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This Document Contains Chapters 13 to 14 Chapter 13 Emotion and Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT considered a component of emotions? A. Subjective feelings B. Bodily changes C. Categorizations D. Action tendencies Answer: C. Categorizations 2. _______________ is the component of emotions that refers to the increase in probabilities of certain behaviors. A. Subjective feelings B. Bodily changes C. Categorizations D. Action tendencies Answer: D. Action tendencies 3. A functional analysis of emotions and emotional expression focuses on the _______________ of emotions and emotional expression. A. "why" B. "how" C. "what" D. "where" Answer: A. "why" 4. _______________ depend more on particular situations than personality characteristics. A. Emotional states B. Emotional traits C. Mood inductions D. Dimensional emotions Answer: A. Emotional states 5. The patterns of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences over time are called A. emotional states. B. emotional traits. C. explanatory style. D. the cognitive triad. Answer: B. emotional traits. 6. The _______________ is most concerned with identifying primary emotions. A. categorical view of emotions B. dimensional view of emotions C. diathesis-stress model D. circumplex model Answer: A. categorical view of emotions 7. Happiness can be thought of as an emotional A. state. B. trait. C. state and as an emotional trait. D. None of these. Answer: C. state and as an emotional trait. 8. Which of the following has NOT been used as a criterion for identifying fundamental or primary emotions? A. Subjective experience B. Unique motivational properties C. Distinct facial expressions D. Relationship to biological processes Answer: A. Subjective experience 9. Ekman has argued that primary emotion facial expressions are innate based on A. universal recognition of facial expressions. B. research that shows people who are blind from birth make facial expressions. C. factor analysis. D. universal recognition of facial expressions and the observation of blind persons' facial expressions. Answer: D. universal recognition of facial expressions and the observation of blind persons' facial expressions. 10. Most lists of primary emotions contain _______________ emotions. A. equal numbers of positive and negative B. more positive emotions than negative C. more negative emotions than positive D. only negative emotions or positive Answer: C. more negative emotions than positive 11. The _______________ has focused on gathering self-ratings of emotions and using statistical techniques to reduce the number of emotion terms. A. categorical view of emotions B. dimensional view of emotions C. diathesis-stress model D. functional view of emotions Answer: B. dimensional view of emotions 12. There is much consensus among proponents of the dimensional view of emotions that _______________ are the basic dimensions underlying emotions. A. pleasantness/unpleasantness and arousal level B. pleasantness/unpleasantness and universality of facial expressions C. arousal level and universality of facial expressions D. subjective experience and bodily change Answer: A. pleasantness/unpleasantness and arousal level 13. According to the dimensional view, emotions define a common dimension when they A. have similar facial expressions. B. serve similar functions. C. occur together in experience. D. are rated as feeling distinct. Answer: C. occur together in experience. 14. _______________ is the part of a person's emotional life that refers to the kinds of emotions that are being experienced. A. Style B. Content C. Action tendency D. Intensity Answer: B. Content 15. Happiness is usually measured A. with a polygraph. B. with life-outcome data. C. with self-report questionnaires. D. in the limbic system. Answer: C. with self-report questionnaires. 16. The average person A. is happy more often than unhappy. B. is unhappy more often than happy. C. is happy and unhappy about equal amounts of time. D. does not care about happiness. Answer: A. is happy more often than unhappy. 17. The extent to which people are satisfied with their lives correlates with A. social desirability. B. having many positive emotions. C. positive illusions. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 18. An inflated view of abilities and desirable characteristics is referred to as A. self-deceptive happiness. B. life satisfaction. C. subjective well-being. D. positive illusions. Answer: D. positive illusions. 19. Questionnaire measures of happiness A. correlate with measures of social desirability. B. appear to be valid. C. are invalid due to response bias. D. correlate with measures of social desirability and appear to be valid. Answer: D. correlate with measures of social desirability and appear to be valid. 20. Seidlitz and Diener found that when given five minutes to recall happy events and five minutes to recall unhappy events, happy people recalled _______________ than unhappy people. A. more pleasant events and fewer unpleasant events B. as many pleasant events, but fewer unpleasant events C. more pleasant events, but as many unpleasant events D. more events, both happy and unhappy Answer: A. more pleasant events and fewer unpleasant events 21. Studies of sex differences in happiness indicate that A. men and women are about equally happy. B. men are more likely than women to be depressed. C. women are more likely than men to become alcoholics. D. All of these. Answer: A. men and women are about equally happy. 22. Studies of happiness and age have found that A. levels of happiness are not predicted well by age. B. relationships and success at work are more important to young people. C. financial security is more important to older people. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 23. Wealth has been found to correlate with happiness A. in studies of lottery winners. B. across different nations. C. when comparing people within most countries. D. All of these. Answer: B. across different nations. 24. People in countries with _______________ tend to be happier. A. high incomes B. low incomes C. more civil liberties D. high incomes and more civil liberties Answer: D. high incomes and more civil liberties 25. Which of the following is a potential "third variable" that might explain the correlation between wealth and happiness across countries? A. Civil rights B. Health care C. Education D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 26. Diener et al. (1995) found that the correlation between personal income and happiness was _______________ in the United States. A. 0.0 B. +.12 C. +.32 D. +.52 Answer: B. +.12 27. Which of the following traits is strongly associated with increased happiness? A. High levels of extraversion B. High levels of neuroticism C. Type A personality D. High levels of extraversion and high levels of neuroticism Answer: A. High levels of extraversion 28. Pictures designed to create an emotional reaction would be used A. in the emotional Stroop task. B. in a mood induction. C. to assess Type A personality. D. All of these. Answer: B. in a mood induction. 29. Studies of personality and mood inductions find that it is easier to put people who score _______________ in good moods. A. high on extraversion B. low on extraversion C. high on neuroticism D. low on neuroticism Answer: A. high on extraversion 30. Correlational studies have A. provided evidence of a direct effect of personality on happiness. B. provided evidence of an indirect effect of personality on happiness. C. shown that high extraversion and low neuroticism are associated with happiness. D. shown that personality type causes happiness. Answer: C. shown that high extraversion and low neuroticism are associated with happiness. 31. Studies that have used mood inductions have A. supported the idea of an indirect effect of personality on happiness. B. supported the idea of a direct effect of personality on happiness. C. shown that personality can influence the mood of a group. D. All of these. Answer: B. supported the idea of a direct effect of personality on happiness. 32. Which of the following is NOT likely to increase happiness? A. Spending time with friends B. Helping others C. Wishing for happiness D. Exercise Answer: C. Wishing for happiness 33. People who spend much time worrying score A. high on measures of hostility. B. low on measures of hostility. C. high on measures of neuroticism. D. low on measures of neuroticism. Answer: C. high on measures of neuroticism. 34. People who score high on neuroticism A. take a dimensional view of emotions. B. take a categorical view of emotions. C. are irritated by many things. D. take a categorical view of emotions and are irritated by many things. Answer: C. are irritated by many things. 35. Eysenck linked the trait of _______________ to activation in the limbic system. A. extraversion B. neuroticism C. Type A personality D. hostility Answer: B. neuroticism 36. Which of the following brain imaging techniques CANNOT easily test Eysenck's biological explanation of neuroticism? A. EEG B. MRI C. PET D. Not just one of these. All of these techniques can test Eysenck's theory. Answer: A. EEG 37. Which of the following is consistent with Eysenck's biological explanation of neuroticism? A. Neuroticism scores are stable over time. B. Neuroticism is partially heritable. C. Neuroticism is described by almost all cultures. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 38. Studies have shown that emotion is associated with an increased activation of the A. hippocampus. B. hypothalamus. C. anterior cingulate. D. prefrontal cortex. Answer: C. anterior cingulate. 39. Studies have shown that the control of emotion is associated with an increased activation of the A. hippocampus. B. hypothalamus. C. anterior cingulate. D. prefrontal cortex. Answer: D. prefrontal cortex. 40. Which of the following MOST suggests a cognitive basis of neuroticism? A. Neuroticism scores are stable over time. B. Neuroticism is associated with better recall of negative information. C. Neuroticism is partially heritable. D. Neuroticism is described by almost all cultures. Answer: B. Neuroticism is associated with better recall of negative information. 41. People who _______________ tend to complain of more physical ailments. A. score high on neuroticism B. score high on extraversion C. have positive illusions D. All of these. Answer: A. score high on neuroticism 42. People who score high (as compared to low) on neuroticism tend to A. underestimate their physical symptoms. B. reported fewer serious physical symptoms. C. have exaggerated memories of the physical symptoms they experienced. D. believe that others have physical symptoms even when they do not. Answer: C. have exaggerated memories of the physical symptoms they experienced. 43. Which of the following are related to neuroticism? A. Coronary disease B. Cancer C. Premature death D. None of these Answer: D. None of these 44. Research suggests that _______________ may be more susceptible to immune-mediated diseases. A. People with Type A personality. B. People who score high on hostility. C. People who score high on neuroticism. D. All of these. Answer: C. People who score high on neuroticism. 45. The emotional Stroop task has been used to study personality differences in A. emotional reactivity. B. attention biases. C. physical symptoms. D. affect intensity. Answer: B. attention biases. 46. Which of the following words would cause emotional interference in a person who is high in neuroticism? A. Disease B. Fear C. Failure D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 47. People high in neuroticism are often _______________ to name colors of anxiety- and threat-related words. A. faster B. slower C. unwilling D. eager Answer: B. slower 48. It is estimated that depression strikes _______________ percent of the people in the United States at some point in their lives. A. 5 B. 10 C. 20 D. 30 Answer: C. 20 49. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of depression? A. Diminished pleasure in most activities B. Fatigue C. Feelings of worthlessness D. Dwelling on the past Answer: D. Dwelling on the past 50. According to the diathesis-stress model, depression results from A. stressful life events. B. a pre-existing vulnerability. C. an active limbic system. D. stressful life events and a pre-existing vulnerability. Answer: D. stressful life events and a pre-existing vulnerability. 51. _______________ refers to a way of organizing and interpreting the world. A. Cognitive schemas B. Cognitive triads C. Syndromes D. Cognitive categorization Answer: A. Cognitive schemas 52. Which of the following is NOT a part of Beck's cognitive triad? A. Information about the self B. Information about one's past C. Information about one's future D. Information about the world Answer: B. Information about one's past 53. Beck emphasized _______________ in explaining depression. A. vulnerability to negative emotions B. activity in the limbic system C. distortions in thoughts D. the categorical approach to emotions Answer: C. distortions in thoughts 54. According to Beck, which of the following is NOT a cognitive distortion among people with depression? A. Making arbitrary inferences B. Personalizing C. Catastrophizing D. Compartmentalizing Answer: D. Compartmentalizing 55. Beck thought that cognitive distortions A. lead to self-fulfilling prophesies. B. lead to negative feelings about the self. C. were automatic in depressed people. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 56. Depressed persons maintain an _______________, _______________, and _______________ explanatory style. A. external; unstable; specific B. external; stable; specific C. internal; stable; global D. internal; unstable; global Answer: C. internal; stable; global 57. According to the neurotransmitter theory of depression, which of the following neurotransmitters are NOT involved in depression? A. Dopamine B. Serotonin C. Norepinephrine D. Not just one of these answers. They are all involved in depression. Answer: D. Not just one of these answers. They are all involved in depression. 58. Someone who becomes very angry and irritated when receiving a bill in the mail or encountering traffic delays, for example, may be labeled A. neurotic. B. hostile. C. psychopathic. D. antisocial. Answer: B. hostile. 59. Hostility includes which of the following? A. Easily irritated B. Feeling frequent resentment C. Acting in rude and critical manner in everyday interactions D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 60. Recent research on Type A personality has focused on A. defining the categorical approach to emotion. B. defining the dimensional approach to emotion. C. neuroticism. D. hostility. Answer: D. hostility. 61. People who are concerned with aggressively achieving more in less time A. score high on measures of neuroticism. B. tend to be depressed. C. exhibit Type A personality. D. score high on measures of extraversion. Answer: C. exhibit Type A personality. 62. A cluster of several traits is referred to as a(n) A. "taxonomy." B. "syndrome." C. "explanatory style." D. "diathesis-stress model." Answer: B. "syndrome." 63. Research on Type A personality suggests that the component of _______________ is most associated with poor health. A. time urgency B. achievement strivings C. hostility D. competitiveness Answer: C. hostility 64. Which of the following traits refers to an emotional style? A. Type A personality B. Hostility C. Affect intensity D. Easygoingness Answer: C. Affect intensity 65. A person who experiences very high "highs" and very low "lows" scores high on the trait of A. affect intensity. B. neuroticism. C. extraversion. D. hostility. Answer: A. affect intensity. 66. A person who scores low on affect intensity A. never experiences strong emotions. B. experiences negative emotions more frequently than a person who scores high. C. experiences strong emotions less frequently than a person who scores high. D. All of these. Answer: C. experiences strong emotions less frequently than a person who scores high. 67. Which of the following was identified using the experience sampling method? A. Type A personality B. Affect intensity C. Neuroticism D. Explanatory style Answer: B. Affect intensity 68. Researchers agree that A. it is better to be high on affect intensity. B. it is better to be low on affect intensity. C. it is better to be high on affect intensity most of the time. D. we cannot say whether it is bad or good to be low or high on affect intensity. Answer: D. we cannot say whether it is bad or good to be low or high on affect intensity. 69. Research on affect intensity suggests that most people _______________ affect intensity. A. prefer to be high in B. prefer to be low in C. prefer to be moderate in D. would not want to change their level of Answer: D. would not want to change their level of 70. People who score high on affect intensity A. experience only negative emotions more strongly than people who score low. B. experience more physiological arousal than people who score low. C. experience less physiological arousal than people who score low. D. Both A and B. Answer: B. experience more physiological arousal than people who score low. 71. A benefit of low affect intensity is A. fewer psychosomatic symptoms. B. lower levels of concern about psychosomatic symptoms. C. experiencing less intense positive emotions. D. experiencing more intense positive emotions. Answer: A. fewer psychosomatic symptoms. 72. High levels of affect intensity are associated with A. Type A personality. B. high levels of neuroticism. C. high levels of extraversion. D. high levels of neuroticism and extraversion. Answer: D. high levels of neuroticism and extraversion. 73. Mood variability is a component of A. Type A personality. B. affect intensity. C. extraversion. D. anxiety. Answer: B. affect intensity. 74. People _______________ in affect intensity exhibit _______________ frequent changes in their moods. A. low; slightly more B. low; many more C. high; more D. high; less Answer: C. high; more 75. Emotional content and emotional style A. correlate at high levels. B. correlate at moderate levels. C. correlate at low levels. D. do not correlate at all. Answer: D. do not correlate at all. Chapter 14 Approaches to the Self Multiple Choice Questions 1. The way you see and define your self is known as your A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. social identity. D. self-esteem variability. Answer: B. self-concept. 2. The extent to which you value yourself is known as your A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. social identity. D. possible selves. Answer: A. self-esteem. 3. The aspects of your self that you present to others is known as your A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. social identity. D. possible selves. Answer: C. social identity. 4. If you describe yourself to other people as extraverted, but in fact you are introverted, then extraversion is a part of your A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. social identity. D. possible selves. Answer: C. social identity. 5. Most people look at _______________ first in a photo. A. themselves B. romantic partners C. family members D. close friends Answer: A. themselves 6. People are especially sensitive to events that change their sense of self in A. early childhood. B. late adolescence. C. middle adulthood. D. late adulthood. Answer: B. late adolescence. 7. Our sense of self influences A. how we evaluate life events. B. how we interact with other people. C. how others view us. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 8. A person who fails an exam will A. feel bad if doing well on the exam was important to his or her self-concept. B. feel bad if he or she has low self-esteem. C. feel bad if he or she has high self-esteem. D. likely begin to self-handicap. Answer: A. feel bad if doing well on the exam was important to his or her self-concept. 9. People who evaluate their personal characteristics as positive A. demonstrate identity contrast. B. engage in selective valuation. C. have high self-esteem. D. have low self-esteem. Answer: C. have high self-esteem. 10. The information on your driver's license is mostly a part of your A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. social identity. D. possible selves. Answer: C. social identity. 11. There are _______________ types of identify theft, _______________. A. two; impersonation and misrepresentation B. two; account takeover and application fraud C. three; impersonation, misrepresentation, and omission D. three; account takeover, application fraud, and document falsification Answer: B. two; account takeover and application fraud 12. The self-concept begins to develop as early as A. infancy. B. childhood. C. adolescence. D. adulthood. Answer: A. infancy. 13. _______________ begins to develop when an infant notices that her or his body is distinct from the rest of the world. A. Self-esteem B. The self-concept C. A social identity D. The first possible self Answer: B. The self-concept 14. People differ from most other animals in that A. animals do not have traits. B. animals do not have a self-concept. C. animals do not engage in unconscious behavior. D. All of these. Answer: B. animals do not have a self-concept. 15. Children can follow rules set up by parents around the age of A. 6 months. B. 9 months. C. 1 year. D. 2 years. Answer: D. 2 years. 16. Which of the following develops first in children? A. Knowledge about their gender and age B. The capacity for social comparison C. A private self-concept D. All of these develop about the same time Answer: A. Knowledge about their gender and age 17. When a person evaluates his performance relative to peers, he engages in A. identity conflict. B. identity deficit. C. selective valuation. D. social comparison. Answer: D. social comparison. 18. Around the age of 5 or 6 years of age, children develop A. the ability to engage in social comparison. B. a private self-concept. C. objective self-awareness. D. the ability to engage in social comparison and a private self-concept. Answer: D. the ability to engage in social comparison and a private self-concept. 19. Imaginary friends often indicate that a child has developed A. the ability to engage in social comparison. B. a private self-concept. C. objective self-awareness. D. an identity deficit. Answer: B. a private self-concept. 20. Perspective taking usually develops around the age of _______________ years. A. 2 B. 5 C. 9 D. 13 Answer: D. 13 21. The ability to see oneself as other people might is known as A. a private self-concept. B. social comparison. C. perspective taking. D. social identity. Answer: C. perspective taking. 22. Seeing oneself as the object of others' attention is known as A. social comparison. B. perspective taking. C. objective self-awareness. D. a private self-concept. Answer: C. objective self-awareness. 23. People living in modern societies begin to organize their lives in narrative terms in A. early adolescence. B. late adolescence. C. early adulthood. D. late adolescence and early adulthood. Answer: D. late adolescence and early adulthood. 24. The specific knowledge structures of self-concepts are called A. self-schema. B. possible selves. C. social identities. D. self-esteem. Answer: A. self-schema. 25. Self-schema A. guides attention. B. is stored in memory. C. influences how we interpret the world. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 26. "Possible selves" describe who we A. would like to become. B. do not want to become. C. think we might become. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 27. A person who has a possible self of a musician A. knows that he or she will be a musician some day. B. knows the steps he or she will need to take to become a musician. C. will be guided towards musical opportunities. D. All of these. Answer: C. will be guided towards musical opportunities. 28. Possible selves A. describe past behaviors. B. motivate behavior. C. are unrelated to behavior. D. develop in early infancy. Answer: B. motivate behavior. 29. _______________ what a person wants to be. A. Self-esteem is B. The ideal self is C. The ought self is D. Possible selves are Answer: B. The ideal self is 30. A person's understanding of how others want him or her to be is know as the A. "self-guide." B. "deal self." C. "ought self." D. All of these. Answer: C. "ought self." 31. Tory Higgins described _______________ as standards that individuals use to organize information and motivate appropriate behavior. A. self-guides B. possible selves C. self-esteem D. identity crises Answer: A. self-guides 32. A person who is especially motivated to avoid harm A. has high self-esteem. B. is engaging in prevention focus. C. is engaging in promotion focus. D. has lost his or her self guide. Answer: B. is engaging in prevention focus. 33. Compared to people with high self-esteem, people with low self-esteem are more A. prevention focused. B. promotion focused. C. concerned with not failing than with succeeding. D. prevention focused and more concerned with not failing than with succeeding. Answer: D. prevention focused and more concerned with not failing than with succeeding. 34. Self-esteem is the sum of your _______________ reactions to all the aspects of your self-concept. A. positive B. negative C. positive and negative D. positive, negative, and standard Answer: C. positive and negative 35. When people behave in ways that are inconsistent with their self-concepts A. they self-handicap. B. they abandon their possible selves. C. their self-esteem increases. D. their self-esteem decreases. Answer: D. their self-esteem decreases. 36. _______________ is the composite of self-evaluations across many different domains. A. Self-esteem variability B. Global self-esteem C. Self-concept D. None of these. Answer: B. Global self-esteem 37. Self-esteem in the academic domain _______________ with self-esteem in the physical attractiveness domain. A. correlates highly B. correlates moderately C. correlates a little D. does not correlate Answer: B. correlates moderately 38. A person who agrees with the statement, "I feel I do not have much to be proud of," would score _______________ self-esteem. A. low on academic B. score high on academic C. score low on global D. score high on global Answer: C. score low on global 39. People _______________ tend to respond to criticism with decreased motivation. A. with low self-esteem B. with high self-esteem C. who are shy D. who are not shy Answer: A. with low self-esteem 40. People who score high on self-esteem tend to _______________ after receiving failure feedback. A. work harder B. give up C. become angry D. increase their self-esteem Answer: A. work harder 41. People who have low self-esteem A. are interested only in positive feedback. B. are interested only in negative feedback. C. are not interested in receiving feedback. D. do not differ from those high in self-esteem in their interest in feedback. Answer: A. are interested only in positive feedback. 42. People who _______________ tend to be motivated by a fear of failure. A. have high self-esteem B. have low self-esteem C. are shy D. have low self-esteem and are shy Answer: D. have low self-esteem and are shy 43. A person with high (as opposed to low) self-esteem would be more likely to respond to failure by A. giving up. B. accepting it. C. thinking of other things that are going well. D. becoming aggressive. Answer: C. thinking of other things that are going well. 44. People who desire social contact but are held back by insecurity are best described as A. having low self-esteem. B. antisocial. C. shy. D. lacking self-schema. Answer: C. shy. 45. People who are shy also A. have low self-esteem variability. B. are introverted. C. score high on social anxiety. D. All of these. Answer: C. score high on social anxiety. 46. Kagan has found that about _______________ percent of 4-month-old infants are shy. A. 10 B. 20 C. 30 D. 40 Answer: B. 20 47. Children who were shy as infants, but overcame their shyness A. were encouraged into social interactions by parents. B. were not encouraged into social interactions by parents. C. did not have the shyness gene. D. had parents that were more outgoing. Answer: A. were encouraged into social interactions by parents. 48. People who experience discomfort related to social interactions score A. high on measures of self-esteem. B. low on measures of self-esteem. C. high on measures of social anxiety. D. low on measures of social anxiety. Answer: C. high on measures of social anxiety. 49. People who are socially anxious A. are less likely to ask for help. B. are often perceived as unfriendly. C. do not want to have friends. D. are less likely to ask for help and are often perceived as unfriendly. Answer: D. are less likely to ask for help and are often perceived as unfriendly. 50. To overcome shyness, people should A. force themselves into social situations. B. only enter social situations where they feel comfortable. C. carefully monitor their part of the conversation. D. take the view that conversation should come easily. Answer: A. force themselves into social situations. 51. Which of the following is NOT a step that would tend to help decrease shyness? A. Try not to avoid social situations. B. Mentally review aspects of conversation that went poorly. C. Pay attention to others. D. Make more eye contact. Answer: B. Mentally review aspects of conversation that went poorly. 52. A person with many distinct aspects of self is best described as having A. high self-esteem variability. B. high global self esteem. C. high self-complexity. D. self guides. Answer: C. high self-complexity. 53. People with low (as opposed to high) self-complexity A. respond better to negative life events. B. are devastated by negative life events. C. tend to respond to failure with aggression. D. score higher on measures of self-esteem. Answer: B. are devastated by negative life events. 54. A positive aspect of defensive pessimism is that A. it helps transform anxiety into pleasure. B. it leads to motivation. C. other people find it attractive. D. All of these. Answer: B. it leads to motivation. 55. When a person deliberately does something that increases the chances of failure, he or she is engaging in A. defensive pessimism. B. prevention focus. C. promotion focus. D. self-handicapping. Answer: D. self-handicapping. 56. A person who goes to a wild, all-night party the night before an exam may be engaging in A. stupidity. B. prevention focus. C. promotion focus. D. self-handicapping. Answer: D. self-handicapping. 57. People who score low in self-esteem are more likely to A. engage in self-handicapping. B. engage in defensive pessimism. C. avoid failure feedback. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 58. Individual differences in short-term self-evaluations refer to the dimension of A. self-esteem variability. B. global self-esteem. C. promotion focus. D. prevention focus. Answer: A. self-esteem variability. 59. Self-esteem level and self-esteem variability A. correlate at high levels. B. do not correlate. C. interact to predict important outcomes. D. do not correlate and interact to predict important outcomes. Answer: D. do not correlate and interact to predict important outcomes. 60. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of people who score high on self-esteem variability? A. Enhanced sensitivity to social events B. Tendency for a low sense of self-worth C. Tendency to react with anger and hostility D. Increased concern about their self-view Answer: B. Tendency for a low sense of self-worth 61. Gender and ethnicity are necessarily a component of one's A. self-concept. B. self-esteem. C. social identity. D. None of these. Answer: C. social identity. 62. The idea that identity remains relatively stable is referred to as identity A. continuity. B. contrast. C. deficit. D. conflict. Answer: A. continuity. 63. The idea that a people's identity sets them apart from others is known as identity A. continuity. B. contrast. C. deficit. D. conflict. Answer: B. contrast. 64. _______________ first popularized the concept of identity. A. Eysenck B. Freud C. Erikson D. Skinner Answer: C. Erikson 65. Experimentation with different identities is most common in A. childhood. B. adolescence. C. adulthood. D. old age. Answer: B. adolescence. 66. People differ in A. the extent to which identity is important to them. B. the amount of effort expended on creating an identity. C. whether or not they have identities. D. None of these. Answer: A. the extent to which identity is important to them. 67. Anxiety related to changes in one's identity is called identity A. continuity. B. contrast. C. crisis. D. All of these Answer: C. crisis. 68. When a person has failed to find an adequate identity, he or she experiences identity A. continuity. B. contrast. C. deficit. D. rigidity. Answer: C. deficit. 69. A person who has an identity deficit A. has trouble making decisions. B. experiences more identity contrast. C. has more difficulty changing his or her identity. D. has trouble making decisions and experiences more identity contrast. Answer: A. has trouble making decisions. 70. When individuals discard their parents' values, they may be at risk for identity A. conflict. B. continuity. C. contrast. D. deficit. Answer: D. deficit. 71. Important and difficult life decisions are often accompanied by identity A. rigidity. B. contrast. C. deficit. D. conflict. Answer: D. conflict. 72. Identity conflicts are _______________ conflicts. A. approach-avoidance B. approach-approach C. avoidance-avoidance D. All of these. Answer: B. approach-approach 73. Midlife identity crises are most likely to be A. approach-approach conflicts. B. identity deficits. C. identity conflicts. D. identity contrasts. Answer: B. identity deficits. 74. The character Lester from the movie "American Beauty" most demonstrates the concept of A. self-esteem variability. B. defensive pessimism. C. self-handicapping. D. identity crisis. Answer: D. identity crisis. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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