphasize chastity to their children? They are more likely to A. invest in their children. B. have many stable marriages. C. have many divorces. D. become extinct. Answer: D. become extinct. 17. The proclivity of evoked mating strategies to vary cross-culturally may be based upon differences in the A. relative value of women across different cultures. B. value placed on chastity and parental investment across cultures. C. in the geographical factors that vary across cultures. D. the level of the equality between men and women across cultures. Answer: B. value placed on chastity and parental investment across cultures. 18. Nisbett and his colleagues have proposed the notion that a _______________ is a variable based upon defending oneself against aggression evoked by other individuals in the environment. A. provoked environment B. culture of honor C. den of inequity D. elicited culture Answer: B. culture of honor 19. Egalitarianism is associated with A. high-variance conditions. B. low-variance conditions. C. agricultural cultures. D. cultures of honor. Answer: A. high-variance conditions. 20. Cultural characteristics that start out as ideas are most likely examples of A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. elicited culture. Answer: A. transmitted culture. 21. The Bleeminese, a little known culture located northeast of Pixley, have a set of coming-of-age rituals that include watching 50 hours of Green Acres reruns, dressing like Arnold the Pig, reciting the secret Bleem chants, and other strenuous tasks. The Bleeminese have passed down their coming-of-age ceremony to each 12-year-old Bleem who, in turn, will make sure to pass on the tradition to their children. This Bleeminese ritual is an example of A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. elicited culture. Answer: A. transmitted culture. 22. Nisbett's "cultures of honor" is an example of A. interdependence. B. independence. C. evoked culture. D. transmitted culture. Answer: C. evoked culture. 23. According to Nisbett, honor is most important in A. cultures with low variance in resources. B. cultures with high variance in resources. C. agricultural cultures. D. herding cultures. Answer: D. herding cultures. 24. Nisbett has attributed greater aggression among Southerners to A. transmitted culture. B. false politeness. C. the greater need to protect resources that could easily be stolen. D. the warmer southern climate. Answer: C. the greater need to protect resources that could easily be stolen. 25. In a study by Nisbett, _______________ were more likely to respond to insults with aggression. A. Southerners B. Northerners C. people from independent cultures D. people from interdependent cultures Answer: A. Southerners 26. The idea that it is wrong to eat beef is an example of A. evoked culture. B. transmitted culture. C. Balkanization. D. reactive culture. Answer: B. transmitted culture. 27. American children's judgments of right and wrong A. have been diluted significantly by the media. B. do not reflect adult judgments until adolescence. C. are extremely similar to adult judgments by age five. D. are more similar to their grandparents then parents. Answer: C. are extremely similar to adult judgments by age five. 28. Culturally transmitted ideas about morality are first evident in A. infancy. B. childhood. C. adolescence. D. adulthood. Answer: B. childhood. 29. Which of the following moral ideas is most widely accepted across cultures? A. Incest is wrong. B. Eating pork is wrong. C. Combing one's hair during a thunderstorm is wrong. D. Beating one's wife is wrong. Answer: A. Incest is wrong. 30. Which of the following is a positive aspect of cross-cultural marriages? A. Limited options in child rearing practices. B. Ease of communication. C. More options in gender roles. D. Restricted cultural bonds. Answer: C. More options in gender roles. 31. "Balkanization" is a term that refers to A. greater permeability between cultures. B. cross-cultural marriages. C. social resegregation following a peaceful time of diversity. D. cultural differences. Answer: C. social resegregation following a peaceful time of diversity. 32. Cultural differences are most apparent in A. expression of emotions. B. recognizing emotion expressions. C. the dimensional structure of personality traits. D. self-concepts. Answer: D. self-concepts. 33. The cultural task of _______________ involves how you are affiliated with, attached to, or engaged in the larger group of which you are a member. A. independence B. interdependence C. individualism D. collectivism Answer: B. interdependence 34. Western cultures tend to emphasize the cultural task of _______________ more than non-Western cultures. A. cultural transmission B. evoking culture C. independence D. interdependence Answer: C. independence 35. According to Markus and Kitayama, people in _______________ are more likely to think of themselves in reference to their larger cultural group. A. England B. Zaire C. America D. Japan Answer: D. Japan 36. People in Eastern cultures tend to use more _______________ to describe themselves. A. relational statements B. personal adjectives C. global adjectives D. attitudinal statements Answer: A. relational statements 37. _______________ is the process of adapting to the ways of life and beliefs that are common in one's new culture. A. Acclamation B. Emancipation C. Acculturation D. Emaciation Answer: C. Acculturation 38. Which of the following descriptions is more typical of a person from a non-Western culture? A. I am Mary's brother. B. I am submissive. C. I am agreeable. D. I am self-reliant. Answer: A. I am Mary's brother. 39. Collectivist cultures are similar to _______________ cultures. A. individualist B. interdependent C. independent D. introverted Answer: B. interdependent 40. A study of Asian Americans living in New York who did not identify themselves as Asian found that they used more A. self-descriptive adjectives than Euro-Americans. B. social role adjectives than Euro-Americans. C. self-descriptive adjectives than Euro-Americans if they identified themselves as Asian. D. abstract and autonomous self-statements. Answer: D. abstract and autonomous self-statements. 41. Research has found that Japanese college students give _______________ when compared to American college students. A. more context-dependent self-descriptions B. fewer context-dependent self-descriptions C. longer self-descriptions D. shorter self-descriptions Answer: A. more context-dependent self-descriptions 42. Research suggests that American students are more likely to describe themselves as _______________ when compared to Japanese students. A. ordinary B. related to someone C. special D. eccentric Answer: C. special 43. A study of Chinese students' self descriptions found that they A. described themselves independent of the situation. B. described themselves within the context of the situation. C. typically described themselves by referring specifically to other people. D. described themselves as being pretty ordinary. Answer: C. typically described themselves by referring specifically to other people. 44. People in _______________ cultures are more likely to give priority to personal goals. A. variable resource B. herding C. individualist D. collectivist Answer: C. individualist 45. Oyserman and her colleagues speculate that humans have evolved mechanisms so that A. individuals are born with mechanisms to fit into the culture they are born into. B. when resources are abundant and mobility is high individuals will be interdependent. C. when resources are scarce and mobility is low individuals will strive for independence. D. individuals will choose either individualistic or interdependent self-concepts depending on the fitness advantage of that strategy. Answer: D. individuals will choose either individualistic or interdependent self-concepts depending on the fitness advantage of that strategy. 46. Compared to Americans, Japanese individuals tend to explain events _______________ with attention to relationships, contacts, and links to the object as a whole. A. holistically B. analytically C. statistically D. mechanically Answer: A. holistically 47. Which of the following is NOT one of the criticisms of the interdependence-independence and collectivist-individualistic concepts? A. cross-cultural theories are almost always conducted between North America and East Asia and, thus, may not be generalized about other cultures. B. cross-cultural research is almost always conducted on college students. C. there is a considerable overlap in the self concepts of people from different cultures. D. characterizing cultures in broad cultural dichotomies may be overly simplistic Answer: B. cross-cultural research is almost always conducted on college students. 48. Americans tend to explain events _______________ with the object detached from its context, attributes of objects, or people assigned to categories, and with a reliance on rules about the categories to describe behavior. A. holistically B. analytically C. statistically D. mechanically Answer: B. analytically 49. Differences in the ways Western and non-Western people describe themselves are most likely due to A. hormones. B. genes. C. cultural transmission. D. evolution. Answer: C. cultural transmission. 50. The tendency to present oneself using positive attributes is know as A. acculturation. B. an independent strategy. C. an interdependent strategy. D. self-enhancement. Answer: D. self-enhancement. 51. Research has found that, compared to American participants, Asian participants are more likely to A. use positive self-descriptive adjectives. B. score lower on measures of self-esteem. C. describe themselves individualistically. D. be more spontaneous positive statements about themselves. Answer: A. use positive self-descriptive adjectives. 52. Research suggests that, as compared to people from non-Western cultures, Americans tend to A. express themselves more positively. B. experience themselves more negatively. C. use less self-enhancement. D. use context-dependent descriptions. Answer: A. express themselves more positively. 53. People from _______________ social classes tend to emphasize the importance of obedience to authority. A. lower B. middle C. higher D. elite Answer: A. lower 54. Kohn found that differences in conformity and self-direction A. were best predicted by independence-interdependence. B. varied more between cultures. C. varied more within cultures. D. were the result of self-enhancement. Answer: C. varied more within cultures. 55. Kohn found that men from lower social classes _______________ than men from higher social classes. A. were more self-directed B. emphasized greater obedience to authority C. showed lower levels of conformity D. had greater intellectual flexibility Answer: B. emphasized greater obedience to authority 56. Men from higher social classes in _______________ cultures tended to have low levels of conformity, more self-direction, and have greater intellectual flexibility than did men from lower social classes. A. collectivist B. individualist C. interdependent D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 57. Differences in historical eras are most likely to affect A. cultural variation. B. within-culture variation. C. cultural universals. D. acculturation. Answer: B. within-culture variation. 58. Margaret Mead argued A. for cultural universals. B. against cultural universals. C. for within-culture variation. D. that historical eras were important to culture. Answer: B. against cultural universals. 59. Recent research suggests that A. some of the cultural differences observed by Mead were inaccurate. B. the idea of cultural universals is untenable. C. cultural universals are more important than cultural differences. D. within-culture variation is much smaller than between culture variation. Answer: A. some of the cultural differences observed by Mead were inaccurate. 60. Which of the following is probably NOT a cultural universal? A. Prohibitions against incest. B. Facial expressions of basic emotions. C. Division of labor by sex. D. Prohibition against spousal abuse. Answer: D. Prohibition against spousal abuse. 61. Williams and Best found that most trait adjectives were rated as A. positive. B. negative. C. neutral. D. masculine or feminine. Answer: D. masculine or feminine. 62. Most cultures agree that the trait of _______________ is more associated with men. A. affection B. arrogance C. fearfulness D. appreciativeness Answer: B. arrogance 63. Most cultures agree that the trait of _______________ is more associated with women. A. emotionality B. independence C. activeness D. conceitedness Answer: A. emotionality 64. _______________ was one of the first to suggest that emotions are universal. A. Mead B. Markus C. Darwin D. Larsen Answer: C. Darwin 65. The German word "schadenfreude" describes A. pleasure in another's misfortune. B. grief. C. the fifth factor of personality in Germany. D. sadness. Answer: A. pleasure in another's misfortune. 66. Pinker argues that people in different cultures A. experience different emotions. B. express emotions similarly. C. use different words to talk about their emotions. D. cannot recognize emotions cross-culturally. Answer: C. use different words to talk about their emotions. 67. People _______________ are able to identify facial expressions of basic emotions made by Americans. A. in New Guinea B. in Germany C. in Japan D. universally Answer: D. universally 68. Expressions of basic emotions are an example of A. transmitted culture. B. cultural universals. C. evoked culture. D. elicited culture Answer: B. cultural universals. 69. Cross-cultural research on personality structure indicates that A. the idea of stable personality is a purely Western idea. B. many cultures lack words to describe personality traits. C. the five-factor model is always found. D. there are great similarities in personality structure across cultures. Answer: D. there are great similarities in personality structure across cultures. 70. The Whorfian hypothesis of linguistic relativity states that language A. creates thoughts and experiences. B. is not necessary to experience emotions. C. provides an unlimited capacity to express thoughts and emotions. D. clouds the true experience of thoughts and emotions. Answer: A. creates thoughts and experiences. 71. Trait-descriptive terms are found A. mostly in Western cultures. B. mostly in Asian cultures. C. only in non-Western cultures. D. in most cultures. Answer: D. in most cultures. 72. Studies that have translated English questionnaires into different languages A. have been successful in replicating the five-factor model of personality. B. have only replicated four factors in the five-factor model of personality. C. have not been conducted yet. D. indicate that personality structure is not universal. Answer: A. have been successful in replicating the five-factor model of personality. 73. Studies that begin with indigenous trait terms in many cultures A. provide a more stringent test of cultural universality than translation studies. B. provide a less stringent test of cultural universality than translation studies. C. find the five-factor model of personality in all cultures. D. replicate Cattell's 16 factor personality model. Answer: A. provide a more stringent test of cultural universality than translation studies. 74. Research has found the LEAST degree of cross-cultural universality on the factor of A. emotional stability. B. openness. C. extraversion. D. agreeableness. Answer: B. openness. Chapter 18 Stress, Coping, Adjustment, and Health Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is important in fighting the spread of AIDS? A. Research on a vaccine. B. Research on the HIV virus. C. Research on behavior. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 2. Researchers in the field of _______________ focus on the link between the mind and body. A. differential psychology B. health psychology C. psychoanalysis D. medicine Answer: B. health psychology 3. It is thought that in the United States, lifestyle contributes to more than _______________ percent of premature deaths. A. 10 B. 30 C. 50 D. 90 Answer: C. 50 4. Stress is the _______________ feeling produced by events that are uncontrollable or threatening. A. objective B. subjective C. acute D. chronic Answer: B. subjective 5. Which of the following is NOT a model of the links between behavior and health? A. Circumplex model B. Interactional model C. Transactional model D. Predisposition model Answer: A. Circumplex model 6. _______________ are diagrams of variables and the causal relationships between them. A. Appraisals B. Models C. Theories D. Hypotheses Answer: B. Models 7. Which of the following is NOT an important variable in most health psychology models? A. Stress B. Appraisals C. Coping D. All of these are important variables. Answer: D. All of these are important variables. 8. In the _______________ model, personality has its effect on people's ability to cope with events. A. health behavior B. interactional C. transactional D. predisposition Answer: B. interactional 9. A problem for the _______________ model was that psychologists had difficulty identifying coping strategies that were consistently adaptive or maladaptive. A. health behavior B. interactional C. transactional D. predisposition Answer: B. interactional 10. In the transactional model, personality has the effect of influencing A. coping. B. appraisals. C. stressful events. D. all of these Answer: D. all of these 11. Which model describes personality as having an effect on stressful events (e.g., through selection, evocation, or manipulation)? A. Health behavior model B. Interactional model C. Transactional model D. Predisposition model Answer: C. Transactional model 12. Which of the following models is least complex? A. Health behavior model B. Interactional model C. Transactional model D. Illness behavior model Answer: B. Interactional model 13. Which model focuses on how personality influences life style choices (e.g., smoking) that in turn influence health? A. Health behavior model B. Interactional model C. Transactional model D. Illness behavior model Answer: A. Health behavior model 14. The finding that extraverts are more likely to smoke is most consistent with the A. health behavior model. B. interactional model. C. transactional model. D. None of these. Answer: A. health behavior model. 15. Which model sees no direct relationship between personality and health, but instead attributes correlations between the two to a third variable? A. Health behavior model B. Interactional model C. Transactional model D. Predisposition model Answer: D. Predisposition model 16. Behavior genetics research on personality and illness fits best into the _______________ model. A. health behavior B. interactional C. transactional D. predisposition Answer: D. predisposition 17. Going to the doctor, missing work, and complaining about symptoms are all examples of A. appraisals. B. self-efficacy. C. illness behaviors. D. health behaviors. Answer: C. illness behaviors. 18. The _______________ model emphasizes how personality influences the degree to which people pay attention to bodily sensations that can indicate illness. A. health behavior B. interactional C. transactional D. illness behavior Answer: D. illness behavior 19. _______________ the subjective feelings of being overwhelmed by events that seem uncontrollable. A. Stress is B. Stressors are C. Appraisals are D. Pessimism is Answer: A. Stress is 20. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of stressors? A. They produce a state of feeling overwhelmed. B. They are major life events. C. They produce opposing tendencies. D. They are uncontrollable. Answer: B. They are major life events. 21. The reaction to being startled and the increases in blood pressure and other physiological responses is known as A. a stressor. B. the fight-or-flight response. C. pessimism. D. hostility. Answer: B. the fight-or-flight response. 22. Who is responsible for developing the stress response concept of general adaptation syndrome? A. Hanlye B. Lazarus C. Holmes D. Selye Answer: D. Selye 23. Selye described repeated stressors as leading to A. primary appraisals B. secondary appraisals. C. the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). D. primary and secondary appraisals. Answer: C. the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). 24. In the general adaptation syndrome, the fight-or-flight response falls under the _______________ stage. A. appraisal B. alarm C. stage of resistance D. stage of exhaustion Answer: B. alarm 25. In the general adaptation syndrome, the stage of resistance is characterized by A. the fight-or-flight response. B. exhaustion. C. increased physiological energy. D. arteriosclerosis. Answer: C. increased physiological energy. 26. According to Selye, people are most prone to illness in the _______________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. A. appraisal B. alarm C. resistance D. exhaustion Answer: D. exhaustion 27. Which of the following is generally considered to be the MOST stressful major life event? A. Christmas B. Buying a new car C. Getting married D. Changing residence Answer: C. Getting married 28. Stressful life events A. are always objectively negative. B. are always objectively positive. C. are always objectively neutral. D. can be objectively positive, negative, or neutral. Answer: D. can be objectively positive, negative, or neutral. 29. Research by Holmes and Rahe found that people who had more major life stresses were A. more likely to have a serious illness. B. less likely to have a serious illness. C. more likely to die during the course of the study. D. not much different from those who had few major stresses. Answer: A. more likely to have a serious illness. 30. Research suggests that people are more susceptible to the common cold A. if they follow the illness behavior model. B. if they are in the alarm stage of the GAS. C. if they have experienced more stressful life events. D. All of these. Answer: C. if they have experienced more stressful life events. 31. Stress is thought to have the greatest influence on the _______________ system. A. circulatory B. cardiovascular C. reproductive D. immune Answer: D. immune 32. Concerns about weight, crime, and taxes are examples of A. daily hassles. B. major life events. C. attributional style. D. emotional inhibition. Answer: A. daily hassles. 33. Psychologists recognize _______________ varieties of stress: _______________. A. three; episodic acute, traumatic, and chronic stress B. three; benign, traumatic, and chronic stress C. four; acute, episodic acute, traumatic, and chronic stress D. four; acute, benign, traumatic, and chronic stress Answer: C. four; acute, episodic acute, traumatic, and chronic stress 34. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop in persons who _______________ life-threatening events. A. experienced B. witnessed C. imagined D. experienced or witnessed Answer: D. experienced or witnessed 35. _______________ is the term to describe how the effects of stress add up and accumulate in a person over time. A. Additive effects B. Stress accumulation C. Longitudinal buildup D. Stress accrual Answer: A. Additive effects 36. When a person perceives that an event is a threat to his goals, he engages in A. the optimistic bias. B. the pessimistic bias. C. primary appraisal. D. secondary appraisal. Answer: C. primary appraisal. 37. According to Lazarus, what must be present for an event to be stressful? A. The fight-or-flight response. B. Primary appraisal. C. Secondary appraisal. D. Primary and secondary appraisal. Answer: D. Primary and secondary appraisal. 38. According to Lazarus, an exam will be stressful A. always. B. if a person views the exam as important. C. if a person wants to do well but has to cram. D. if a person views the exam as important or wants to do well but has to cram. Answer: C. if a person wants to do well but has to cram. 39. _______________ is a dispositional way of explaining the causes of bad events. A. Defensive pessimism B. Attributional style C. Problem-focused coping D. Negative event interpretation Answer: B. Attributional style 40. The _______________ technique for measuring attributional style was developed by Peterson and his colleagues. A. Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE) B. Attributional Analysis (AA) C. Attribution Vocabulary (AV) D. Peterson Attributional Analysis of Vocabulary (PAAV) Answer: A. Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE) 41. Positive emotions are thought to help with stress by A. broadening attention. B. helping people build stores of energy. C. helping people build social networks. D. All the these. Answer: D. All the these. 42. The "broaden and build" model addresses A. how positive emotions can buffer against stress. B. the optimistic bias. C. the fight-or-flight response. D. how frustration leads to stress. Answer: A. how positive emotions can buffer against stress. 43. Which of the following coping mechanisms can generate positive emotions during stress? A. Problem-focused coping B. Defensive pessimism C. Primary appraisal D. Secondary appraisal Answer: A. Problem-focused coping 44. Focusing on the good aspects of a generally stressful situation is an example of A. problem-focused coping. B. positive reappraisal. C. creating positive events. D. disclosure. Answer: B. positive reappraisal. 45. Problem-focused coping A. can generate positive emotions. B. is useful when events are controllable. C. is useful when events are uncontrollable. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 46. Takings breaks and using humor in stressful situations are examples of the _______________ coping strategy. A. problem-focused coping B. positive reappraisal C. creating positive events D. disclosure Answer: C. creating positive events 47. A person with a pessimistic explanatory style explains bad events as due to _______________ causes. A. internal B. global C. temporary D. internal and global Answer: D. internal and global 48. Dispositional optimism is defined as A. the belief that one can do the behaviors necessary to achieve a desired outcome. B. making attributions that are unstable, temporary, and global. C. the expectation that good events will be plentiful, and bad events will be rare. D. having higher than average self-esteem. Answer: C. the expectation that good events will be plentiful, and bad events will be rare. 49. Self-efficacy is defined as A. the belief that one can do the behaviors necessary to achieve a desired outcome. B. making attributions that are unstable, temporary, and global. C. the expectation that good events will be plentiful, and bad events will be rare. D. having higher-than-average self-esteem. Answer: A. the belief that one can do the behaviors necessary to achieve a desired outcome. 50. _______________ tend to greatly underestimate the chances that negative events will happen to them. A. People with Type A personality B. Optimists C. Extraverts D. People who score high on hostility Answer: B. Optimists 51. The fact that most people underestimate their risk for negative events is known as A. optimism. B. optimistic-bias. C. time urgency. D. general adaptation syndrome. Answer: B. optimistic-bias. 52. Optimism predicts good health when measured by A. self-reports. B. physician reports. C. number of visits to a doctor. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 53. A large study by Peterson et al. found that optimists and pessimists differed in the number of deaths due to A. immune system problems. B. cancer. C. cardiovascular disease. D. accidents. Answer: D. accidents. 54. Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a way that optimism can lead to better health? A. Optimists have better social networks. B. Optimism does not correlate with depression. C. Optimism is associated with better immune system functioning. D. Optimists engage in more health behaviors. Answer: B. Optimism does not correlate with depression. 55. Optimists engage in _______________ levels of problem-focused coping and _______________ levels of avoidance coping. A. lower; higher B. lower; lower C. higher; lower D. higher; higher Answer: C. higher; lower 56. Psychologists do not understand fully the link between optimism and health because A. most of the research is correlational. B. it is difficult to measure optimism. C. most of the research is non-correlational. D. optimism has only recently been studied. Answer: A. most of the research is correlational. 57. Smiling when you receive a gift that you do not really like is an example of A. hostility. B. primary appraisal. C. secondary appraisal. D. emotional inhibition. Answer: D. emotional inhibition. 58. Research suggests that inhibiting the expression negative emotions A. makes people feel better. B. makes people feel worse. C. leads to increased physiological activity. D. leads to reduced physiological activity. Answer: C. leads to increased physiological activity. 59. In a study by James Gross and Robert Levenson, participants who were instructed to inhibit their emotional expressions A. showed less outward expression. B. showed more outward expression. C. showed decreased physiological activity. D. Both A and C. Answer: A. showed less outward expression. 60. When people express their negative emotions they are A. less effective in communicating with others. B. likely to have more problems in relationships. C. likely to have fewer problems in relationships. D. effective communicators, but have more problems in relationships. Answer: C. likely to have fewer problems in relationships. 61. Research suggests that emotional expressiveness is associated with A. better health. B. better relationships. C. more physiological reactivity. D. better health and better relationships. Answer: D. better health and better relationships. 62. Telling others about private aspects of ourselves is known as A. disclosure. B. problem-focused coping. C. self-efficacy. D. the general adaptive syndrome. Answer: A. disclosure. 63. When psychologist James Pennebaker asked research participants to write about secret unpleasant events, he found that A. people felt good as they wrote. B. many people found it difficult to think of secrets. C. everyone had secrets. D. people felt good as they wrote and that everyone had secrets. Answer: C. everyone had secrets. 64. Pennebaker has suggested that keeping negative events secret A. helps maintain self-esteem. B. requires physical energy. C. is associated with good physical health. D. helps maintain self-esteem and is associated with good physical health. Answer: B. requires physical energy. 65. A study that compared participants who wrote about traumatic events to people who wrote about neutral events found that people who wrote about the traumatic events A. visited the campus health center less. B. visited the campus health center more. C. found the task more enjoyable. D. re-experienced the traumatic event. Answer: A. visited the campus health center less. 66. Research suggests that disclosing traumatic events has the effect of A. increasing physiological arousal during disclosure. B. improving physical health. C. reducing the likelihood of depression. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 67. People who are very achievement motivated and always in a hurry score high on measures of A. dispositional optimism. B. Type A personality. C. hostility. D. pessimistic attributional style. Answer: B. Type A personality. 68. Which of the following is NOT a component of Type A behavior pattern? A. Competitive achievement motivation B. Time urgency C. Hostility D. All of these are components of Type A. Answer: D. All of these are components of Type A. 69. Which of the following components of Type A behavior pattern is most lethal? A. Achievement striving B. Time urgency C. Hostility D. All of these are equally lethal. Answer: C. Hostility 70. _______________ is the subjective experience when you are blocked from achieving a goal. A. Stress B. Frustration C. Primary appraisal D. Secondary appraisal Answer: B. Frustration 71. People who are achievement-motivated and time-urgent A. are a greater risk for heart disease. B. are at reduced risk for heart disease. C. do not really have Type A personality. D. None of these. Answer: D. None of these. 72. Early questionnaire measures of Type A personality, compared to structured interviews, A. found more effects on heart disease. B. found fewer effects on heart disease. C. are less reliable measures. D. Both B And C. Answer: B. found fewer effects on heart disease. 73. People who score high on hostility A. are usually violent and aggressive. B. are violent and aggressive when dealing with submissive people. C. act disagreeable when frustrated. D. All of these. Answer: C. act disagreeable when frustrated. 74. Research on Type A falls under the A. health behavior model. B. interactional model. C. transactional model. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 75. Hostile Type A behavior is thought to lead to heart disease through A. primary appraisals. B. secondary appraisals. C. the general adaptation syndrome. D. arteriosclerosis. Answer: D. arteriosclerosis. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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