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This Document Contains Chapters 11 to 12 Chapter 11 Motives and Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which term below best describes a state of tension within a person usually caused by a lack of something? A. Alpha press B. Motive C. Beta press D. Need Answer: D. Need 2. From a theoretical point of view, motives are like dispositions in that A. people differ from one another in terms of type and strength of motives. B. differences between people are measurable. C. differences in motives are associated with important life outcomes. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 3. Motives satisfy needs with A. thoughts and fantasies. B. behaviors. C. thought, fantasies, and behaviors. D. None of these. Answer: C. thought, fantasies, and behaviors. 4. Motivational psychologists ask which of the following questions? A. What are people like? B. What do people want? C. What do people do? D. Why do people like what they like? Answer: B. What do people want? 5. Which term best describes an internal state that arouses and directs behavior toward specific objects or goals? A. Need B. Desire C. Motive D. Press Answer: C. Motive 6. Which of these psychologists was the first to develop a modern theory of motivation? A. Rogers B. Maslow C. Murray D. McClelland Answer: C. Murray 7. Henry Murray assumed that needs varied A. over time. B. by situation. C. between people. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 8. Henry Murray was a _______________ before turning to work on motivation. A. physician, embryologist, and biochemist B. lawyer C. entrepreneur D. priest Answer: A. physician, embryologist, and biochemist 9. According to Murray, people might purposely increase tension A. only if they suffered from mental illness. B. because they wanted attention from others. C. because the process of reducing tension can be pleasurable. D. None of these. Answer: C. because the process of reducing tension can be pleasurable. 10. The idea that people have different levels of different needs is know as A. the hierarchy of needs. B. press. C. motive constellations. D. the need tree. Answer: A. the hierarchy of needs. 11. Why do we think of motives as dynamic? A. Levels decrease with age. B. Gender differences have been found on some motives. C. Motives interact with one another within a person. D. Everyone has at least two motives. Answer: C. Motives interact with one another within a person. 12. Murray's list included _______________ needs. A. three B. five C. eight D. more than 10 Answer: D. more than 10 13. The act of interpreting the environment and perceiving the meaning of what is going on in a situation is termed A. integration. B. apperception. C. self-actualization. D. motivation. Answer: B. apperception. 14. An important feature of the Thematic Apperception Test is that it is A. highly reliable. B. popular among clinicians. C. ambiguous. D. easily scored. Answer: C. ambiguous. 15. Beta press refers to the A. objective features of the environment. B. subjective features of the environment. C. strength of a need. D. strength of a motive. Answer: B. subjective features of the environment. 16. _______________ refers to the objective features of the environment. A. Alpha press B. Beta press C. A need D. A motive Answer: A. Alpha press 17. The Thematic Apperception Test was developed by A. Freud. B. Rorchach. C. Maslow. D. Murray. Answer: D. Murray. 18. Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test in the A. 1860s. B. 1950s. C. 1930s. D. 1970s. Answer: C. 1930s. 19. The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n) A. self-report questionnaire. B. intelligence inventory. C. psychopathology index. D. projective test. Answer: D. projective test. 20. McClelland described two different types of motivation, A. internal motivation and external motivation. B. alpha press and beta press. C. implicit motivation and self-attributed motivation. D. conscious motivation and unconscious motivation. Answer: C. implicit motivation and self-attributed motivation. 21. Some researchers have criticized the Thematic Apperception Test because A. it has poor test-retest reliability. B. scores from different pictures do not correlate highly. C. it has poor internal reliability. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 22. Spangler found that the _______________ was a better predictor of the long-term effects of motives and the _______________ was a better predictor of the short-term effects of motives. A. interview method; Thematic Apperception Test B. Thematic Apperception Test; interview method C. questionnaire method; Thematic Apperception Test D. Thematic Apperception Test; questionnaire method Answer: D. Thematic Apperception Test; questionnaire method 23. The Multi-Motive Grid is A. a term used to describe the interconnected relationship between motives. B. a procedure used to access alpha press and beta press. C. a relatively new technique used to assess motives. D. the idea that our needs and motives influence apperception. Answer: C. a relatively new technique used to assess motives. 24. The name most associated with research on the need for achievement is A. McClelland. B. Winter. C. Maslow. D. McAdams. Answer: A. McClelland. 25. People high in the need for achievement are very concerned with A. having impact. B. making money. C. doing things better. D. helping other people. Answer: C. doing things better. 26. The "Big 3" motives are A. sex, aggression, and play. B. competence, sex, and aggression. C. self-esteem, self-expression, and reality. D. achievement, power, and intimacy. Answer: D. achievement, power, and intimacy. 27. People who score high on the need for achievement prefer tasks with a _______________ level of difficulty. A. low B. high C. moderate D. None of these; it all depends on the task Answer: C. moderate 28. People who score high on the need for achievement A. prefer moderately challenging activities. B. enjoy tasks where they are personally responsible for outcomes. C. prefer tasks where feedback is available. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 29. Men tend to score _______________ women on measures of the need for power. A. higher than B. lower than C. about the same as D. both higher and lower, depending on the measurement tool Answer: C. about the same as 30. People who score high on implicit measures of achievement motivation do especially well in A. business. B. relationships. C. college classes. D. None of these. Answer: A. business. 31. Men tend to have _______________ levels of achievement motivation compared to women. A. much higher B. slightly higher C. lower D. equal Answer: D. equal 32. Independence training is thought to increase A. need for power. B. need for achievement. C. need for intimacy. D. None of these. Answer: B. need for achievement. 33. The name most associated with research on the need for power is A. McClelland. B. Winter. C. Maslow. D. McAdams. Answer: B. Winter. 34. People high in the need for power are very concerned with A. making an impact on other people. B. making money. C. altruistic acts. D. a desire for relationships. Answer: A. making an impact on other people. 35. _______________ who score high on the need for power tend to be more impulsive and aggressive. A. People who score high on the need for achievement and B. Women C. Men D. Both men and women Answer: C. Men 36. Which of the following motives is associated with poor health when inhibited? A. Achievement B. Intimacy C. Power D. None of these Answer: C. Power 37. The name most associated with research on the need for intimacy is A. McClelland. B. Winter. C. Maslow. D. McAdams. Answer: D. McAdams. 38. People who score high on the need for intimacy are very concerned with A. having impact. B. making money. C. a desire for relationships. D. a desire for understanding. Answer: C. a desire for relationships. 39. High levels of _______________ have been associated with having a satisfying job and family life. A. the need for intimacy B. the need for power C. the need for achievement D. All of these. Answer: A. the need for intimacy 40. People who score high on the need for intimacy tend to A. have a few close friends. B. have more friends than people who score low in the need for intimacy. C. be physically attractive. D. be extraverted too. Answer: A. have a few close friends. 41. Women tend to score higher than men on measures of A. need for power. B. need for intimacy. C. need for achievement. D. All of these. Answer: B. need for intimacy. 42. The humanistic tradition is most associated with the A. motive to self-actualize. B. need for power. C. need for intimacy. D. need for achievement. Answer: A. motive to self-actualize. 43. Compared to the behaviorist tradition, the humanistic tradition places _______________ emphasis on free will. A. more B. less C. about the same D. more or less, depending on the particular humanistic theorist, Answer: A. more 44. Compared to the psychoanalytic tradition, the humanistic tradition is more _______________ about human nature. A. confused B. optimistic C. pessimistic D. open minded Answer: B. optimistic 45. The humanist tradition emphasizes A. free will. B. personal responsibility. C. growth. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 46. Which of the following is a growth motive? A. Power B. Achievement C. Intimacy D. Self-actualization Answer: D. Self-actualization 47. Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following correctly lists needs from weakest to strongest? A. Physiological, Esteem, Belongingness, Safety, Self-actualization B. Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem, Self-actualization C. Self-actualization, Esteem, Belongingness, Safety, Physiological D. Self-actualization, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem, Physiological Answer: C. Self-actualization, Esteem, Belongingness, Safety, Physiological 48. Examples of physiological needs are A. food and air. B. shelter and security. C. respect and achievement. D. love and acceptance. Answer: A. food and air. 49. Examples of safety needs are A. food and air. B. shelter and security. C. respect and achievement. D. love and acceptance. Answer: B. shelter and security. 50. Who theorized a "hierarchy of needs?" A. Rogers B. Maslow C. Winter D. McClelland Answer: B. Maslow 51. Maslow thought that _______________ needs are usually satisfied before people work on other needs. A. esteem B. physiological C. self-actualization D. safety Answer: B. physiological 52. Needs at the _______________ of Maslow's hierarchy are the strongest. A. top B. bottom C. middle D. top and at the bottom Answer: B. bottom 53. Loneliness is a sign that _______________ needs are not being satisfied. A. belongingness B. safety C. esteem D. self-actualization Answer: A. belongingness 54. Examples of esteem needs are A. food and air. B. shelter and security. C. respect and achievement. D. love and acceptance. Answer: C. respect and achievement. 55. What term best describes a person becoming everything he or she is capable of being? A. Self-actualization B. Self-esteem C. The idiographic approach D. Positive regard Answer: A. Self-actualization 56. Maslow thought that about _______________ percent of people are working primarily on self-actualization needs. A. 1 B. 10 C. 25 D. 50 Answer: A. 1 57. A study described in the text suggests that, according to Maslow's hierarchy, people working on higher level needs _______________ compared to people working on more basic needs. A. are less happy B. are happier C. are no different in terms of happiness D. sleep more Answer: C. are no different in terms of happiness 58. Maslow conducted case studies on individuals A. in over a dozen countries. B. he knew personally. C. he believed to be self-actualizing or self-actualized. D. at each of the hierarchically organized levels. Answer: C. he believed to be self-actualizing or self-actualized. 59. Who developed client-centered therapy? A. Rogers B. Maslow C. Murray D. McClelland Answer: A. Rogers 60. Rogers believed that the natural human state was to be A. miserable. B. slightly unhappy. C. fully self-actualized. D. fully functioning. Answer: D. fully functioning. 61. A fully functioning person A. has met physiological and safety needs. B. has achieved self-actualization. C. is moving towards self-actualization. D. rejects experiences that are incongruent with that person's goals. Answer: C. is moving towards self-actualization. 62. Rogers believed that _______________ have the potential to self-actualize. A. only those who undergo client-centered therapy B. very few people C. most people D. all people Answer: D. all people 63. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of self-actualizing people? A. They are spontaneous. B. They have an affinity for solitude. C. They are creative. D. They are well enculturated. Answer: D. They are well enculturated. 64. People who are self-actualizing are usually A. famous. B. wealthy. C. creative. D. All of these. Answer: C. creative. 65. Rogers described the need to be loved and accepted by parents and others as the desire for A. conditions of worth. B. positive regard. C. intimacy. D. attachment. Answer: B. positive regard. 66. A parent may withhold love from a child unless they earn good grades. Rogers would cite this as an example of A. bullying. B. positive regard. C. conditions of worth. D. low need for intimacy. Answer: C. conditions of worth. 67. According to Rogers, people who experience many conditions of worth may A. deny their feelings. B. work for the approval of others. C. distort their shortcomings. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 68. According to Rogers, good parents should A. give their children unconditional positive regard. B. set firm expectations for their children. C. try to self-actualize their child. D. All of these. Answer: A. give their children unconditional positive regard. 69. People who accept their weaknesses and shortcomings probably experience A. conditions of worth. B. unconditional positive self-regard. C. positive regard. D. conditional positive regard. Answer: B. unconditional positive self-regard. 70. According to Rogers, anxiety is the result of A. positive regard. B. distorting one's experiences. C. experiences that do not fit with one's self-concept. D. conditions of worth. Answer: C. experiences that do not fit with one's self-concept. 71. In order to reduce your anxiety, Rogers would recommend that you A. change your self-concept. B. engage in distortion. C. use more empathy. D. All of these. Answer: A. change your self-concept. 72. The term that best describes altering an experience to reduce threat is A. conditions of worth. B. distortion. C. anxiety. D. reflection. Answer: B. distortion. 73. Which of the following defense mechanisms did Rogers theorize? A. Reaction formation B. Sublimation C. Distortion D. Projection Answer: C. Distortion 74. By doing client-centered therapy, Rogers attempted to A. get a person back on the path to self-actualization. B. interpret a person's problems. C. solve a person's problems. D. All of these. Answer: A. get a person back on the path to self-actualization. 75. Which of the following are necessary conditions for client-centered therapy? A. Unconditional positive regard B. Genuine acceptance C. Empathic understanding D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 76. Which of the following provides the best metaphor for client-centered therapy? A. A mirror B. A steamroller C. A puzzle D. A textbook Answer: A. A mirror 77. The term that best describes understanding a person from his or her point of view is A. positive regard. B. genuine acceptance. C. empathy. D. reflection. Answer: C. empathy. 78. Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a client-centered therapist? A. It sounds like you are feeling angry. B. Your super-ego controls your actions. C. You must have experienced conditions of worth as a child. D. You need to stop denying and start self-actualizing. Answer: A. It sounds like you are feeling angry. 79. Which of the following statements about empathy is supported by research? A. Empathy is moderately heritable. B. Empathy can be effectively taught. C. It is easier to teach empathy to women than to men. D. All of these. Answer: B. Empathy can be effectively taught. 80. Research suggests that people who score high on measures of empathy A. are better at giving positive regard. B. tend to be male. C. are more accurate in guessing what others are thinking and feeling. D. cannot improve their empathy skills with practice. Answer: C. are more accurate in guessing what others are thinking and feeling. Chapter 12 Cognitive Topics in Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT an important topic in the cognitive/experiential domain? A. Identifying the major traits of personality. B. People's subjective experience of self. C. Emotions. D. The ways people perceive their environment. Answer: A. Identifying the major traits of personality. 2. _______________ an important aspect of the self. A. The ways people evaluate their self-worth is B. Social roles are C. Identity is D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 3. _______________ best tell us which things are important to people. A. Traits B. Emotions C. Self-esteem levels D. Perceptions Answer: B. Emotions 4. According to the Court, Amadou Diallo was shot by police officers A. because he perceived them as a threat. B. because he shot at them. C. because of cognitive errors in the officers' perception. D. All of these. Answer: C. because of cognitive errors in the officers' perception. 5. A person who relates a new event to past experiences is engaging in A. personalizing cognition. B. objectifying cognition. C. causal attribution. D. defensive pessimism. Answer: A. personalizing cognition. 6. A woman who states that skydiving reminds her of riding roller coasters is said to be engaging in A. personalizing cognition. B. objectifying cognition. C. attributional cognition. D. interpretation. Answer: A. personalizing cognition. 7. A person who recalls factual information in response to a new event is engaging in A. personalizing cognition. B. objectifying cognition. C. causal attribution. D. defensive pessimism. Answer: B. objectifying cognition. 8. A man who recalls that a cup of milk contains 130 calories when he pours a glass of milk is said to be engaging in A. personalizing cognition. B. objectifying cognition. C. attributional cognition. D. interpretation. Answer: B. objectifying cognition. 9. _______________ is a general term to refer to awareness, thinking, and other mental acts. A. Strategies B. Explanatory style C. Cognition D. Perception Answer: C. Cognition 10. _______________ describes the transformation of sensory information to mental representations, and the manipulation of those representations. A. Explanatory style B. Life tasks C. Interpretation D. Information processing Answer: D. Information processing 11. People who see a Necker Cube differently are showing differences in A. objectifying cognitions. B. personalizing cognitions. C. perception. D. learned helplessness. Answer: C. perception. 12. The process of _______________ refers to making sense of or explaining events in the world. A. interpretation B. perception C. learned helplessness D. augmenting Answer: A. interpretation 13. Differences in responses to the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) are the result of differences in A. perception. B. learned helplessness. C. memory. D. interpretation. Answer: D. interpretation. 14. People use _______________ to evaluate themselves. A. beliefs and desires B. perception C. interpretation D. personalizing cognition Answer: A. beliefs and desires 15. Individual differences can be observed in all of these EXCEPT A. perception. B. interpretation. C. beliefs and desires. D. None of these. Answer: D. None of these. 16. Herman Witkin introduced the idea of A. defensive pessimism. B. field dependence versus field independence. C. learned helplessness. D. life tasks. Answer: B. field dependence versus field independence. 17. The Rod and Frame Test (RFT) has been used to assess A. defensive pessimism. B. field dependence versus field independence. C. learned helplessness. D. life tasks. Answer: B. field dependence versus field independence. 18. A person who "sees the trees rather than the forest" is said to be A. a defensive pessimist. B. field-dependent. C. field-independent. D. an optimist. Answer: C. field-independent. 19. Field-dependent people A. pay more attention to visual cues than field-independent people. B. pay less attention to visual cues than field-independent people. C. do not differ from field-independent people with regard to using visual cues. D. are less successful than field-independent people. Answer: A. pay more attention to visual cues than field-independent people. 20. _______________ measure(s) field dependence versus field dependence. A. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) B. The Rod and Frame Test (RFT) C. The Embedded Figures Test (EFT) D. Both the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) Answer: D. Both the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) 21. An advantage of the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) over the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) is that A. the EFT measures field-dependence/independence better than the RFT. B. the EFT is much easier to give than the RFT. C. the EFT is more valid than the RFT. D. All of these. Answer: B. the EFT is much easier to give than the RFT. 22. Which of the following college majors would be MOST likely to have many field-independent people? A. Journalism B. History C. Sociology D. Physics Answer: D. Physics 23. _______________ tend to be more sociable than _______________. A. Individuals with an external locus of control; those with an internal locus of control B. Individuals with an internal locus of control; those with an external locus of control C. Field-independent individuals; those who are field-dependent D. Field-dependent individuals; those who are field-independent Answer: D. Field-dependent individuals; those who are field-independent 24. A study by Vrij et al. suggests that field-independent police officers, compared to field-dependent police officers, A. notice fewer details under distracting conditions. B. remember more details encoded under distracting conditions. C. generally perform worse under distraction conditions. D. hit fewer targets in simulated shooting tasks. Answer: B. remember more details encoded under distracting conditions. 25. Students who are _______________ are especially good at seeing connections between different categories. A. field-dependent B. field-independent C. both field dependent and field independent D. intelligent Answer: A. field-dependent 26. Pain tolerance has been studied with respect to A. field-dependence versus field-independence. B. explanatory style. C. life tasks. D. reducing or augmenting pain. Answer: D. reducing or augmenting pain. 27. The person most associated with research on reducing/augmenting is A. Goleman. B. Petrie. C. Seligman. D. Witkin. Answer: B. Petrie. 28. _______________ seek out more stimulation than _______________. A. Reducers; augmenters B. Augmenters; reducers C. Field-independent people; field-dependent people D. Field-dependent people; field-independent people Answer: A. Reducers; augmenters 29. Who argued that people construct explanations for the events in their lives just as scientists construct explanations for phenomena in the laboratory? A. Aneseth Petrie B. George Kelly C. Julian Rotter D. None of these Answer: B. George Kelly 30. Which of the following is NOT a construct? A. Gravity B. Anxiety C. Intelligence D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 31. "Post-modernism" in psychology can be summarized as A. "Perception is not necessarily reality." B. "Experience defines reality." C. "Reality is constructed, and so there are many different views of reality." D. "There is no spoon." Answer: C. "Reality is constructed, and so there are many different views of reality." 32. According to Rotter, people differ in A. their expectations that a course of action will lead to a reinforcement. B. the value they place on a given reinforcement. C. whether or not their actions influence events. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 33. Generalized expectancies are A. characteristics of a situation that can be applied generally. B. perceptions that generalize from one situation to the next. C. expectations for reinforcement held across a variety of situations. D. None of these. Answer: C. expectations for reinforcement held across a variety of situations. 34. Which of the following is NOT an example of a generalized expectancy? A. The belief that people are solely responsible for their actions. B. The belief that all tests are unfair. C. The belief that good things happen to lucky people. D. None of these. They are all examples of generalized expectancy. Answer: D. None of these. They are all examples of generalized expectancy. 35. People who take personal responsibility for events A. are field-independent. B. are field-dependent. C. have an internal locus of control. D. have an external locus of control. Answer: C. have an internal locus of control. 36. A person who believes that luck plays an important part in her or his life has a(n) A. internal locus of control. B. external locus of control. C. supernatural explanatory style. D. naturalistic explanatory style. Answer: B. external locus of control. 37. People with a(n) _______________ are more likely to be active in taking charge of circumstances in their lives. A. internal locus of control B. external locus of control C. global explanatory style D. stable explanatory style Answer: A. internal locus of control 38. It is probably less adaptive to have an internal locus of control A. in the domain of health behaviors. B. in academic domains. C. when negative events are not controllable. D. All of these. Answer: C. when negative events are not controllable. 39. _______________ is observed when people passively endure an uncomfortable situation. A. Learned helplessness B. Passive endurance C. Internalized anxiety D. "Freezing" Answer: A. Learned helplessness 40. Participants who were first exposed to problems without solutions later A. completed more problems that did have solutions. B. completed fewer problems that did have solutions. C. demonstrated the concept of learned helplessness. D. completed fewer problems with solutions and demonstrated learned helplessness. Answer: D. completed fewer problems with solutions and demonstrated learned helplessness. 41. The reformulated learned helplessness model focuses on individuals' A. perceptions of events. B. memories of events. C. explanations of events. D. learning styles. Answer: C. explanations of events. 42. _______________ refers to the way people explain why events occur. A. Causal attribution B. Learned helplessness C. Field independence D. Perception Answer: A. Causal attribution 43. A person who takes personal credit for choosing winning lottery numbers probably has a(n) _______________ explanatory style. A. internal B. external C. stable D. unstable Answer: A. internal 44. A student who attributes his failure to get into a graduate school as due to the fact that he was sick on the day of his interview has a(n) _______________ explanatory style. A. specific B. global C. unstable D. stable Answer: C. unstable 45. A women who concludes that all men are untrustworthy after her husband was unfaithful has an _______________ explanatory style. A. specific B. global C. unstable D. stable Answer: B. global 46. The "pessimistic explanatory style" is defined as making _______________ attributions for negative events. A. external, stable, and specific B. internal, stable, and specific C. internal, temporary, and global D. internal, stable, and global Answer: D. internal, stable, and global 47. A pessimistic explanatory style has been shown to be associated with all of the following EXCEPT A. aggressiveness. B. poor health. C. mortality. D. lowered immunocompetence. Answer: A. aggressiveness. 48. A set of relevant actions intended to achieve a goal that the person has selected is known as a(n) A. explanatory style. B. causal attribution. C. personal project. D. outcome-focused strategy. Answer: C. personal project. 49. Personal projects analysis often addresses A. the likelihood that goals will be met. B. the difficulty of meeting the goals. C. the personal importance of goals. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. 50. People who score high on _______________ rate their personal projects as stressful and difficult. A. psychoticism B. conscientiousness C. neuroticism D. All of these Answer: C. neuroticism 51. People who rate their personal projects _______________ are generally more satisfied with life. A. as stressful B. optimistically C. as within their control D. optimistically and within their control Answer: D. optimistically and within their control 52. The concept of intelligence that emphasizes the amount of knowledge one has gained is known as _______________ intelligence. A. achievement B. aptitude C. general D. multiple Answer: A. achievement 53. IQ tests have usually been interpreted as measures of A. achievement intelligence. B. aptitude intelligence. C. emotional intelligence. D. All of these. Answer: B. aptitude intelligence. 54. _______________ intelligence is the term that most refers to a single broad factor of intelligence. A. Achievement B. Aptitude C. General D. Emotional Answer: C. General 55. The name most associated with the idea of multiple intelligences is A. Gardner. B. Cantor. C. Petrie. D. Witkin. Answer: A. Gardner. 56. The ability to control one's impulses is considered an aspect of _______________ intelligence. A. emotional B. aptitude C. kinesthetic D. interpersonal Answer: A. emotional 57. A person who scores low in _______________ may do well in school, but have difficulty in most other areas of life. A. kinesthetic intelligence B. aptitude intelligence C. emotional intelligence D. All of these Answer: C. emotional intelligence 58. Some researchers feel that the abilities Gardner calls "intelligences" are correlated enough with each other to A. represent only three distinct intelligences—verbal, quantitative, and analytical. B. warrant more distinct types of intelligence. C. justify thinking of intelligence as a general factor. D. justify thinking of intelligence as an abstract concept that cannot be studied. Answer: C. justify thinking of intelligence as a general factor. 59. What is defined as "intelligent behavior" A. is consistent across cultures. B. differs across cultures. C. is only found in Western cultures. D. None of these. Answer: B. differs across cultures. 60. _______________ refers to the time it takes to make a simple discrimination between two displayed objects. A. Inspection time B. Reaction time C. Discrimination effort D. Examination time Answer: A. Inspection time 61. Which of the following are debated among intelligence researchers? A. Whether intelligence can be measured accurately. B. Whether measures of intelligence are biased to favor some individuals. C. Whether different racial groups differ with respect to intelligence. D. All of these. Answer: D. All of these. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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