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This Document Contains Chapters 11 to 12 Chapter 11: Payment Systems for Electronic Commerce 1. The use of mobile telephone carriers as a micropayment system has been held back by the mobile carriers’ substantial charges for providing the service. a. True b. False Answer: True 2. Credit cards provide assurances for both the consumer and the merchant. a. True b. False Answer: True 3. Online and telephone purchases include a minimal degree of risk for merchants and banks. a. True b. False Answer: False 4. A debit card removes the amount of the sale from the cardholder's bank account and transfers it to the seller's bank account. a. True b. False Answer: True 5. American Express and Discover Card are examples of open loop systems. a. True b. False Answer: False 6. The level of fraud in online transactions is much lower than either in-person or telephone transactions of the same nature. a. True b. False Answer: False 7. A front-end processor handles chargebacks and any other reconciliation items through the interchange network and the acquiring and issuing banks. a. True b. False Answer: False 8. Credit card issuers charge interest on any unpaid balance. a. True b. False Answer: True 9. Charge cards involve lines of credit and accumulate interest charges. a. True b. False Answer: False 10. Concerns about electronic payment methods include privacy and security, independence, portability, and convenience. a. True b. False Answer: True 11. Digital cash can be easily traced back to its origin. a. True b. False Answer: False 12. In an online cash storage system, a trusted third party, such as an online bank, coordinates all transfers of digital cash and holds the consumers’ cash accounts. a. True b. False Answer: True 13. In an online storage system, the merchant must contact the consumer’s bank to receive payment for a purchase. a. True b. False Answer: True 14. A two-part lock provides anonymous security but signals when someone is attempting to double spend cash. a. True b. False Answer: True 15. For merchants, payment cards provide fraud protection. a. True b. False Answer: True 16. Payment card service companies charge merchants per-transaction fees and monthly processing fees for processing payments. a. True b. False Answer: True 17. Digital cash ought to be anonymous, just as currency is. a. True b. False Answer: True 18. Using digital cash provides an audit trail. a. True b. False Answer: False 19. Offline cash storage is similar to money kept in a wallet. a. True b. False Answer: True 20. In an offline cash storage system, a consumer does not personally possess digital cash, instead a trusted party holds the consumers' cash accounts. a. True b. False Answer: False 21. Smart cards are safer than magnetic strip credit cards because the information stored on a smart card can be encrypted. a. True b. False Answer: True 22. The Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act permits banks to eliminate the movement of physical checks entirely. a. True b. False Answer: True 23. Typically, server-side digital wallets store a customer's information on the customer's computer. a. True b. False Answer: False 24. Magnetic strip cards can send and receive information. a. True b. False Answer: False 25. A disadvantage of using paper checks is the delay that occurs between the time that a person writes a check and the time that check clears the person’s bank. a. True b. False Answer: True 26. Internet payments for items costing from a few cents to approximately a dollar are called _________. a. double spending b. micropayments c. money laundering d. chargebacks Answer: b 27. The term _________ refers to all payments less than $10. a. mini payments b. small payments c. mini transactions d. microtransactions Answer: b 28. Which of the following is true about credit cards? a. It has no spending limit. b. It has no interest charged on unpaid balances. c. It is the same as a charge card. d. It protects the consumer by an automatic 30-day dispute period. Answer: d 29. Payment cards with disposable numbers are known as _________. a. charge cards b. single-use cards c. credit cards d. store-branded cards Answer: b 30. _________ are also called "electronic funds transfer at point of sale cards," especially outside the United States. a. Debit cards b. Credit cards c. Gift cards d. Prepaid cards Answer: a 31. A _________, offered by companies such as American Express, carries no spending limit, and the entire amount billed to the card is due at the end of the billing period. a. credit card b. charge card c. debit card d. smart card Answer: b 32. A _________ handles chargebacks and any other reconciliation items. a. front-end processor b. back-end processor c. clearing house d. payment gateway Answer: b 33. A set of connections between banks that issue credit cards, the associations that own the credit cards, and merchants’ banks is called a(n) _________. a. check processing system b. zombie farm c. interchange network d. near field communication system Answer: c 34. In the context of payment acceptance and processing, closed loop systems: a. include additional payment processing units. b. involve paying the merchants directly. c. work similar to an open loop system. d. make use of an intermediary, such as a bank. Answer: b 35. Whenever additional parties are included in payment card transaction processing, the system is called a(n) _________ system. a. open loop b. offline transaction c. point of purchase d. direct payment Answer: a 36. A(n) _________ is a bank that does business with sellers that want to accept payment cards. a. issuing bank b. acquiring bank c. mortgage bank d. advising bank Answer: b 37. When a cardholder successfully contests a charge, the acquiring bank must retrieve the money it placed in the merchant account in a process called a _________. a. click-through b. chargeback c. dispute d. recharge Answer: b 38. In the context of fees deducted by acquiring banks, _________ are charged at rates which depend on the merchant's industry. a. acquirer fees b. interchange fees c. chargeback fees d. interest fees Answer: b 39. Some online merchants accept direct deductions from customers’ checking accounts which are done through a network of banks called the _________. a. Automated Cash Holding b. acquiring banks c. Automated Clearing House d. issuing banks Answer: c 40. A _________ obtains authorization for a payment card transaction by sending the transaction’s details to the interchange network and storing a record of the approval or denial. a. back-end processor b. front-end processor c. server-side digital wallet d. client-side digital wallet Answer: b 41. Anonymous digital cash is digital cash that cannot be: a. handled by a trusted third party. b. held in online storage systems. c. traced back to the person who spent it. d. served as a substitute for government-issued physical currency. Answer: c 42. _________ is spending a particular piece of electronic cash twice by submitting the same electronic currency to two different vendors. a. Double spending b. Blind signing c. Money laundering d. Spear phishing Answer: a 43. A _________ stores information on a customer's computer. a. server-side digital wallet b. client-side digital wallet c. hardware-based digital wallet d. mobile-based digital wallet Answer: b 44. A _________ requires no download time or installation on a user’s computer. a. server-side digital wallet b. client-side digital wallet c. hardware-based digital wallet d. mobile-based digital wallet Answer: a 45. A _________ is a stored-value card with an embedded microchip that can store information. a. credit card b. debit card c. charge card d. smart card Answer: d 46. With a(n) _________, credit theft is much more difficult because the key to unlock the encrypted information is a PIN. a. smart card b. debit card c. credit card d. identification card Answer: a 47. The delay that occurs between the time that a person writes a check and the time that check clears the person’s bank is known as _________. a. load b. payback c. prepayment d. float Answer: d 48. The basic structure of a _________ involves a perpetrator who sends e-mail messages to a large number of recipients who might have an account at a targeted Web site. a. due diligence process b. money laundering process c. phishing attack d. chargeback scheme Answer: c 49. _________ is a criminal act in which the perpetrator gathers personal information about a victim and then uses that information to obtain credit. a. Pharming b. Identity theft c. Due diligence d. Money laundering Answer: b 50. A _________ can be used as a hardware-based digital wallet. a. database b. personal computer c. server d. smartphone Answer: d 51. With a(n) _________, a user can pay off the entire card balance or pay a minimum amount each billing period. Answer: credit card 52. Businesspeople often use the term _________ as a general term to describe all types of plastic cards that consumers use to make purchases. Answer: payment card 53. Prepaid cards sold with the intention that they be given as presents are called _________. Answer: gift cards 54. _________ are responsible for evaluating their customers’ credit standings and establishing appropriate individual credit limits. Answer: Customer issuing banks Issuing banks 55. Visa and MasterCard are _________ that are operated by the banks which issue credit cards to individual customers. Answer: credit card associations 56. To process payment cards for Internet transactions, an online merchant must set up a(n) _________ with an acquiring bank. Answer: merchant account 57. _________ are fees charged by banks for providing payment card processing services to merchants. Answer: Acquirer fees 58. _________ is a general term that describes any value storage and exchange system created by a private entity that does not use paper documents or coins and that can serve as a substitute for government-issued physical currency. Answer: Electronic cash E-cash Digital cash 59. _________ allows for contactless data transmission over short distances and can also be used if a smartphone is equipped with a chip similar to those that have been used on payment cards for a number of years. Answer: Near field communication Near field communication (NFC) NFC 60. _________ is a technique used by criminals to convert money that they have obtained illegally into cash that they can spend without having it identified as the proceeds of an illegal activity. Answer: Money laundering 61. _________ can be accomplished by purchasing goods or services with ill-gotten electronic cash and selling them for physical cash on the open market. Answer: Money laundering 62. When a bank buys accounts from another bank, it performs a series of procedures called _________, which include checking the new customers' credit histories and banking records. Answer: due diligence 63. Near field communication chips embedded in mobile phones are called Osaifu-Keitai in Japan, which translates approximately to _________. Answer: mobile wallet 64. A(n) _________, serving a function similar to a physical wallet, holds credit card numbers, electronic cash, owner identification, and other owner contact information. Answer: digital wallet electronic wallet e-wallet 65. Google Wallet, Microsoft Windows Live ID, and Yahoo! Wallet are examples of _________ digital wallets. Answer: server-side 66. Google Wallet, which uses the _________ technology that MasterCard developed for its credit cards, is available for mobile devices. Answer: PayPass 67. In phishing, _________ use the collected information. Answer: cashers 68. _________ are cards that hold value that can be recharged by inserting them into the appropriate machines, inserting currency into the machine, and withdrawing the card; the card’s strip stores the increased cash value. Answer: Magnetic strip cards 69. A(n) _________, also called a stored-value card, can store more than 100 times the amount of information that a magnetic strip plastic card can store. Answer: smart card 70. A _________ is a three- or four-digit number printed on a credit card, and is required for card not present transactions. Answer: card verification number (CVN) card security code (CSC) card verification data (CVD) card verification value (CVV) card verification value (CV2) card verification value code (CVVC) card verification code (CVC) verification code (V-Code) card code verification (CCV) 71. In phishing, the collection of information is done by _________. Answer: collectors 72. _________ are created when a hacker plants zombie programs on a large number of computers. Answer: Zombie farms 73. When the right to use a zombie farm is sold to an organized crime association that wants to launch a phishing attack, the attack is called a(n) _________. Answer: pharming attack 74. When the e-mails used in a phishing expedition are carefully designed to target a particular person or organization, the exploit is called _________. Answer: spear phishing 75. U.S. laws define _________, as unlawful activities conducted by a highly organized, disciplined association for profit. Answer: racketeering organized crime 76. What is the difference between a credit card and a charge card? Answer: A credit card, such as Visa or a MasterCard, has a spending limit based on the user’s credit history. A user can pay off the entire credit card balance or pay a minimum amount each billing period. Credit card issuers charge interest on any unpaid balance. A charge card, offered by companies such as American Express, carries no spending limit, and the entire amount charged to the card is due at the end of the billing period. Charge cards do not involve lines of credit and do not accumulate interest charges. 77. What are the advantages and disadvantages of payment cards? Answer: For merchants, payment cards provide fraud protection. When a merchant accepts payment cards for online payment or for orders placed over the telephone, the merchant can authenticate and authorize purchases using an interchange network. Payment card service companies do charge merchants per-transaction fees and monthly processing fees for processing payments, however, merchants consider them as a necessary cost of doing business. The consumer pays no per-transaction fees for using payment cards, but the prices of goods and services are slightly higher than they would be in an environment free of payment cards. Some credit cards and a few debit cards and charge cards assess consumers an annual fee. 78. Processing a payment card transaction online involves two general processes. Describe these processes. Answer: Processing a payment card transaction online involves two general processes, the acceptance of payment and clearing the transaction. Payment acceptance includes the steps necessary to determine that the card is valid and that the transaction will not exceed any credit limit that might exist for the card. Clearing the transaction includes all of the steps needed to move the funds from the card holder’s bank account into the merchant’s bank account. 79. What are the disadvantages of using paper checks? Answer: The cost of transporting tons of paper checks around the country has grown each year. In addition to the transportation costs, another disadvantage of using paper checks is the delay that occurs between the time that a person writes a check and the time that check clears the person’s bank. 80. How are phishing attacks used for identity theft? Answer: The Internet has opened new opportunities for organized crime in its traditional types of criminal activities and in new areas such as generating spam, phishing, and identity theft. Identity theft is a criminal act in which the perpetrator gathers personal information about a victim and then uses that information to obtain credit. After establishing credit accounts, the perpetrator runs up charges on the accounts and then disappears. Large criminal organizations can be highly efficient perpetrators of identity theft because they can exploit large amounts of personal information very quickly and efficiently. These organizations can use phishing attacks to gather personal information and then use it to perpetrate identity theft and other crimes. Chapter 12: Managing Electronic Commerce Implementations 1. The keys to successful implementation of any information technology project are planning and execution. a. True b. False Answer: True 2. A successful business plan for an electronic commerce initiative should include activities that identify the initiative’s specific objectives and link those objectives to business strategies. a. True b. False Answer: True 3. Organizations of different sizes will have different objectives for their electronic commerce initiatives. a. True b. False Answer: True 4. The rapid changes in hardware and software technologies simplify the estimation of information technology project costs. a. True b. False Answer: False 5. Opportunity costs show up in the accounting records of a firm. a. True b. False Answer: False 6. Increased customer satisfaction is a tangible benefit of electronic commerce. a. True b. False Answer: False 7. In the context of assessing the benefits of electronic commerce, auction sites can set goals for the number of bidders and sellers. a. True b. False Answer: True 8. Total cost of ownership techniques measure the amount of income that will be provided by a specific current expenditure. a. True b. False Answer: False 9. Return on investment measurements can be biased in a way that gives undue weight to costs because it is usually easier to quantify costs than benefits. a. True b. False Answer: True 10. Return on investment focuses on benefits that cannot be predicted. a. True b. False Answer: False 11. A weakness of return on investment is that it tends to emphasize short-run benefits over long-run benefits. a. True b. False Answer: True 12. An online business initiative’s success depends on it being integrated into the activities in which the business is already engaged. a. True b. False Answer: True 13. When measuring the achievements of the internal team of an electronic commerce project, measurements must be monetary. a. True b. False Answer: False 14. The first step in determining which parts of an electronic commerce project to outsource is to create an internal team that is responsible for the project. a. True b. False Answer: True 15. Old-style technology development incubators have yielded much better results than strategic partner incubators. a. True b. False Answer: False 16. Companies hire content creators to create content that is specific for their Web sites. a. True b. False Answer: True 17. The internal team of an organization decides which parts of a project to outsource. a. True b. False Answer: True 18. If the benefits exceed the costs of a project by a comfortable margin, the company invests in the project. a. True b. False Answer: True 19. The information used in project portfolio management differs somewhat from the information used to manage specific projects. a. True b. False Answer: True 20. Project management software tracks the details of how each project is accomplishing its specific goals. a. True b. False Answer: True 21. Project management software is limited to managing the people and tasks of an internal team and does not extend to external stakeholders. a. True b. False Answer: False 22. The development times for all electronic commerce projects are relatively long. a. True b. False Answer: True 23. Electronic commerce initiatives are, in general, more successful than other types of information systems implementations. a. True b. False Answer: True 24. The internal team of an organization must determine the staffing needs of the electronic commerce initiative. a. True b. False Answer: True 25. A postimplementation audit should result in a comprehensive report that analyzes the project’s overall performance. a. True b. False Answer: True 26. _________ can be used to improve the value that the business provides to its customers by working with the customers. a. Cost reduction strategies b. Downstream strategies c. Upstream strategies d. Purchasing strategies Answer: b 27. _________ focus on reducing costs or generating value by working with suppliers or inbound shipping and freight service providers. a. Horizontal integration strategies b. Vertical integration strategies c. Downstream strategies d. Upstream strategies Answer: d 28. The _________ of an electronic commerce implementation includes the costs of hardware, software, Internet connections, design work outsourced, salaries and benefits for employees involved in the project, and the cost of maintaining the site once it is operational. a. total cost of ownership b. change management cost c. top line cost d. opportunity cost Answer: a 29. Identify a true statement about opportunity cost. a. It excludes the value of customers never obtained. b. It includes cost reductions not achieved in the company's supply chain. c. It excludes the costs of sales not made. d. It includes the benefits that a company obtains from an electronic commerce initiative. Answer: b 30. Which of the following techniques measures the amount of income that will be provided by a specific current expenditure? a. Optimal Inventory Analysis b. Cost analysis c. Total cost of ownership d. Return on Investment Answer: d 31. _________ is an example of a return on investment technique. a. Downstream strategy b. Revenue analysis c. Total cost of ownership d. Net present value Answer: d 32. Finding a contractor who can handle an entire project for a company is known as _________. a. outsourcing b. liaising c. coaching d. lobbying Answer: a 33. The approach in which an outsourcing team trains a company’s information systems professionals in a new technology before handing the operation of a site over to them is known as _________. a. partial outsourcing b. late outsourcing c. full outsourcing d. early outsourcing Answer: d 34. In _________, a company identifies specific portions of the project that can be completely designed, developed, implemented, and operated by another firm that specializes in a particular function. a. partial outsourcing b. late outsourcing c. insourcing d. onshoring Answer: a 35. A(n) _________ is a company that offers start-up companies a physical location with offices, accounting and legal assistance, computers, and Internet connections at a very low monthly cost. a. public relations firm b. incubator c. distributor d. venture capital firm Answer: b 36. A company’s top technology manager is its _________. a. operations manager b. human resource manager c. systems analyst d. chief information officer Answer: d 37. _________ is an example of a commercial project management software product. a. Oracle Linux b. Microsoft Silverlight c. Microsoft Office d. Oracle Primavera Answer: d 38. A downside of using internal incubators for technology development is that: a. technology developed by the company would be controlled by the parent company. b. the company has to reinvest in a new incubator candidate if the existing one has obtained venture capital financing. c. the company has to develop technology which will not be used by their own business operations. d. technology developed in the incubator will never be launched. Answer: a 39. The value of the accumulated mass of employees' knowledge about the business and its processes is known as _________. a. stock value b. intellectual capital c. return on investment d. total cost of ownership Answer: b 40. An approach of outsourcing the maintenance of an electronic commerce system after it has become a stable part of business operations of a company is called _________. a. partial outsourcing b. early outsourcing c. late outsourcing d. component outsourcing Answer: c 41. Project management is best defined as: a. a technique in which each project is monitored as if it were an investment in a financial portfolio. b. the process of helping employees cope with changes in an information system project. c. a collection of formal techniques for planning and controlling the activities undertaken to achieve a specific goal. d. a formal review of a project after it is up and running to gather lessons learned from both successful and unsuccessful projects. Answer: c 42. A(n) _________ should be a member of the internal team that sets the objectives for the project in case specific proposals for plan modifications and additional funding need to be made later on. a. business manager b. Web programmer c. application specialist d. content creator Answer: a 43. A(n) _________ is a person with specific training or skills in tracking costs and the accomplishment of specific objectives in an electronic commerce initiative. a. Web programmer b. content manager c. project manager d. application programmer Answer: c 44. A(n) _________ is responsible for keeping track of multiple Web sites in use by a project or keeping track of the projects that will combine to create a larger Web site. a. Web graphics designer b. account manager c. chief information officer d. Web programmer Answer: b 45. A(n) _________ must ensure that the Web pages on a site are visually appealing or easy to use. a. Web graphics designer b. Web programmer c. systems administrator d. application specialist Answer: a 46. _________ design and write the underlying code for dynamic database-driven Web pages. a. Content creators b. Web graphics designers c. Content editors d. Web programmers Answer: d 47. A(n) _________ is defined as a company that handles incoming customer telephone calls and e-mails for other companies. a. auditing firm b. call center c. recruiter d. incubator Answer: b 48. The _________ staff functions include load estimation and load monitoring and designing and implementing fault-resistant technologies. a. call center b. content creation c. database administration d. network operations Answer: d 49. Most electronic commerce sites require a _________ function to support activities such as transaction processing, order entry, inquiry management, or shipment logistics. a. graphics design b. database administration c. content management d. content creation Answer: b 50. A _________ is a formal review of a project after it is up and running. a. postimplementation audit b. project management c. specific staffing d. project portfolio management Answer: a 51. Measurements that companies can make to assess the value of benefits to the company are often called _________. Answer: metrics 52. _________ are the foregone benefits that a company could have obtained from an electronic commerce initiative that they chose not to pursue. Answer: Opportunity costs 53. A company sells stock to the public in an event called a(n) _________. Answer: initial public offering initial public offering (IPO) IPO 54. The major investments in equipment, personnel, and other assets, in a company, are called _________. Answer: capital projects capital investments 55. Wealthy individuals, groups of wealthy individuals, or investment firms that look for small companies that are about to grow rapidly and invest large amounts of money in them are known as _________. Answer: venture capitalists 56. Partial outsourcing is also called _________. Answer: component outsourcing 57. Open Workbench, OpenProj, and Redmine are open-source _________ software packages that offer many of the same features as the leading commercial products. Answer: project management 58. One of the first Internet incubators was _________, which helped launch companies such as CarsDirect.com, Overture, and Tickets.com. Answer: Idea lab 59. Today, managers use specific application software called _________ to help them oversee projects. Answer: project management software 60. _________ is a technique in which each project is monitored as if it were an investment in a financial portfolio. Answer: Project portfolio management 61. In the context of staffing for electronic commerce, a(n) _________ is responsible for managing the virtual community elements of the Web operation. Answer: social networking administrator 62. In the context of project management, in _________, the chief information officer assigns a ranking for each project based on its importance to the strategic goals of the business and its level of risk. Answer: project portfolio management 63. The _________ of an organization specializes in the specific techniques used to build brands and increase market share using the Web site and other online tools, such as e-mail marketing. Answer: online marketing manager 64. The _________ version is the “under construction” version of a Web site, which gives the company a place to make sure that each new feature works before exposing it to customers. Answer: test 65. The _________ version of a Web site is the full operating version of the site that is available to customers and other visitors. Answer: production 66. The _________ version of a Web site has features that have passed testing and must be presented by an internal audience for approval. Answer: demonstration 67. Online businesses that are _________ companies cannot, in general, borrow from a bank or offer bonds or stock to investors. Answer: startup 68. Businesspersons who have enough money and business knowledge to evaluate an idea's potential and provide the initial capital to a startup and hope to profit from its rapid growth are called _________. Answer: angel investors 69. _________ are responsible for purchasing existing material and adapting it for use on Web sites. Answer: Content managers Content editors 70. A(n) _________ is a person trained in art, layout, and composition and who also understands how Web pages are constructed. Answer: Web graphics designer 71. The _________,who understands the server hardware and operating system, is responsible for the system’s reliable and secure operation. Answer: systems administrator 72. _________ personnel help design and implement customer relationship management activities in the electronic commerce operation. Answer: Customer service 73. A postimplementation audit is also called a(n) _________. Answer: post audit review 74. The kind of service provided to keep an electronic commerce site up and running throughout a day, all the days in a week, is often called _________. Answer: 24/7 operation 75. The process of helping employees cope with modifications in the workplace is called _________. Answer: change management 76. What are the most important factors to evaluate when selecting a hosting service? Answer: When considering hosting options for a Web site, a business must consider the functions it needs now and in the future, the reliability of the hosting provider, the volume of customers and transactions it needs to handle, security, provisions for backup, and the cost. 77. Briefly discuss the built-in biases in the return on investment, or ROI, technique that can lead managers to make poor decisions. Answer: First, ROI requires that all costs and benefits be stated in monetary units. Because it is usually easier to quantify costs than benefits, ROI measurements can be biased in a way that gives undue weight to costs. Second, ROI focuses on benefits that can be predicted. Many electronic commerce initiatives have returned benefits that were not foreseen by their planners. The benefits developed after the initiatives were in place. Another weakness of ROI is that it tends to emphasize short-run benefits over long-run benefits. The mathematics of ROI calculations do account for both correctly, but short-term benefits are easier to foresee, so they tend to get included in the ROI calculations. Long-term benefits are harder to imagine and quantify, so they tend to be included less often and less accurately in the ROI calculation. 78. What is the purpose of an incubator? Answer: An incubator is a company that offers start-up companies a physical location with offices, accounting and legal assistance, computers, and Internet connections at a very low monthly cost. Sometimes, the incubator offers seed money, management advice, and marketing assistance as well. In exchange, the incubator receives ownership interest in the company, typically between 10 percent and 50 percent. 79. Describe the process of partial outsourcing? Answer: In partial outsourcing, which is also called component outsourcing, a company identifies specific portions of a project that can be completely designed, developed, implemented, and operated by another firm that specializes in a particular function. For example, many smaller Web sites outsource their e-mail handling and response functions. Customers expect rapid and accurate responses to any e-mail inquiry they make of a Web site with which they are doing business. Many companies send the customer an automatic order confirmation by e-mail as soon as the order or credit card payment is accepted. A number of companies act as outsourcers by providing these e-mail auto response functions to other companies. 80. Describe the role of a business manager in electronic commerce initiatives. Answer: A business manager should be a member of the internal team that sets the objectives for the project. The business manager is responsible for implementing the elements of the business plan and reaching the objectives set by the internal team. If revisions to the plan are necessary as the project proceeds, the business manager develops specific proposals for plan modifications and additional funding and presents them to the internal team and top management for approval. The business manager should have experience and knowledge related to the business activity that is being implemented on the electronic commerce site. For example, if business managers are assigned to a retail consumer site, they should have experience managing a retail sales operation. Test Bank for Electronic Commerce Gary P. Schneider 9781285425436, 9781305867819, 9781133526827

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