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This Document Contains Chapters 15 to 16 Chapter 15 Personality and Social Interaction Multiple Choice Questions 1. The social and cultural domain of knowledge emphasizes the effects of _______________ on an individual's behavior more than other approaches emphasize those factors. A. internal factors B. external factors C. unconscious factors D. conscious factors Answer: B. external factors 2. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways discussed in the text that illustrate how personality interacts with situations? A. Evocation B. Satisfaction C. Selection D. Manipulation Answer: B. Satisfaction 3. People consider personality traits most when they _______________ friends. A. manipulate B. evoke C. select D. argue with Answer: C. select 4. When a person's behavior unintentionally elicits a certain response from another person, we observe A. manipulation. B. selection. C. evocation. D. Provocation. Answer: C. evocation. 5. If a person is treated nicely because she is a friendly person the mechanism of _______________ may be operating. A. manipulation. B. selection. C. evocation. D. stagnation. Answer: C. evocation. 6. Intentionally influencing other people's behavior is known as A. manipulation. B. selection. C. evocation. D. stagnation. Answer: A. manipulation. 7. A boy who persuades his brother to steal some candy demonstrates the concept of A. manipulation. B. selection. C. evocation. D. stagnation. Answer: A. manipulation. 8. According to international research, the characteristic most desirable in a mate is A. extraversion. B. mutual attraction or love. C. openness. D. agreeableness. Answer: B. mutual attraction or love. 9. Which of the following is most important to most people in choosing a mate? A. Political ideology B. Personality characteristics C. Health D. Good looks Answer: B. Personality characteristics 10. The complimentary needs theory states that individuals select mates A. with personality characteristics that differ from theirs. B. who fulfill their needs for being complimented and flattered. C. with personality characteristics similar to their own. D. who have characteristics that are related to marital satisfaction. Answer: A. with personality characteristics that differ from theirs. 11. Francis, a miserable cook, is looking for a spouse who is a wonderful cook. Francis' preference for someone who cooks would support the _______________ hypothesis on human mating. A. Assortative mating B. Complimentary needs C. Wishful thinking D. Self-deception Answer: B. Complimentary needs 12. Which of the following names the theory that states that individuals select individuals with characteristics similar to their own for marriage partners? A. Long-term mating B. Mirror image mating C. Assortative mating D. Matching hypothesis Answer: C. Assortative mating 13. Investigators have found evidence for assortative mating A. only for physical characteristics (height, weight, etc.). B. only for psychological characteristics (attitudes, beliefs, personality traits). C. in a few selected variables important in the area of evolutionary psychology. D. for almost every variable that has been investigated. Answer: D. for almost every variable that has been investigated. 14. Samantha places an on-line personal ad. In her ad she writes that she is very outgoing, conscientious, and open to experience. She states that she wants the same characteristics in potential mate. Her ad supports the _______________ hypothesis of mate selection. A. assortative mating B. complimentary needs C. wishful thinking D. self deception Answer: A. assortative mating 15. According to the assortative mating hypothesis, individuals who score high on extraversion scales will prefer potential mates who score high on A. neuroticism. B. agreeableness. C. extraversion D. extraversion. Answer: C. extraversion 16. In 1997, Botwin, Buss, and Shackelford found that individuals preferred mates with personality traits that A. made up for deficits in their own personality traits. B. were strongly skewed to the positive pole of each personality trait. C. were similar to their own personality traits. D. matched their opposite sex parent's personality traits. Answer: C. were similar to their own personality traits. 17. When the correlations between an individual's mate preferences for personality traits and the scores for their partner's personality traits are examined A. there is no evidence that an individual's preferences for a mate are related to their own personality traits. B. there is modest evidence to support the idea that an individual's preferences for a mate are related to their partner's personality traits. C. there is an extremely strong correspondence between an individual's trait preferences and the trait ratings of their partner's personality. D. correlations between an individual's preferences for personality traits match their partner's scores for preferences for personality traits. Answer: B. there is modest evidence to support the idea that an individual's preferences for a mate are related to their partner's personality traits. 18. Correlations between a person's preferences ratings for personality characteristics in a mate and ratings of the mate's personality characteristics measured across different sources of data are A. weakly positive. B. moderately positive. C. weakly negative. D. close to zero. Answer: B. moderately positive. 19. People who are married to someone who has personality characteristics close to their ratings of their preferred partner are A. much more satisfied than people who are married to someone less like their ideal. B. slightly much more satisfied than people who are married to someone less like their ideal. C. less satisfied than people who are married to someone less like their ideal. D. no different from other people in terms of satisfaction. Answer: D. no different from other people in terms of satisfaction. 20. People who are married to someone who scores high on all of these personality traits EXCEPT _______________ tend to be more satisfied in their relationships than individuals whose spouse score low on this trait. A. agreeableness B. extraversion C. emotional stability D. openness to experience Answer: A. agreeableness 21. People who are married to someone who has high trait ratings for agreeableness report higher levels of marital satisfaction A. if their spouse also has high trait ratings for emotional instability. B. if their spouse also has low trait ratings for intellect-openness. C. if their spouse also has high trait ratings for surgency. D. no matter what other personality traits their spouse has. Answer: D. no matter what other personality traits their spouse has. 22. Women who are married to men who score high on openness rate their A. husbands as sources of stimulating conversation compared to other women's view of their husbands. B. husbands as being sources of encouragement and support. C. husbands as being someone in whom they can confide. D. love and affection expressed with their husbands as being high. Answer: D. love and affection expressed with their husbands as being high. 23. According to the "violation of desire" theory, people are most likely to break up with mates A. with whom they are no longer romantically infatuated after a period of time in the relationship. B. who violate the person's desire to reach their level of optimal reproductively success. C. who lack widely sought personality characteristics in a mate, such as dependability, emotional stability, or pleasing disposition. D. who discover, over time, that their partner no longer meets their complimentary needs. Answer: C. who lack widely sought personality characteristics in a mate, such as dependability, emotional stability, or pleasing disposition. 24. In terms of personality, the best predictor of divorce is A. low levels of emotional stability. B. high levels of emotional stability. C. high levels of openness. D. low levels of openness. Answer: A. low levels of emotional stability. 25. Low levels of which of the following personality traits are NOT correlated with a higher likelihood of a divorce or breakup in a relationship? A. Agreeableness B. Emotional stability C. Conscientiousness D. Openness Answer: D. Openness 26. The finding that partners in a relationship who are dissimilar in personality are more likely to break up supports the A. violation of desire theory. B. assortative mating hypothesis. C. complimentary needs hypothesis. D. attraction similarity theory Answer: A. violation of desire theory. 27. The tendency to feel tense, anxious, or worried during social interactions, or even when anticipating a social interaction, is known as A. openness. B. emotional stability. C. expectation confirmation. D. shyness. Answer: D. shyness. 28. In terms of health issues, shy women _______________ when compared to non-shy women. A. are more likely to see a gynecologist. B. are less likely to see a gynecologist. C. are more likely to insist on contraception before having sex. D. avoid potentially dangerous sexual situations. Answer: B. are less likely to see a gynecologist. 29. Shy people engage in all of the following behaviors more than less shy people EXCEPT they A. take fewer risks. B. avoid other people. C. are more likely to get divorced. D. create socially isolating situations. Answer: C. are more likely to get divorced. 30. The following are all examples of how personality traits guide the selection of situations EXCEPT individuals scoring high on A. sensation-seeking scales avoid risky situations. B. psychoticism scales choose volatile and spontaneous situations. C. Machiavellianism scales prefer face-to-face situations. D. emphases scales are likely to volunteer for community activities. Answer: A. sensation-seeking scales avoid risky situations. 31. Individuals scoring high on sensation-seeking scales prefer NOT to select situations that A. are characterized by higher risk sexual behavior. B. involve unusual psychological experiments on topics such as drugs or sex. C. consists of a series of highly repetitive tasks. D. frequently involve attending parties were alcohol or drugs are available. Answer: C. consists of a series of highly repetitive tasks. 32. Buss, Block, and Block found that highly active children elicited behaviors to bring them under control by their parents and teachers. This finding is an example of the mechanism of person-environment mechanism of A. manipulation. B. evocation. C. exasperation. D. provocation. Answer: B. evocation. 33. Aggressive people tend to evoke _______________ from others. A. hostility B. submission C. understanding D. praise Answer: A. hostility 34. As they walk down the hallway, Bob accidentally bumps into Chuck, a well-known neighborhood bully. Chuck immediately becomes aggressive, demanding that Bob tell him what he meant to do when he bumped into him. Chuck's behavior demonstrates the _______________ attributional bias. A. fundamental B. hostile C. externalization D. aggressive Answer: B. hostile 35. Evocation is NOT demonstrated in which of the following situations? A. When a person acts in a way that causes an emotional response in another person. B. When a husband's actions cause a wife to behave in ways that anger her husband. C. When a wife nags her husband to get something accomplished. D. When a charismatic person walks into a room and a dull party becomes enjoyable. Answer: C. When a wife nags her husband to get something accomplished. 36. The finding that aggressive people interpret ambiguous situations as hostile demonstrates the A. evocative imperative. B. paranoid externalization bias. C. hostile attribution bias. D. fundamental situation error. Answer: C. hostile attribution bias. 37. Husbands who score low on conscientiousness tend to evoke anger from their wives by A. having extramarital affairs. B. drinking too much. C. being abusive. D. withholding sex. Answer: A. having extramarital affairs. 38. Husband who score low on _______________ tend to evoke anger from their wives by being condescending, failing to spend time with them, neglecting them, and ignoring their feelings. A. extraversion B. agreeableness C. openness D. conscientiousness Answer: B. agreeableness 39. People who score _______________ tend to evoke the most anger from their spouses. A. low on agreeableness B. high on agreeableness C. low on conscientiousness D. high on conscientiousness Answer: A. low on agreeableness 40. Individuals who are highly agreeable tend to evoke _______________ than individuals with lower agreeableness scores. A. much more love from their spouses B. far less interpersonal conflict C. longer conversations with peers D. more upper limit control Answer: B. far less interpersonal conflict 41. The phenomenon of expectancy confirmations are also known as A. evocative corroborations. B. self-fulfilling prophesies. C. behavioral substantiations. D. likelihood verifications Answer: B. self-fulfilling prophesies. 42. A study showed that when people had to interact with a person who they expected to be a hostile person they A. were more hostile toward the person. B. were more accommodating towards the person. C. acted more agreeable towards the person. D. acted more neurotic towards the person. Answer: A. were more hostile toward the person. 43. You have heard that Dean X has a reputation for being very arrogant and condescending to students. One day your professor sends you to see the Dean to discuss an important educational issue. You are quite apprehensive when you enter the Dean's office and act very nervous and anxious. Since Dean X does not suffer fools, he snaps at you, thus confirming the _______________ that you evoked. A. self-fulfilling corroborations B. expectancy confirmations C. behavioral verifications D. likelihood substantiations Answer: B. expectancy confirmations 44. People who are being manipulated by another person are A. affected by the person doing the manipulating. B. always harmed by the manipulation. C. less likely to use manipulation themselves. D. likely to attempt a retaliatory manipulation Answer: A. affected by the person doing the manipulating. 45. A _______________ is a classification scheme based on the categorization of things into groups. A. circumplex B. hierarchy C. assortment D. taxonomy Answer: D. taxonomy 46. The taxonomy of manipulation tactics described in the text was developed with A. a two-step procedure: nominations of acts of influence and factor analysis of self-reports and observer-reports of the previously nominated acts. B. observer reports based on lengthy questionnaires. C. physiological measures. D. behavioral tests. Answer: A. a two-step procedure: nominations of acts of influence and factor analysis of self-reports and observer-reports of the previously nominated acts. 47. The manipulation tactic of _______________ might involve yelling at someone. A. coercion B. reason C. charm D. responsibility invocation Answer: A. coercion 48. The only tactic of manipulation with a mean difference between men and women was found to be A. a monetary reward. B. the silent treatment. C. regression. D. coercion. Answer: C. regression. 49. Which of the following is an example of regression? A. Not talking to someone until they do what you want. B. Bribing someone. C. Whining. D. Acting submissive. Answer: C. Whining. 50. Which of the following is an example of the hardball manipulation tactic? A. Bribing someone. B. Acting in a loving way. C. Whining. D. Hitting someone. Answer: D. Hitting someone. 51. Telling someone that "everyone else is doing it" is an example of the _______________ manipulation tactic. A. hardball B. social comparison C. charm D. self-abasement Answer: B. social comparison 52. Showing someone how fun an activity will be is an example of the _______________ manipulation tactic. A. pleasure induction B. hardball C. silent treatment D. self-abasement Answer: A. pleasure induction 53. Research on the differential-use manipulation tactics by men and women has found that A. women are more likely to use the self-abasement tactic. B. men are more likely to use the hardball tactic. C. women are more likely to use the reason tactic. D. men and women use different tactics about the same amount. Answer: D. men and women use different tactics about the same amount. 54. Noccolo Machiavelli was a 16th century Italian A. prince. B. cardinal. C. diplomat. D. inventor. Answer: C. diplomat. 55. _______________ is the deliberate, manipulative style of behavior that uses other individuals for personal gain. A. Dictatorialism B. Machiavellianism C. Zoroasterism D. Rastafarianism Answer: B. Machiavellianism 56. Which of the following statements would a person scoring high on Machiavellianism agree with? A. Honesty is the best policy. B. Most people are generally good and kind. C. It is wise to flatter important people. D. Cooperation is the best strategy. Answer: C. It is wise to flatter important people. 57. Machiavellian strategies work best A. in structured situations. B. in unstructured situations. C. when they are used by trusting people. D. when they are used on untrusting people. Answer: B. in unstructured situations. 58. People who score high on Machiavellianism are more likely to pursue a A. tit-for-tat strategy. B. short-term social strategy. C. long-term social strategy. D. a reciprocal strategy Answer: B. short-term social strategy. 59. Workers who score low on Machiavellianism make more money A. in companies where there are many rules. B. in companies where there are few rules. C. in companies that frequently evaluate performance. D. compared to people who score high. Answer: A. in companies where there are many rules. 60. A study by Wilson et al. showed that people who scored high in Machiavellianism were A. more likely prefer highly structured situations. B. less likely to steal money. C. more likely to lie about stealing money. D. scrupulously honest in financial transactions. Answer: C. more likely to lie about stealing money. 61. People who score low on _______________ tend to use the self-abasement manipulation tactic more often. A. surgency B. agreeableness C. conscientiousness D. emotional stability Answer: A. surgency 62. People who score high on _______________ tend to use the manipulation tactics of pleasure induction and reason more. A. surgency B. agreeableness C. conscientiousness D. emotional stability Answer: B. agreeableness 63. The manipulation tactic most often used by people low in emotional stability is A. hardball. B. self-abasement. C. regression. D. pleasure induction. Answer: C. regression. 64. The following are all characteristics of narcissism EXCEPT A. being grandiose. B. being exploitative. C. being self-centered. D. apathetic behavior. Answer: D. apathetic behavior. 65. People who score high on intellect-openness tend to use the manipulation tactic of _______________ most. A. reason B. self-abasement C. hardball D. pleasure induction Answer: A. reason 66. People who score low on intellect-openness tend to use the manipulation tactic of _______________ most. A. reason B. social comparison C. regression D. silent treatment Answer: B. social comparison 67. Judy chooses friends who admire her and reflect her highly positive view of herself. Judy most likely scores high on the personality trait of A. extraversion. B. narcissism. C. Machiavellianism. D. manipulation. Answer: B. narcissism. 68. Narcissists who are very self-aggrandizing tend to evoke reactions of _______________ from other people. A. anger B. laughter C. exasperation D. humility Answer: A. anger 69. Narcissists tend to use a predictable set of manipulation tactics which are typically exemplified by being _______________ in social situations. A. very generous and giving and described as altruistic B. very aggressive and hostile C. exploitative of users and being described as "users" D. supportive and nurturing Answer: C. exploitative of users and being described as "users" 70. Narcissists react to failure by A. becoming socially withdrawn. B. derogating other people. C. accepting responsibility for their actions. D. engaging in self-abasement. Answer: B. derogating other people. Chapter 16 Sex, Gender, and Personality Multiple Choice 1. Differences between men and women in terms of personality or behavior without regard to the causes of those differences are called A. sex differences. B. gender differences. C. adaptive problems. D. gender stereotypes. Answer: A 2. The fact that men are, on average, taller than women is best described by the term A. sex difference. B. gender difference. C. adaptive problem. D. gender stereotype. Answer: A 3. The social interpretation of what it means to be a man or a woman is referred to as A. sex. B. gender. C. social learning theory. D. social role theory. Answer: B 4. Beliefs about the ways men and women differ, in contrast to actual differences, are called A. sex differences. B. gender differences. C. adaptive problems. D. gender stereotypes. Answer: D 5. The idea that men are not capable of being nurturing is an example of a(n) A. sex difference. B. gender difference. C. adaptive problem. D. gender stereotype. Answer: D 6. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons some individuals have argued that studying sex differences is a potentially dangerous course of study? A. The findings may be used to support political agendas. B. Minimizing these differences may hamper the feminist agenda. C. The findings may be used to support the status quo. D. The findings may reflect gender stereotypes, rather than real differences. Answer: B 7. Feminist psychologists like Alice Eagly argue that is impossible to ignore the study of sex differences since A. scientific and social change will be impossible without coming to terms with real sex differences between men and women. B. science will show that the differences between men and woman have been exaggerated and are minimal. C. it is important to understand how gender stereotypes make men and women different from one another. D. researchers need to be able to dismiss the role of sex differences in behavior to advance the feminist agenda. Answer: A 8. The study of sex differences in psychology became popular in the A. 1920s. B. 1950s. C. 1970s. D. 1990s. Answer: C 9. In an influential book, “The Psychology of Sex Differences,” Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklyn argued that A. men were slightly better at verbal tasks. B. men were more aggressive than women. C. men and women do not differ significantly in personality. D. women were slightly better at object rotation tasks. Answer: B 10. The statistical technique of _______________ summarizes findings from many different studies. A. factor analysis B. meta-analysis C. gender analysis D. qualitative analysis Answer: B 11. An effect size of .51 would be considered _______________ between two groups. A. small B. moderate C. large D. no difference Answer: B 12. An effect size of –.82 would be considered _______________ between two groups. A. small B. moderate C. large D. no difference Answer: C 13. The “d” effect size statistic is interpreted as the A. average difference in units of standard deviations. B. standard deviation of the sample. C. mean difference between samples. D. difference score between two samples. Answer: A 14. The findings that women score higher in verbal ability and that men score higher in math ability have effect sizes that are considered A. small. B. moderate. C. large. D. very large. Answer: A 15. When we observe a sex difference where women score higher than men, we can conclude that A. most women will score higher than most men. B. some men will score higher than most women. C. there is a difference between men’s average score and women’s average score. D. the difference is due to hormones. Answer: C 16. When we examine average sex differences between men and women, regardless of the size of those differences, it is important to remember that A. sex differences may have political implications and must be interpreted very carefully. B. the implications of average sex differences do not necessarily apply to any particular individual. C. researchers may upset someone by finding any particular sex difference between men and women. D. there is generally little overlap between distributions of male and female scores for any particular characteristic. Answer: B 17. _______________ views sex differences as small and inconsequential. A. Social roles theory B. Socialization theory C. The minimalist position D. The maximalist position Answer: C 18. _______________ argues that the magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized. A. The antifeminist position B. The minimalist position C. The moderation position D. The maximalist position Answer: D 19. A proponent of a social role theory, Alice Eagly’s views on the importance of sex difference are best characterized by the _______________ view. A. minimalist B. undifferentiated C. maximalist D. feminist Answer: C 20. _______________ is a facet of extraversion that has been shown to have the largest sex difference between men and women. A. Gregariousness B. Assertiveness C. Activity D. Talkativeness Answer: B 21. The finding that men interrupt conversations more frequently then women do is consistent with research on sex differences for which of the following facets of extraversion? A. Activity B. Trust C. Assertiveness D. Impulsiveness Answer: C 22. Women tend to score higher than men on the _______________ facet of the agreeableness personality trait. A. activity B. good-natured C. tender-mindedness D. cooperative Answer: C 23. People who score high on the tender-mindedness facet of the agreeableness trait in the five factor model of personality tend to A. lack intelligence. B. be nurturing and empathetic. C. have a poor grasp of reality D. be psychologically fragile. Answer: B 24. Men tend to score higher than women on personality measures of A. aggressiveness. B. warmth. C. neuroticism. D. conscientiousness. Answer: A 25. Men commit about _______________ percent of all homicides that are committed worldwide. A. 60 B. 70 C. 80 D. 90 Answer: D 26. Women tend to score slightly higher than men on the _______________ facet of the conscientiousness personality trait. A. order B. self-discipline C. responsible D. scrupulous Answer: A 27. Women tend to score higher than men on the _______________ facet of the emotional stability personality trait. A. impulsivity B. aggressiveness C. anxiety D. insecurity Answer: C 28. Men and women show the least differences on the personality trait of _______________ of the five-factor model of personality. A. extraversion B. emotional stability C. agreeableness D. openness Answer: D 29. Brebner’s international study of the basic emotions found that women experience emotion _______________ than men. A. less frequently and less intensely B. more frequently and more intensely C. less frequently and more intensely D. more frequently and less intensely Answer: B 30. A person’s general self-evaluation is known as A. global self-esteem. B. domain-specific self-esteem. C. self-esteem variability. D. overall self concept. Answer: A 31. Overall, sex differences in self-esteem have been found to be A. small. B. moderate. C. large. D. very large. Answer: A 32. Sex differences between men and women in terms of self-esteem A. start occurring in childhood, continue increasing during adolescence, and increase steadily during adulthood. B. are slight in childhood, peak during the teenage years, and steadily decrease during adulthood. C. are not present in childhood, begin to occur in adolescence, and steadily decrease during adulthood. D. are extremely large during childhood and decrease over the remainder of the life span. Answer: C 33. One of the largest differences in sexuality between men and women is found in their interest in A. sex. B. casual sex. C. specific sex acts. D. safe sex. Answer: B 34. Research on sex differences in men and women in terms of depression A. fails to find consistent differences. B. finds that women tend to be more depressed than men. C. finds that men tend to be more depressed than women. D. finds that the depression differences are due to differences on the people-things dimension. Answer: B 35. Depressed women are more likely to _______________ than depressed men. A. become socially withdrawn B. act aggressively C. seek treatment D. commit suicide with a firearm Answer: C 36. Sex differences in depression between men and women are observed A. across the life span. B. only in childhood. C. mostly in adolescence and adulthood. D. mostly in old age. Answer: C 37. Approximately _______________ percent of adult women and _______________ percent of adult men will have at least one episode of depression during their lives. A. 15; 5 B. 30; 20 C. 25: 10 D. 20; 20 Answer: C 38. Some researchers speculate that _______________ explains gender differences between men and women for depression. A. hormones B. genetic susceptibility C. rumination D. differences on the trait of trust Answer: C 39. If a person focuses repeatedly on his or her symptoms and the causes of that distress, the person may be involved in A. rumination. B. recidivism. C. regression. D. rehabilitation. Answer: A 40. The greater rate of depression that women suffer as compared to men may be due to A. increases in male happiness due an increased number of televised sports on cable television. B. increasing body dissatisfaction occurring around the onset of puberty when heterosexual interaction increases. C. greater levels of “hostile masculinity” by males around the onset of puberty when heterosexual interaction increases. D. differences in brain structure between women and men that physiologically predisposes women to ruminate. Answer: B 41. Which is NOT predicted from Bleske and Buss’s study of opposite sex friendships? A. Men are more likely than women to initiate friendship with someone of the opposite sex because they are sexually attracted to them. B. Men are more likely to have female friends that closely match their personality characteristics. C. Men are more likely to dissolve friendships with women when they do not result in sex. D. Men are more likely to become sexually attracted to their female friends. Answer: B 42. The idea that women view close relationships as a more central part of their identity is A. consistent with the feminine mystique stereotype. B. supported by research on the people-things dimension. C. most related to differences in self-esteem. D. related to sex differences in the agreeableness personality trait. Answer: C 43. Fraternal twins Jack and Jill have been raised in the same environment. Jill aspires to become a clinical psychologist while Jack intends to be a mechanical engineer. Their career choices most likely are due to sex differences that are expressed by their scores on the _______________ dimension of personality. A. people–things B. openness to experience C. Machiavellianism D. need for achievement Answer: A 44. If we think of masculinity-femininity as a single bipolar dimension, A. a person can be both masculine and feminine. B. a person cannot score high on both masculinity and femininity. C. a person must be more masculine or more feminine. D. we must assume hormonal origins of these traits. Answer: B 45. A person who is androgynous scores A. low on both masculinity and femininity. B. high on both masculinity and femininity. C. high on masculinity and low on femininity. D. high on femininity and low on masculinity. Answer: B 46. The _______________ dimension contains items related to assertiveness, dominance, and instrumentality. A. people-things B. socio-sexuality C. masculinity D. femininity Answer: C 47. The _______________ dimension contains items related to nurturance, empathy, and emotional expression. A. people-things B. socio-sexuality C. masculinity D. femininity Answer: D 48. Pat has a garage full of tools; loves to throw big dinner parties for friends; is very assertive at work; and likes to be self-sufficient. One often finds Pat working on his own or friends’ cars. He will spend hours listening to friends’ problems or nurturing students he tutors after work. Pat most likely scores towards the _______________ end of the Bem sex role inventory. A. undifferentiated B. androgyny C. masculinity D. femininity Answer: B 49. Two-dimensional measures of gender have been criticized because A. it is impossible to establish validity for two dimensions of personality simultaneously. B. recent research suggests that masculinity-femininity is a single dimension. C. there are so few androgynous people. D. there are too many undifferentiated people. Answer: B 50. Psychologist Janet Spence now views her measure of sex roles as more of a measure of A. instrumentality and expressiveness. B. people versus things. C. gender stereotypes. D. androgyny. Answer: A 51. _______________ refers to the traits involved with getting tasks completed in a direct, independent fashion, being self-sufficient, and working with objects. A. Tender-mindedness B. Gender schema C. Expressiveness D. Instrumentality Answer: D 52. Showing emotions, empathy, and nurturance is associated with the trait of A. expressiveness. B. instrumentality. C. global self-esteem. D. rumination. Answer: A 53. The cognitive orientations that lead people to process information on the basis of sex-linked associations are known as A. gender stereotypes. B. gender schemata. C. sex differences. D. masculinity-femininity. Answer: B 54. Researchers who used to view androgyny as ideal now consider _______________, that is, not to use gender and sex-linkage at all in one’s processing of social information, as best. A. undifferentiated gender B. masculinity C. femininity D. gender-aschematic thinking Answer: D 55. Thinking of men as either “dads” or “cads” is an example of A. sex differences. B. gender differences. C. social categories. D. social learning theory. Answer: C 56. Which of the following is NOT a component of gender stereotypes? A. Cognitive B. Affective C. Behavioral D. Perceptual Answer: D 57. Gender-based discrimination is an example of the _______________ component of gender stereotypes. A. cognitive B. affective C. behavioral D. perceptual Answer: C 58. Research on gender stereotypes A. consistently finds that men are seen as more instrumental. B. consistently finds that men are seen as less instrumental. C. consistently finds that men and women are seen as equally instrumental. D. finds that they differ too much across cultures to make generalizations. Answer: A 59. Research on gender stereotypes subtypes has found A. gender stereotypes are univariate constructs. B. gender stereotypes can be divided into an equal number of subtypes for each sex. C. the structure and number of male and females gender stereotypes subtypes are very different. D. gender stereotypes subtypes are psychologically equivalent for males and females. Answer: C 60. Research on gender discrimination has found that A. discrimination always favors men. B. women are quoted higher prices on new automobiles. C. women are more likely to be recommended for heart surgery. D. women are more likely to get negative book reviews in Contemporary Psychology. Answer: B 61. Gender discrimination against men has been found A. in legal settings. B. in medical settings. C. in book reviews. D. when buying cars. Answer: C 62. _______________ theory describes sex differences in behavior as due to differences in how they are reinforced for different behaviors. A. Socialization B. Social role C. Evolutionary D. Hormonal Answer: A 63. Social learning theory is a variant of the _______________ theory. A. socialization B. social role C. evolutionary D. hormonal Answer: A 64. The idea that boys learn masculine behaviors by observing men is most indicative of the _______________ theory. A. socialization B. evolutionary C. hormonal D. social learning Answer: D 65. Studies that show that parents are more likely to encourage their daughters to be dependent supports the _______________ theory. A. socialization B. social role C. evolutionary D. hormonal Answer: A 66. Steve and Charlene’s parents assign them different chores in the family. The parents assume that Steve will continue working on the family farm, so most of his chores are related to the business of agriculture. They assume Charlene will get married and have to maintain a household, so they assign her cooking and cleaning chores. The differential treatment that Steve and Charlene’s parents give their children can best be explained by A. the social-role theory. B. gender stereotypes. C. complimentary needs. D. sex role discrimination. Answer: A 67. A problem for the socialization theory is that A. research suggests that fathers prefer to spend time with daughters. B. children may evoke sex differences in the way they are treated. C. there is no cross-cultural evidence for the differential treatment of boys and girls. D. boys and girls behave differently even if they been intentionally socialized in a similar manner. Answer: B 68. The theory that most emphasizes the expectations about the jobs men and women are “supposed” to have is the _______________ theory. A. social role B. evolutionary C. socialization D. social learning Answer: A 69. The finding that men and women are differentially represented in different jobs is most consistent with the _______________ theory. A. social role B. evolutionary C. socialization D. social learning Answer: A 70. The _______________ theory predicts decreases in sex differences as more men assume domestic duties. A. socialization B. social role C. evolutionary D. hormonal Answer: B 71. Which of the following theories MOST accounts for the origins of sex differences in behavior? A. Social role theory B. Evolutionary theory C. Socialization theory D. Social learning theory Answer: B 72. The one sex difference that shows virtually no overlap in the distributions of men and women is in A. warmth. B. self-esteem. C. sexuality. D. testosterone levels. Answer: D 73. Which of the following MOST emphasizes physiological differences as causing sex differences? A. Socialization theory B. Social role theory C. Evolutionary theory D. Hormonal theory Answer: D 74. Young girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) grow up into women who A. show deficits in traditional female characteristics like empathy. B. show superiority in traditionally masculine cognitive skills. C. become hyper feminized in adulthood. D. have extreme difficulty with cognitive spatial rotation skills. Answer: B 75. High levels of testosterone in women is linked to all of the behaviors below EXCEPT A. Being the more “masculine” partner in lesbian relationships. B. Increased sexual desire just prior to ovulation. C. Greater success in traditionally masculine careers. D. Frequent disciplinary infractions when incarcerated. Answer: B 76. The theory that most emphasized differences in sexual strategies is the _______________ theory. A. social role B. evolutionary C. socialization D. social learning Answer: B 77. From an evolutionary perspective, the optimal reproductive strategy for men is to A. withhold sex until you find the perfect mate. B. invest heavily in one mate. C. mate indiscriminately with as many women as possible. D. attempt to mate with a modal number of women. Answer: C 78. The fact that women (rather than men) give birth to children is most important to the _______________ theory. A. social role B. evolutionary C. socialization D. social learning Answer: B 79. The finding that men have more desire for sexual variety is most consistent with the _______________ theory. A. social role B. evolutionary C. socialization D. social learning Answer: B 80. A problem for evolutionary theory is that A. it does not address the origins of sex differences. B. it does not explain individual differences within the sexes. C. research suggests that fathers prefer to spend time with daughters. D. differences between short- and long-term mating strategies are too small. Answer: B Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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