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This Document Contains Chapters 17 to 18 Chapter 17 1. According to the Joint Committee on Testing Practices (1998), the most fundamental right of test takers is to be: a. Evaluated with tests that meet high professional standards and are valid for the intended purpose. b. Provided with testing results immediately and be given the opportunity to review all assessments. c. evaluated by highly trained professionals on an individual basis. d. provided with the science and methodology used during the development of the assessment upon request. Answer: a. Evaluated with tests that meet high professional standards and are valid for the intended purpose. 2. The most precise and comprehensive guidelines for developing and evaluating tests are the: a. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. b. Joint Committee Guidelines on Testing Practices. c. Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers: Guidelines and Expectations. d. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Answer: d. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. 3. What is considered an initial major step in developing assessments that meet professional standards? a. Assess the validity of the interpretation of test scores. b. Assess the reliability of test scores. c. Develop multiple scoring rubrics. d. Develop a table of specifications. Answer: d. Develop a table of specifications. 4. The ______________ should guide the development of items and scoring criteria. a. assessment formula b. scoring rubric c. table of specifications d. test chart Answer: c. table of specifications 5. What is a guideline for choosing assessments that meet professional standards? a. Make sure the test is developed by a reputable testing company. b. The test should have normative data representative of the target population. c. Select assessments that can has a wide range of uses. d. Reviewing the literature is not necessary if the test is peer reviewed. Answer: b. The test should have normative data representative of the target population. 6. What is a reference where one can locate information about assessments? a. Assessments Encyclopedia b. Mental Measurements Yearbook c. Psychological Test Info d. Testing and More! Answer: b. Mental Measurements Yearbook 7. Which assessment information resource provides critical reviews and/or technical information about specific tests? a. Assessments Encyclopedia b. Mental Measurements Yearbook c. Tests d. Tests in Print Answer: b. Mental Measurements Yearbook 8. Which assessment information resource would be appropriate for a layperson wishing to learn about the technical aspect of an assessment? a. Mental Measurements Yearbook b. Test Critiques c. Tests in Print d. Tests Answer: b. Test Critiques 9. According to Nitko (2001) why is it important to have a broad knowledge of how assessments are used in your respective professional setting? a. To ensure test security b. To guard against potential misuses c. So you can select tests you are qualified to administer d. So you will not be held legally responsible Answer: b. To guard against potential misuses 10. Which of the following is considered a breach of standardized test security? a. Allowing examinees to take the test outside of a controlled environment b. Copying materials with written permission c. Providing accommodations to disabled examinees d. Reviewing test results with the examinee Answer: a. Allowing examinees to take the test outside of a controlled environment 11. Minors should be asked to __________ to the testing procedures, but only a parent or guardian can ________. a. agree, approve b. approve, agree c. assent; consent d. consent; assent Answer: c. assent; consent 12. When is it appropriate to make important diagnostic decisions based only on one assessment? a. In clinical settings b. In educational settings c. In forensic settings d. Never Answer: d. Never 13. There is a substantial amount of research demonstrating that a(n) ___________ approach to interpreting assessment information is superior to a(n) __________ approach. a. actuarial; statistical b. impressionistic; statistical c. statistical; impressionistic d. statistical; actuarial Answer: c. statistical; impressionistic 14. In the ____________ approach, the clinician uses subjective processes and personal judgment to interpret assessment information and make decisions. a. actuarial b. experiential c. impressionistic d. statistical Answer: c. impressionistic 15. When available, the use of ___________ is encouraged to facilitate clinical diagnosis and decision making. a. beta coefficients b. zeta coefficients c. heuristics d. nomograms Answer: d. nomograms 16. With norm-referenced assessment, who is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the normative sample is representative of the actual examinees? a. Test publisher b. Test distributor c. Test user d. Examinee Answer: c. Test user 17. In what situation may it be acceptable to withhold information from the examinee regarding assessment results? a. Classification decisions b. Disability determinations c. Forensic evaluations d. Projective personality assessments Answer: c. Forensic evaluations 18. According to the Standards (1999) what is a responsibility of a test taker? a. To inform the testing administrator if they feel that the test did not accurately reflect their true abilities b. To compare themselves to the standardization sample in order to ensure it is representative c. To be aware of the limitations of the assessment d. To ensure that their results are kept confidential Answer: a. To inform the testing administrator if they feel that the test did not accurately reflect their true abilities 19. What is one method that can be used to minimize expectancy effects? a. Expectancy effects are positive so it is not necessary to minimize them. b. Never interview examinees prior to the assessment. c. Ensure the individual scoring the assessment should have no knowledge of the examinee’s identity. d. Make sure the individual administering the assessment is also the person scoring the assessments. Answer: c. Ensure the individual scoring the assessment should have no knowledge of the examinee’s identity. 20. What is an assessment related behavior one should avoid? a. Keep tests and results secure b. Assume that published test results are reliable and valid. c. Offer special accommodations when the situation warrants them. d. Use common explanations when providing feedback. Answer: b. Assume that published test results are reliable and valid. 21. What is included on the author’s checklist for developing assessments? a. Ensure there is sufficient research using the test. b. Ensure a thorough screening of examinees. c. Develop specific scoring criteria. d. Develop a list of individuals competent to administer the test. Answer: c. Develop specific scoring criteria. 22. What is a responsibility of a test administrator? a. Stay close to the data and minimize subjective inferences. b. Respond in a manner that accurately reflects one’s abilities. c. Explain the test items to the examinee. d. Provide test takers with raw data from their assessment. Answer: a. Stay close to the data and minimize subjective inferences. 23. Which website reproduced the actual Rorschach color plates? a. Discovery Channel b. Encyclopedia Brittanica c. Science Channel d. Wikipedia Answer: d. Wikipedia 24. Informed consent includes the following four legal aspects: capacity, voluntary, documentation, and: a. adequate information provided. b. adequate use of technical jargon. c. testimonials. d. guarantee of improvement. Answer: a. adequate information provided. 25. According to research by Grove and Meehl (1996), which approach to interpreting assessment data is more accurate? a. Actuarial b. Clinical c. Impressionistic d. Qualitative Answer: a. Actuarial 26. According to the authors, what is one important reason people tend to make inaccurate subjective judgments about people? a. The use of heuristics b. The use of algorithms c. The use of inaccurate mental computations d. Inaccurate or faulty memory Answer: a. The use of heuristics 27. Grove and Meehl postulated several reasons clinicians have not adopted statistical approaches for interpreting assessment information. \Which reason did the authors state was the biggest culprit? a. Fear of being replaced by a computer b. Attachment to specific psychological theories c. An education that does not instill a preference for scientific inquiry d. Belief that actuarial approaches that dehumanize clients Answer: c. An education that does not instill a preference for scientific inquiry 28. According to Gay (1990) approximately how many school teachers admitted that they had either witnessed or engaged in unethical assessment practices? a. 15% b. 25% c. 35% d. 45% Answer: c. 35% 29. It is a best practice to select assessments with normative data that are representative of the __________ population. a. general b. minority c. target d. diverse Answer: c. target 30. Tests should be administered in a(n) ____________ manner to ensure fairness and promote the reliability of scores and validity in their interpretations. a. arbitrary b. random c. sequential d. standardized Answer: d. standardized 31. Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of the test taker? a. Preparing for the assessment b. Following the directions c. Not interfering with the performance of other students d. Interpreting the results Answer: d. Interpreting the results 32. When developing a test, an important first step is to specify the __________ of the test and the domain or construct to be measured. a. format b. length c. purpose d. factor structure Answer: c. purpose 33. Allowing your personal impressions of an examinee to influence your evaluation of their performance, in either a positive or negative manner, is referred to as a/the a. test bias. b. expectancy effect. c. self-fulfilling prophecy. d. prejudice. Answer: b. expectancy effect. 34. Deciding if an assessment is appropriate for use in a particular setting is the responsibility of the professional who _____________ the assessments. a. develops b. administers c. scores d. markets Answer: b. administers 35. Cautioning users, in a clear and prominent language, against the most likely misinterpretations and misuses of data that arise out of the assessment development process is a responsibility of a professional who ______________ assessments. a. develops b. takes c. scores d. markets Answer: a. develops 36. Making information available to appropriate individuals about the steps taken to develop and score the assessment, including information used to support the reliability, validity, scoring and reporting processes is the responsibility of a professional who _____________ assessments. a. develops b. administers c. scores d. markets Answer: a. develops Chapter 18 1. The literature review is conducted during which phase of test development? a. Test conceptualization b. Specification of test structure c. Planning standardization and psychometric studies d. Plan implementation Answer: a. Test conceptualization 2. In which phase is it important to develop conceptual and operational definitions of the constructs you want to measure? a. Test conceptualization b. Specification of test structure c. Planning standardization and psychometric studies d. Plan implementation Answer: a. Test conceptualization 3. In which phase is it important to specify item formats? a. Test conceptualization b. Specification of test structure c. Planning standardization and psychometric studies d. Plan implementation Answer: b. Specification of test structure 4. The application of knowledge to problem solving describes: a. Abstract reasoning b. Crystallized intelligence c. Dynamic awareness d. Fluid intelligence Answer: b. Crystallized intelligence 5. ____________ is/are of clinical interest with adolescents and adult offender populations, and in the 1990s Reynolds and Kamphaus (1992) developed a rapid, reliable measure to assess it/them. a. Antisocial tendencies b. Attention deficit disorder c. Sensation seeking d. Sociopathic tendencies Answer: c. Sensation seeking 6. What is the first task of a test developer? a. Conduct the literature review. b. Define the construct to measure. c. Describe the potential uses of the test. d. Identify a need in the field. Answer: d. Identify a need in the field. 7. After the constructs are well defined, what is the next step in test development? a. Conduct the literature review. b. Decide how to assess the reliability of the test. c. Determine in what setting the test will be used. d. Identify a need in the field. Answer: c. Determine in what setting the test will be used. 8. What type of test is carefully scrutinized for illegal items and emphasizes normal range variations in personality as opposed to psychopathology? a. Objective personality tests b. Post-employment tests c. Pre-employment tests d. Subjective personality tests Answer: c. Pre-employment tests 9. A(n) _____________ definition explains our construct at a theoretical level and may use many interpretative words. a. abstract b. conceptual c. operational d. concrete Answer: b. conceptual 10. ____________ means presenting oneself falsely or under pretense whereas ____________ means presenting oneself falsely to achieve a personal gain. a. Dissimulation; malingering b. Ingenuousness; subterfuge c. Malingering; dissimulation d. Subterfuge; ingenuousness Answer: a. Dissimulation; malingering 11. _________ is an attempt to mislead an examiner through inaccurate or incomplete responses or effort. a. False effort b. Justification c. Response bias d. Symptom validity Answer: c. Response bias 12. The accuracy of the examinee’s behavioral effort is: a. dissimulation. b. effort. c. response bias. d. symptom validity. Answer: d. symptom validity. 13. __________ are designed by including extreme responses to traditional items that are seldom endorsed as present even in individuals with significant levels of psychopathology. a. F-scales b. D-scales c. Inconsistency indices d. L-scales Answer: a. F-scales 14. ____________ are often called Social Desirability scales and are designed to detect the inaccurate denial of symptoms that are really present. a. D-scales b. F-scales c. G-scales d. L-scales Answer: d. L-scales 15. An ____________ is derived by initially examining the correlation matrix of all items on the test to see which items are the most similar. a. F-scale b. Inconsistency index c. L-scale d. Response bias scale Answer: b. Inconsistency index 16. ____________ might be considered effort testing for personality and behavior rating scales. a. F-scales b. E-scales c. L-scales d. V-scales Answer: d. V-scales 17. ____________ are tests designed to look very difficult but are in fact very easy and on which most people who put forth the effort to succeed will do so. a. Dissimulation scales b. Effort tests c. Forced-choice tests d. Symptom validity tests Answer: d. Symptom validity tests 18. One can ensure congruence among the construct definitions, operational definitions, and test content by developing a: a. table of specifications. b. test matrix. c. variance table. d. covariance table. Answer: a. table of specifications. 19. According to Bloom’s Taxonomy, what is the simplest level? a. Analysis b. Comprehension c. Evaluation d. Knowledge Answer: d. Knowledge 20. The use of general rules, principles, or abstract concepts to solve a problem not previously encountered involves objectives at the _____________ level. a. Analysis b. Application c. knowledge d. Synthesis Answer: b. Application 21. The student will be able to correctly describe each step in the completed geometric proof. This is an example of an objective at which level of Bloom’s Taxonomy? a. Analysis b. Comprehension c. Evaluation d. Synthesis Answer: a. Analysis 22. Traditionally, table of specifications were written for tests of ___________ and ___________. a. achievement; aptitude b. achievement; behavior c. behavior; personality d. personality; aptitude Answer: a. achievement; aptitude 23. After the test blueprint coverage is constructed, what is the next step in test development? a. Complete reliability studies. b. Determine and describe the item formats. c. Plan validity studies. d. Complete analyses for detecting biased items. Answer: b. Determine and describe the item formats. 24. What is always an undesirable attribute for a test? a. Multiple validity scales b. Forced choice items c. Test items with fewer than 4 responses d. Unnecessary length Answer: d. Unnecessary length 25. When writing items for a new test, what ‘rule of thumb’ has been verified repeatedly over decades of test development? a. Draft the exact number of items you expect to need on the test. b. Draft at least twice as many items as you expect to need on the test. c. Draft at least three times as many items as you expect to need on the test. d. Draft at least four times as many items as you expect to need on the test. Answer: b. Draft at least twice as many items as you expect to need on the test. 26. What statistical method is commonly used for item selection? a. Cluster analysis b. Correlation of each item with the total test score c. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) d. T-tests Answer: b. Correlation of each item with the total test score 27. What is the first step in deciding on a sampling plan? a. Administer the test to the individuals in the sample. b. Describe the target population. c. Determine the percentage of people with specific characteristics needed to make the sample representative. d. Obtain a true random sample of the population. Answer: b. Describe the target population. 28. _________ scores tell us the number of points accumulated by a person on a measure but typically provide us only with ordinal scale measurement. a. Rasch b. Raw c. Standard d. Z Answer: b. Raw 29. What type of score should be used if an examiner wants to compare the examinee’s score to a reference group? a. Cut-scores b. Criterion-referenced scores c. Raw scores d. Standard scores Answer: d. Standard scores 30. What type of score would be particularly useful in determining how has Jenny’s math performance changed in relation to the beginning of her specialized instruction? a. Criterion-referenced score b. Norm-referenced score c. Rasch scores d. Standard scores Answer: c. Rasch scores 31. What type of score would be appropriate to answer the question: “Has John’s performance in language arts reached a predetermined level?” a. Criterion-referenced score b. Norm-referenced score c. IRT-based score d. Standard score Answer: a. Criterion-referenced score 32. The most popular and widely applicable method for calculating internal consistency reliability coefficients is: a. Cronbach’s alpha. b. Pearson correlation coefficient. c. Spearman correlation coefficient. d. test-retest reliability. Answer: a. Cronbach’s alpha. 33. Inter-rater reliability is particularly important with: a. speed tests. b. tests producing norm-referenced scores. c. tests producing criterion-referenced scores. d. tests that require subjective judgment in scoring. Answer: d. tests that require subjective judgment in scoring. 34. What must be submitted in order to have a test published? a. Factor studies b. Test development outline c. Test proposal d. Copyright permission Answer: c. Test proposal Test Bank for Mastering Modern Psychological Testing: Theory and Methods Cecil R. Reynolds, Ronald B. Livingston 9780205886081

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