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CHAPTER 15 Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS Questions for Review 1. What is a psychological contract? List the things that might be included in individual contributions. List the things that might be included in organizational inducements. A psychological contract is the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the firm and what the organization, in return, will provide to the individual. Individual contributions include effort, time, ability, skills, and creativity. Organizational inducements include pay and benefits as well as security, status, and opportunities for advancement and learning. 2. Describe the three components of attitudes and tell how the components are related. What is cognitive dissonance? How do individuals resolve cognitive dissonance? Attitudes are made up of an affective, or emotional, component; a cognitive, or intellectual, component; and an intentional component, which reflects expectations about behavior. The three components are inter-related, with each affecting the others. Feelings, thoughts, and intent all play a part in forming attitudes. Cognitive dissonance occurs when one individual’s attitudes are in conflict. To resolve cognitive dissonance, individuals typically revise one or more attitudes. 3. Identify and discuss the steps in the creative process. What can an organization do to increase employees’ creativity? The steps in the creative process are (1) preparation—getting ready to be creative; (2) incubation—a period of low-intensity or subconscious thought; (3) insight—a spontaneous breakthrough; and (4) verification—determining the validity of the insight. Firms can provide structures and mechanisms that improve creativity, such as establishing rewards for innovation or developing a culture in which experimentation and mistakes are not punished. 4. Identify and describe several important workplace behaviors. Performance behaviors are the total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects the individual to display. Absenteeism is when an individual does not show up for work. Turnover behavior occurs when people quit their jobs. Organizational citizenship refers to the behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization. Questions for Analysis 5. Organizations are increasing their use of personality tests to screen job applicants. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach? What can managers do to avoid some of the potential pitfalls? Personality testing can increase the person–job fit, providing benefits to the organization. However, personality testing is controversial and will upset some job applicants. It is also very difficult to perform accurately and thus may result in a mismatch between a worker and a job. Finally, there is little scientific evidence to link personality to job fit or future job performance in many cases. Most importantly, managers can work to ensure that there is a link between the personality attributes that are being tested and future job performance. Also, managers can receive training in the accurate interpretation of personality test results. 6. As a manager, how can you tell that an employee is experiencing job satisfaction? How can you tell that employees are highly committed to the organization? If a worker is not satisfied, what can a manager do to improve satisfaction? What can a manager do to improve organizational commitment? Job satisfaction is likely to be expressed through low turnover and absenteeism, conformance to company policy and cultural norms, sound personal relationships with co-workers, contentment with working conditions and pay, and high job effort and performance. The signs of high commitment are much the same. To improve satisfaction, managers can focus on each of the areas mentioned above such as effective socialization into the firm’s culture, development of positive working relationships, adequate work conditions and pay, and so on. These actions are also likely to improve commitment. 7. Managers cannot pay equal attention to every piece of information, so selective perception is a fact of life. How does selective perception help managers? How does it create difficulties for them? How can managers increase their “good” selective perception and decrease the “bad”? Selective perception can aid in the decision-making process by reducing the amount of information, which increases the manager’s ability to focus on the truly important data. However, selective perception may inappropriately eliminate information that would be useful, thereby reducing decision quality. One technique calls for group decision making, which would tend to reduce the impact of the individual’s decision-making biases. Another solution would be the adoption of a process that explicitly requires attention to data that contradicts the manager’s basic beliefs such as a “what-if” analysis or a devil’s advocate process. Questions for Application 8. Write the psychological contract you have in this class. In other words, what do you contribute, and what inducements are available? Ask your professor to tell the class about the psychological contract that he or she intended to establish with the students in your class. How does the professor’s intended contract compare with the one you wrote? If there are differences, why do you think the differences exist? Share your ideas with the class. This question makes a good experiential exercise. Contributions made by students usually include such things as their attendance, class preparation, class participation, and the tuition and fees they pay to attend. Inducements include such things as a well-organized class, an interesting and effective instructor, and a fair and clear grading system. Students are often surprised to discover the extent to which the intended psychological contract, as developed by the instructor, differs from, and in some cases directly contradicts, the contract as it is perceived by students. 9. Assume that you are going to hire three new employees for the department store you manage. One will sell shoes, one will manage the toy department, and one will work in the stockroom. Identify the basic characteristics you want in each of the people, to achieve a good person–job fit. The shoe salesperson may need to be especially friendly, courteous, outgoing, and willing to work on a commission. The toy department manager might need to be well organized, friendly, fond of children, and able to supervise regular workers in the department. The stockroom employee may need to be able to lift heavy boxes and carefully follow instructions. 10. Describe a time when someone displayed each one of the Big Five personality traits at either a very high or a very low level. For example, tell about someone who appeared to be highly agreeable or highly disagreeable. Then tell about the outcomes that person experienced as a result of displaying that particular personality trait. Do the outcomes seem logical; that is, do positive personality traits usually lead to good outcomes and negative traits to bad ones? Explain your answer. High Extraversion: I once knew a colleague who displayed very high levels of extraversion. They were outgoing, sociable, and always the life of the party. They thrived in social situations and were often the center of attention. As a result of their extraverted nature, they built a vast network of friends and acquaintances, which proved beneficial in both personal and professional contexts. They were frequently invited to social gatherings, networking events, and team activities, where they excelled in building rapport and fostering connections. Overall, their high level of extraversion contributed to their popularity, social influence, and ability to navigate social dynamics effectively. Low Conscientiousness: On the other hand, I encountered an individual who displayed very low levels of conscientiousness. They were disorganized, unreliable, and often failed to follow through on commitments. Their lack of conscientiousness led to frequent missed deadlines, unfinished projects, and poor quality work. As a result, they faced negative consequences in both their personal and professional lives, including strained relationships, diminished trust from colleagues, and missed opportunities for advancement. Despite possessing other positive traits, such as creativity and intelligence, their low conscientiousness hindered their ability to achieve their goals and fulfill their potential. While positive personality traits generally lead to favorable outcomes and negative traits to unfavorable ones, the relationship between personality and outcomes is not always straightforward. Context, individual differences, and situational factors can influence the impact of personality traits on outcomes. For example, while extraversion is generally associated with social success and positive outcomes, excessively high levels of extraversion may lead to impulsivity, attention-seeking behavior, and interpersonal conflicts. Similarly, while conscientiousness is typically linked to achievement and success, excessively low levels of conscientiousness may result in poor performance, unreliability, and missed opportunities. Overall, while personality traits play a significant role in shaping behavior and outcomes, their effects are complex and multifaceted, and other factors may also come into play in determining success or failure in various domains of life. END OF CHAPTER EXERCISES Building Effective Interpersonal Skills I. Purpose This exercise introduces students to the Meyers-Briggs personality type framework and then uses those concepts to consider personal relationships between individuals with differing characteristics. II. Format Completion of the online test should be done by individuals and will require about 30 minutes outside of class. The follow-up questions may be used as a written assignment or as the basis for an in-class discussion. III. Follow-Up After the students have determined their four-letter code, help them to discover their two-letter personality type based on the following rule. If the student’s code has an “S,” look at the last letter and choose either “SP” or “SJ.” If the student’s code has an “N,” look at the third letter and choose either “NT” or “NF.” Reproduce the following pages for students and hand them out after they have completed the questionnaire. Teaching Tip: Point out to students that, as a manager, it is just as important to understand the personalities of one’s superiors and subordinates as it is to understand one’s own personality. Therefore, it is useful to learn about every personality type. A. How easy is to measure personality? Students will agree that personality is difficult to measure. Some will point out that self-reported answers to written questions may not reflect one’s true character, either by intent or ignorance, or do the influence of temporary moods. Also, the interpretation of results depends on the personality of the interpreter, confusing and diluting the power of the tests. In addition, some students will see the questions as ambiguous; others may disagree with the four dimensions of personality used in the Meyers-Briggs test. Finally, students will note that, if an individual resents or fears the testing, results are unlikely to be accurate. B. Do you feel that the online test accurately assessed your personality? C. Why or why not? Share your assessment results and your responses with the class. Clearly, opinions will vary. Students should not be required to share their individual results if they do not feel comfortable in doing so. You can point out to students that even if they don’t agree with the personality test results, the results may nevertheless be accurate. In other words, you can remind students that we often don’t see a true picture of ourselves. The following information is adapted from Keirsey, David and Marilyn Bates, Please Understand Me. Copyright © 1978 by Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. SP—the “Artisan” SP’s are likely to be drawn to professions such as athlete, pilot, soldier, police, firefighter, artist, performer, construction worker, logger, truck driver, corporate raider, entrepreneur, and salesperson. They live in the moment and thrive on crises. Their word is “Freedom.” They love change for its own sake, enjoy physical activity and the out-of-doors, and are impulsive and generous. About 38% of the population of the world are SP’s. Strengths as a Manager: As managers, SP’s are practical. They observe, identify problems, and suggest answers quickly. SP managers are adaptable and flexible, and they welcome change. They are in touch with reality. SP managers are efficient. They are skilled in fixing problems but also in realizing which battles are not worth fighting. Weaknesses as a Manager: SP managers want action, not talk, which can lead them to neglect the role of thoughtfulness and analysis. They may forget past commitments or just decide that they no longer need to honor those commitments. They can focus too much on the present and lack a long-term vision. To others, they may seem unpredictable or undisciplined. SJ—the “Guardian” SJ’s are likely to be drawn to professions such as teaching, ministry, accounting, management, insurance, banking, public office holder, nursing, museum management, and historian. They want to preserve tradition and maintain social order. Their word is “Duty.” They try to be of service to other people and enjoy security. About 38% of the population of the world are SJ’s. Strengths as a Manager: SJ managers, above all, value stability. They make decisions easily. They are excellent writers of policy because they understand how rules and traditions can benefit the organization. SJ managers are patient, persistent, and careful with details. They follow through on commitments. SJ’s are orderly, punctual, and use common sense. Weaknesses as a Manager: SJ managers are impatient with delays. They may make decisions too quickly, basing their choices on what’s worked in the past, without considering each situation’s unique circumstances. They are slow to notice changes, they and often preserve policies that are no longer needed or are ineffective. To others, SJ’s may seem unimaginative or rigid. NT—the “Rational” NT’s are likely to be drawn to professions such as scientist, computer scientist, engineering, research, technical trades, financial analyst, economist, technical writer, architect, and inventor. They are driven to learn more and gain better skills, and they push themselves until they achieve perfection. Their word is “Competence.” They enjoy solving problems. About 12% of the population of the world are NT’s. Strengths as a Manager: NT managers are the architects of change. They are interested in fundamentals, principles, laws, and systems. They plan and build complex systems and see the relationships between different elements and decisions. They are equally skilled at long-term and short-term solutions. Weaknesses as a Manager: NT managers excel at planning but not at implementation. As perfectionists, they usually feel that their plans are not executed correctly. Their preference for abstraction can cause NT’s to neglect concrete reality. They set very high standards that can be too challenging from some workers. NT’s tend to avoid personal relationships at work, which can make the workplace seem cold and unfriendly to others. NF—the “Idealist” NF’s are likely to be drawn to professions such as teaching, ministry, creative writer, mental health therapist, actor, and physician. They enjoy learning more about themselves and other people. Their word is “Identity.” They are very sensitive to their own feelings and those of others. About 12% of the population of the world are NF’s. Strengths as a Manager: The management style of NF managers relies on charisma. They genuinely care about their employees, and they communicate this caring effectively. They are enthusiastic and enjoy bring out the gifts of others. Their organizations tend to be democratic and participative. NF’s are comfortable with unstructured situations. They are patient but can also respond with a sudden burst of energy and enthusiasm. Weaknesses as a Manager: NF managers may spend too much time seeking out and enjoying personal interaction—to the neglect of the organization’s tasks. They can be immobilized by conflict, not wanting to displease anyone. NF’s also commit too much and often fail to care for themselves. Building Effective Time Management Skills I. Purpose This exercise is designed to aid students in seeing the relationship between poor time management and stress. Students may also gain insight into improving their time-management skills. II. Format This time-management exercise is best done individually. It should take about 15–20 minutes, although some students who take it more seriously may spend much longer completing it. III. Follow-Up A. Evaluate the extent to which poor time-management skills on your part play a role in the way each stressor affects you. Do exams cause stress, for example, because you tend to put off studying? B. For each stressor that’s affected by your time management skills, develop a strategy for using time more efficiently. C. Note the interrelationships among different kinds of stressors to see if they revolve around time-related problems. For example, financial pressures may cause you to work, but work may interfere with school. Can you manage any of these interrelationships more effectively by managing your time more effectively? D. How do you typically manage the stress in your life? Can you manage stress is a more time-effective manner? Each one will notice different areas of poor time management and different levels of stress. Most students will probably notice that poor time management is a significant source of stress, and they could be more effective and relaxed with better time management. Ideas for stress management include relaxation and fun with friends, exercise, more sleep, frequent breaks from work, and reducing the number of commitments. Learning to say “No” to undesired tasks can save a great deal of time and can thus reduce stress. management at work is anybody in control here? The case describes the highly stressful job that air traffic controllers do. The case describes the specific incident of January 15, 2009, when an US Airways flight was forced to land on the Hudson river after its engines were knocked out by birds. The incident caused trauma to both the air traffic controller monitoring the flight as well as the pilot. Discussion Starter: How would it be to work as an air traffic controller? While there appears to be bright prospects in this field because of manpower shortage, this is a stressful job. 1. Case Question 1: What about you? Do you think that you could handle the kind of stress that air traffic controllers face on the job? Why or why not? Working as an air traffic controller undoubtedly comes with immense responsibility and stress. The need to manage and coordinate the movement of multiple aircraft in real-time, ensuring their safety and efficiency, requires sharp focus, quick decision-making, and the ability to handle high-pressure situations effectively. Personally, I believe that I could handle some level of stress in a job like air traffic control, as I tend to thrive in fast-paced environments and am adept at managing multiple tasks simultaneously. However, the level of stress and responsibility inherent in this profession is undoubtedly intense and could be challenging to manage over the long term. The thought of being responsible for the safety and lives of countless passengers and crew members is daunting, and the potential consequences of making a mistake weigh heavily on the mind. While the prospect of bright career prospects due to manpower shortages in the field may be enticing, the toll that constant stress and pressure could take on mental and emotional well-being is a significant consideration. Ultimately, while I believe I could handle some level of stress in an air traffic control role, I would carefully weigh the potential impact on my overall health and well-being before pursuing such a career path. It's essential to consider not only the potential rewards but also the challenges and sacrifices associated with a high-stress profession like air traffic control. 2. Case Question 2: In your opinion, which causes of work stress, or organizational stressors, are likely to be among the most common experienced by air traffic controllers? Explain your reasoning? Task demands is likely to be the major cause of stress for air traffic controllers. They have to make quick and critical decisions all through their work day and this could lead to considerable stress. They have to make quick decisions because, as the case states, an air traffic controller handles on an average 87,000 flights a day and each one has to be monitored. They have to make critical decisions to manage air traffic because they are dealing with different kinds of aircrafts, each carrying a number of people. Air traffic controllers experience a multitude of work stressors or organizational stressors due to the nature of their job, which involves high levels of responsibility, intense pressure, and the need for constant vigilance. Some of the most common organizational stressors likely experienced by air traffic controllers include: 1. High Workload: Air traffic controllers are responsible for managing the movement of numerous aircraft simultaneously, especially in busy airspaces or during peak travel times. The sheer volume of air traffic can create a high workload, leading to feelings of overwhelm and stress. 2. Time Pressure: Air traffic controllers must make split-second decisions and communicate quickly and effectively to ensure the safe and efficient movement of aircraft. The pressure to act swiftly and accurately can contribute to stress and anxiety, particularly during high-stress situations such as emergencies or adverse weather conditions. 3. Shift Work and Irregular Hours: Air traffic control operates around the clock, necessitating shift work and irregular hours for controllers. Working nights, weekends, and holidays can disrupt sleep patterns, lead to fatigue, and negatively impact overall well-being. 4. Responsibility for Safety: Air traffic controllers bear significant responsibility for the safety of aircraft and passengers under their jurisdiction. The weight of this responsibility, coupled with the potential consequences of errors or mistakes, can create immense pressure and stress. 5. Continuous Monitoring: Air traffic controllers must maintain constant vigilance and concentration while monitoring radar screens, communicating with pilots, and managing airspace. The need for sustained attention over long periods can be mentally and physically taxing, leading to fatigue and burnout. 6. Uncertainty and Complexity: The dynamic and unpredictable nature of air traffic, including weather conditions, aircraft malfunctions, and unforeseen events, adds an element of uncertainty and complexity to the job. Dealing with unpredictable situations and navigating complex airspace can contribute to stress and anxiety. 7. Communication Challenges: Effective communication is essential in air traffic control to ensure clear and accurate exchanges between controllers and pilots. However, communication challenges, such as language barriers, radio interference, and misinterpretations, can add stress to the job and increase the risk of errors. Overall, the combination of these organizational stressors creates a challenging and demanding work environment for air traffic controllers, highlighting the need for effective stress management strategies and support systems within the profession. 3. Case Question 3: Controller Pete Rogers says that any gathering of air traffic controllers is “almost like a mini-convention of Type A personalities.” Does this assessment surprise you or make sense to you? In what ways is it perhaps a good thing? A not-so-good thing? Type A personalities are extremely competitive, very devoted to work, and have a strong sense of time urgency. Students should not be surprised that air traffic controllers are typically Type A personalities, in particular, given that such personalities have a strong sense of time urgency. This is a good thing since time urgency is an integral part of their job. Probably, the competitiveness of Type A personalities may not be a good trait for air traffic controllers who have to exercise utmost caution in their job. 4. Case Question 4: “This business of people saying they ‘thrive on stress’? It’s nuts,” says one eminent psychiatrist who goes so far to as to say that such people are in danger of slipping into a pathological state. Nevertheless, some people say that they like getting into chaotic situations and putting them back in order. What about you? Are there times when you seem to be motivated and satisfied by circumstances that most people would call stressful? If your answer is yes, what kinds of circumstances are they, and why do you think you react the way you do? If your answer is no, what do you normally do when faced with such circumstances? For some individuals, the prospect of working in a high-stress environment like air traffic control may seem daunting, but there are those who are drawn to such situations and thrive under pressure. While it's true that constant exposure to stress can have detrimental effects on mental and physical health, there are individuals who appear to be motivated and satisfied by circumstances that others might find stressful. Personally, I believe there are times when I find myself motivated and satisfied by challenging circumstances, although I wouldn't necessarily classify them as "stressful" in the traditional sense. Instead, I see these situations as opportunities for growth, problem-solving, and personal development. One example of such circumstances for me is when I'm faced with tight deadlines or complex tasks that require creative thinking and innovation. While these situations may induce a sense of pressure, I find that they also stimulate my mind and fuel my drive to excel. I thrive on the adrenaline rush of tackling challenges head-on and finding solutions, which ultimately leads to a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction. I believe my reaction to these circumstances is influenced by several factors. Firstly, I have a natural inclination towards problem-solving and a positive mindset, which enables me to approach challenges with confidence and resilience. Secondly, I have developed effective coping strategies, such as time management techniques and stress-reduction practices, that help me navigate stressful situations more effectively. However, it's essential to acknowledge that everyone responds differently to stress, and what works for one person may not work for another. While I may find motivation and satisfaction in challenging circumstances, it's crucial to maintain a healthy balance and prioritize self-care to prevent burnout and mitigate the negative effects of stress. When faced with overwhelming stress, I rely on techniques such as mindfulness, exercise, and seeking support from friends and colleagues to manage my well-being effectively. CHAPTER 16 Managing Employee Motivation and Performance END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS Questions for Review 1. Each historical perspective on motivation built on the earlier perspectives and differed from them in some ways. Describe the similarities and differences between the traditional approach and the human relations approach. Then describe the similarities and differences between the human relations approach and the human resource approach. The human relations approached put more emphasis on social needs than did the traditional approach. However, like the traditional approach, the human relations approach did not offer workers real participation in decision making. The human resource approach agreed with the emphasis on social factors that was first proposed by the human relations approach. In contrast to the human relations approach, the human resource approach did offer employees a chance for meaningful participation in their work environment. 2. Compare and contrast content, process, and reinforcement perspectives on motivation. The content theories of motivation focus on why people are motivated, whereas the process and reinforcement perspective focus on how people are motivated. In both the reinforcement and the process perspectives, individual rewards are seen as fulfilling the needs discussed in the content theories; however, the actual decision to perform is outlined in the process perspective. 3. Explain how goal-setting theory works. How is goal setting different from merely asking a worker to “do your best”? Goal-setting theory proposes that workers are most motivated when they know exactly what they are expected to achieve (goal specificity) and when the goal is somewhat challenging but not impossible to achieve (goal difficulty). The expanded theory addresses additional areas: the need for employees to accept the goal and feel a commitment to achieving it. Asking a worker to do his or her “best” will be motivating for some individuals who have a high need for achievement, but most workers will be more motivated by being given a specific and challenging goal. 4. Describe some new forms of working arrangements. How do these alternative arrangements increase motivation? Variable work schedules allow workers to work outside of the traditional “Monday to Friday, 8-to-5” hours of most businesses. Workers may work early in the morning, stay late in the evening, work on weekend, or work a few long days followed by several days off. Flexible work schedules given even more freedom for each employee to design their own optimum schedule. Job sharing allows two part-time workers to fill a full-time position. Workers who telecommute can work from home or any other location by using email and the Internet to communicate with their office. Anything that makes workers’ lives more convenient or gives workers control over how they work is likely to be motivating. Questions for Analysis 5. Choose one theory from the content perspectives and one from the process perspectives. Describe actions that a manager might take to increase worker motivation under each of the theories. What differences do you see between the theories in terms of their implications for managers? From the content perspectives, one theory that a manager might utilize to increase worker motivation is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory. According to Maslow, individuals have a hierarchy of needs ranging from basic physiological needs to higher-level needs for self-actualization. To motivate workers using Maslow's theory, a manager could: 1. Address Basic Needs: Ensure that employees' basic physiological needs, such as food, water, and rest, are met by providing fair wages, adequate breaks, and a safe working environment. 2. Provide Security and Stability: Offer job security, clear expectations, and opportunities for advancement to fulfill employees' needs for security and stability. 3. Foster Belongingness and Social Needs: Encourage teamwork, camaraderie, and a sense of belonging within the organization through team-building activities, social events, and open communication channels. 4. Recognize Achievement: Recognize and reward employees for their achievements and contributions to fulfill their esteem needs. 5. Support Personal Growth: Provide opportunities for skill development, training programs, and career advancement to help employees fulfill their self-actualization needs. From the process perspectives, one theory that a manager might employ to increase worker motivation is Locke and Latham's Goal Setting Theory. According to this theory, setting clear and challenging goals can motivate individuals to perform at a higher level. To motivate workers using Goal Setting Theory, a manager could: 1. Set Specific and Challenging Goals: Work with employees to establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals that are challenging but attainable. 2. Provide Feedback: Offer regular feedback and progress updates to help employees track their performance and adjust their efforts accordingly. 3. Support Goal Commitment: Involve employees in the goal-setting process and ensure they understand the importance of their goals to the overall success of the organization. 4. Adjust Goals as Needed: Be flexible and willing to adjust goals based on changing circumstances or feedback from employees to ensure they remain relevant and motivating. 5. Provide Resources and Support: Offer the necessary resources, training, and support to help employees achieve their goals effectively. Differences between the theories in terms of their implications for managers include: 1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory focuses on addressing employees' underlying needs to motivate them, while Goal Setting Theory emphasizes setting specific goals to drive performance. 2. Maslow's theory suggests that individuals progress through different levels of needs sequentially, while Goal Setting Theory does not assume a specific sequence and can be applied to individuals at any level of Maslow's hierarchy. 3. Maslow's theory highlights the importance of intrinsic motivation and personal growth, while Goal Setting Theory emphasizes the role of extrinsic motivation and goal achievement. 4. Maslow's theory provides a holistic framework for understanding human motivation, while Goal Setting Theory offers specific guidelines for setting and achieving goals in the workplace. 5. Maslow's theory may require a more individualized approach to motivation, considering each employee's unique needs and aspirations, while Goal Setting Theory offers a standardized method that can be applied across different individuals and contexts. 6. Can factors from both the content and the process perspectives be acting on a worker at the same time? Explain why or why not. Whether you answered yes or no to the previous question, explain the implications for managers. Clearly, both content and process theories can be operating at the same time, because there is nothing in the theories that precludes this conclusion. For managers, the implication is that they should be aware of the variety of theories that can explain worker motivation. Greater awareness and skill in applying the theories make it more likely that the manager will be effective in increasing motivation. 7. How do rewards increase motivation? What would happen if an organization gave too few rewards? What would happen if it gave too many? Underlying every motivation theory is the premise that individuals act in certain ways in order to gratify their needs. Rewards can fill those needs directly such as when a worker uses his or her pay to buy groceries, feeling a need for food. Rewards can also fill needs indirectly such as when a worker’s promotion leads to greater status and respect from others, filling a need for power. Organizations that do not offer adequate rewards will have employees who are unmotivated, leading to low performance, absenteeism, negative attitudes, and other undesirable outcomes. Organizations that offer too many rewards, on the other hand, may find that rewards lose their power to motivate. For example, if a manager praises every worker every day, regardless of performance, then there is little incentive for the workers to increase their performance. Questions for Application 8. Think about the worst job you have held. What approach to motivation was used in that organization? Now think about the best job you have held. What approach to motivation was used there? Can you base any conclusions on this limited information? If so, what are they? One likely response is the use of Herzberg’s theory. Note whether the response shows hygiene factors to be present on the “worst” job and motivation factors present on the “best” job. Another approach would be positive reinforcement for the best job and punishment for the worst job. A complex answer might involve expectancy theory—intensive training and a clearly defined reward system in the best job and being hired and thrown into a position in the worst job. 9. Interview both a manager and a worker (or administrator and faculty member) from a local organization. What views of or approaches to motivation seem to be in use in that organization? Do the manager’s views differ from the worker’s? If so, how do you explain the differing perceptions? Students may show how a manager attempts to make each subordinate feel self-actualized at work. Of course, this would also involve motivation factors, growth needs, and a need for achievement. These same comments could be examples of positive reinforcement or positive valence outcomes. Be sure particular approaches are applied properly. The perceptions of workers and managers may differ. For example, a reward that the manager feels is desirable may not be motivating to a worker. Or, the praise that a manager offers may be seen as hypocritical or manipulative by the worker. 10. Consider a class you have taken. Using just that one class, offer examples of times when the professor used positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, and extinction to manage students’ behavior. In a class I took, the professor employed various behavior management techniques to influence student behavior: 1. Positive Reinforcement: • The professor used positive reinforcement by praising students for active participation, insightful contributions to discussions, or exemplary performance on assignments. For example, the professor might say, "Great job on your presentation, Sarah! You provided excellent analysis and engaged the audience effectively." 2. Avoidance: • The professor utilized avoidance techniques by setting clear expectations and guidelines for behavior in the classroom. By clearly outlining what behavior is acceptable and unacceptable, students were motivated to avoid negative consequences. For instance, the professor might state, "Late submissions will not be accepted without prior approval. Please ensure all assignments are submitted on time to avoid penalties." 3. Punishment: • In instances where students violated class rules or engaged in disruptive behavior, the professor implemented punishment as a consequence. This could include deducting points from a student's participation grade, issuing a warning, or assigning extra work as a consequence for misbehavior. For example, if a student consistently disrupted class discussions, the professor might warn them about their behavior and, if it continued, assign a detention or other disciplinary action. 4. Extinction: • The professor employed extinction by withholding reinforcement for undesired behavior, thereby reducing the likelihood of its recurrence. For instance, if a student frequently sought attention by interrupting lectures, the professor might ignore the behavior or redirect attention back to the topic at hand, depriving the student of the attention they sought. Over time, the student may learn that interrupting does not result in the desired outcome, leading to a decrease in the behavior. By employing a combination of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, and extinction, the professor effectively managed student behavior and promoted a positive learning environment in the classroom. These behavior management techniques helped to encourage desirable behaviors while discouraging undesirable ones, ultimately enhancing the overall learning experience for students. END OF CHAPTER EXERCISES Building Effective Interpersonal Skills I. Purpose This exercise gives students a chance to see whether the factors that motivate them come primarily from within and from work or from factors external to them and their work. II. Format Students are given 12 factors that contribute to job satisfaction. They are asked to rank how important each factor is to them, on a scale of 1 to 5. III. Follow-Up The 12 factors are divided into two lists – motivating factors and maintenance factors and questions that correspond to each are listed. The closer the student’s column score is to 30, the more important is that factor to them. Building Effective Decision-Making Skills I. Purpose Students exercise their decision-making skills by researching a career path and making choices about that path. II. Format This decision-making skills exercise should be done outside of class by individuals. It will take students about 10 minutes to complete, although research will take longer. III. Follow-Up A. Consider the position that you’d like to hold at the peak of your career. It may be CEO, or owner of a chain of clothing stores, partner in a law or accounting firm, or president of a university. Then again, it may be something less lofty. Whatever it is, write it down. B. Now describe a career path that will lead you toward that goal. It may help to work “backwards,” that is, starting with your final position and work backwards in time to some entry-level job. If you aren’t sure about the career path that will lead to your ultimate goal, do some research. Talk to someone in your selected career field, ask an instructor who teaches in it, or go online. The website of the American Institute of Certified Public accountants, for example, has a section on “Career Resources,” which includes information about career paths and position descriptions for accounting. C. Write down each step in your path on a card or a sheet of paper. D. If, like Lee Iacocca, you were to carry this piece of paper with you and refer to it often as you pursued your career goals, do you think it would help you achieve them? Why or why not? Students will choose a variety of goals and an even-larger variety of paths to achieve those goals. However, most will acknowledge that an explicit consideration and recording of career goals could be useful. In addition, the constant reminder may be helpful as students make choices and accomplish tasks in their chosen fields. Chapter Closing Case THE LAW OF DIMINISHING motivation The number of women partners in law firms is significantly lower than the number of women who join law firms. The chapter closing case looks at possible reasons as to why this happens. Motivation appears to be a problem – motivation caused by conflicting demands that women face. Management Update: Fortune’s “Best Companies to Work for” article shows how the more progressive firms support their women employees. A comparison of the best practices in this area among leading companies should lead to a good discussion. 1. Case Question 1: Among the various approaches to enhancing workplace satisfaction and productivity discussed in the chapter, which ones might you take under the circumstances described in the case? Why are some of the other approaches less likely to be effective (or even relevant)? The case quotes a woman partner at a law firm who says, “ You have a given population of people (women) who were significantly motivated to go through law school with a certain career goal in mind.” This underscores the fact that women law graduates have the skill and the motivation to enter the profession and do well. The problem is that there are far fewer women lawyers at the partner level. Alternative forms of work arrangements such as variable work schedules, flexible work schedules, job sharing, and telecommuting may work, while money based reward systems may not, because in most cases, it is not the money that is at issue with women lawyers but time. 2. Case Question 2: You’re the managing partner in a law firm with 55 male associates and 45 female associates, and you agree with the argument that women lawyers need to “selfpromote” more effectively. Which approach to motivation would you apply in order to encourage female associates in your firm to “self-promote” more actively? Explain your choice of approach. One theory that can be applied to this situation is the expectancy theory of motivation. If you, the managing partner, can explain to the women associates the link between effort (to self-promote) and performance and rewards, they are more likely to work toward it. Of course, it is important that the valence of the rewards coincides with what they want. 3. Case Question 3: What about your own values when it comes to balancing your home and work life? Assume that you’re about to graduate from law school and about to get married to a fiancé(e) who’s also about to graduate from law school. When you sit down with your future husband or wife to discuss your plans for married life, what feelings will you express about raising a family? What kind of adjustments will you propose if it turns out that your fiancé(e)’s ideas on the matter are more or less the opposite of your own? Be sure to consider such factors as the debt you’ve racked up while in law school and the standard of living that you’d like to achieve during your working life. When discussing plans for married life with my future spouse, I would express my values regarding balancing home and work life openly and honestly. As someone about to graduate from law school, I would convey my desire to pursue a fulfilling career while also prioritizing family and personal well-being. If my fiancé(e)'s ideas on raising a family differ from mine, I would approach the situation with understanding and a willingness to compromise. I would propose a thorough discussion to understand each other's perspectives and priorities. Considering factors such as the debt accumulated during law school and our desired standard of living, I would suggest exploring various options for achieving a balance between career aspirations and family goals. Some adjustments that I might propose include: 1. Flexible Work Arrangements: Exploring options for flexible work schedules, telecommuting, or part-time work to accommodate family responsibilities while maintaining career advancement. 2. Shared Parental Responsibilities: Emphasizing the importance of shared parental responsibilities, such as childcare duties, household chores, and financial planning, to ensure equitable distribution of workload and support for each other's career aspirations. 3. Financial Planning: Developing a comprehensive financial plan to manage debt, save for future expenses, and maintain a comfortable standard of living while balancing career and family priorities. 4. Support Systems: Building a strong support network of family, friends, and professional resources to provide assistance and guidance in navigating the challenges of balancing work and family life. 5. Regular Communication: Committing to open and honest communication with each other, regularly reassessing our priorities and goals, and making adjustments as needed to ensure mutual satisfaction and fulfillment in both career and family life. Ultimately, I believe that a successful marriage involves mutual respect, compromise, and a shared commitment to supporting each other's personal and professional growth. By approaching the discussion with empathy, flexibility, and a collaborative mindset, I am confident that we can find a solution that aligns with our values and aspirations for the future. Solution Manual for Management Ricky W. Griffin, Robert Kreitner, Charlene Cassidy 9781111969714, 9781111221362

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