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Chapter 10: Occupational Health and Safety
1. Safety and accident prevention concerns managers because
A. work-related accidents figures are staggering.
B. of global competition.
C. cutting costs is essential.
D. customer service is extremely important.
E. employees need to be motivated.
Answer: A. work-related accidents figures are staggering.
2. Surveys have shown that ____ percent of Canadians believe that workplace accidents are
inevitable.
A. 75
B. 52
C. 64
D. 61
E. 50
Answer: D. 61
3. Occupational health and safety legislation is based on the principle of
A. due diligence.
B. complexity.
C. participation.
D. joint responsibility.
E. education.
Answer: D. joint responsibility.
4. Occupational health and safety legislation falls into three categories. One of those
categories is
A. WHMIS.
B. workplace injuries.
C. rules for specific industries.
D. protective clothing.
E. safety inspections.
Answer: C. rules for specific industries.

5. The "due diligence" requirement in occupational health and safety legislation requires that
every reasonable precaution to ensure the health and safety of workers be taken by
A. employers.
B. safety associations.
C. employers and employees.
D. employees.
E. government.
Answer: A. employers.
6. If employees have "reasonable cause" to believe that work is dangerous, they have the
right under health and safety legislation to
A. ignore their concern.
B. file a lawsuit against the company.
C. ask someone else to do the work.
D. refuse to do the work.
E. go straight to the company president and complain.
Answer: D. refuse to do the work.
7. A supervisor at a mine site sent employees reporting to him into the mine even though he
had read a report stating that underground tremors were likely to occur during the time that
the employees were in the mine. Three hours into the employees' work shift, a significant
tremor occurred causing part of the mine to collapse. One employee was killed and three
others were seriously injured. Under what law could the supervisor be charged with a
criminal offense?
A. Employment Standards Act
B. Occupational Health and Safety Act
C. the Criminal Code
D. human rights legislation
E. employment standards Legislation
Answer: C. the Criminal Code
8. The function of joint health and safety committees is to provide a ________ atmosphere
where management and labour can work together to ensure a safe and healthy workplace.
A. structured
B. directive
C. non-adversarial

D. collegial
E. supportive
Answer: C. non-adversarial
9. Most occupational health and safety legislation in Canada has the following features in
common except for
A. joint health and safety committees.
B. enforcement of occupational health and safety laws.
C. responsibilities and rights of employers and employees.
D. control of toxic substances.
E. employee drug testing.
Answer: E. employee drug testing.
10. Health and safety hazard control can be achieved by all of the following except
A. addressing safety issues before injuries occur.
B. refusing to do unsafe work.
C. establishing procedures to ensure that a potential hazard will not reoccur.
D. identifying ways in which a hazardous situation can be prevented by workers.
E. addressing safety issues before accidents happen.
Answer: B. refusing to do unsafe work.
11. The responsibilities of occupational health and safety committees include all of the
following except
A. accident investigation.
B. investigation of employee complaints.
C. hazard identification.
D. paying for safety certification programs.
E. dissemination of information about health and safety laws and regulations.
Answer: D. paying for safety certification programs.
12. Occupational health and safety inspectors have all of the following powers except
A. issuing orders to stop work.
B. entering a workplace at any time without a warrant or prior notification.
C. imposing jail terms.
D. carrying out safety inspections of workplaces.

E. issuing orders to stop emission of contaminants.
Answer: C. imposing jail terms.
13. You are a newly hired human resources professional at a Canadian Border Services office
located near the Halifax Port. Employees often have to board container ships and search their
cargo. To which law do you look for Canada-wide standards on hazardous materials in the
workplace?
A. VDT/RSI
B. Bill C-45
C. MSDS
D. OHSA
E. WHMIS
Answer: E. WHMIS
14. The components of WHMIS are
A. public information sessions, MSDS, and employee training.
B. labelling of hazardous material, MSDS, and employee training.
C. labelling of hazardous material, public information sessions, and MSDS.
D. labelling of hazardous material and employee training.
E. MSDS and employee training.
Answer: B. labelling of hazardous material, MSDS, and employee training.
15. Every jurisdiction in Canada has an interlaced web of legislation that includes
A. human rights, labour relations, and employment standards.
B. labour relations and employment standards.
C. health and safety, human rights, labour relations, and employment standards.
D. health and safety, WHMIS, and employment standards.
E. health and safety and human rights.
Answer: C. health and safety, human rights, labour relations, and employment standards.
16. Most safety experts agree that safety commitment must begin with
A. the rank-and-file employee.
B. work teams.
C. the line supervisor.
D. top management.

E. middle management.
Answer: D. top management.
17. An attempt to reduce unsafe acts by workers will meet with little success without the
commitment of the critical link in the chain of management, namely
A. first-line supervisors.
B. government officials.
C. competitors.
D. company presidents.
E. safety inspectors.
Answer: A. first-line supervisors.
18. Which of the following are the main causes of accidents in organizations?
A. chance occurrences and unsafe conditions
B. unsafe acts on the part of employees
C. chance occurrences, unsafe conditions, and unsafe acts on the part of employees
D. ineffective health and safety committees and cost cutting
E. unsafe conditions and cost cutting
Answer: C. chance occurrences, unsafe conditions, and unsafe acts on the part of employees
19. Mechanical and physical conditions that cause accidents are referred to as
A. safety risks.
B. hazards.
C. toxic substances.
D. perils.
E. unsafe conditions.
Answer: E. unsafe conditions.
20. All of the following are unsafe conditions in a plant except
A. defective equipment.
B. improperly guarded equipment.
C. computers that are not protected from viruses.
D. hazardous procedures in, on, or around machines or equipment.
E. improper illumination such as glare and insufficient light.
Answer: C. computers that are not protected from viruses.

21. Common indicators of job hazards include all of the following except
A. employee modifications to workstations.
B. an increased number of accidents.
C. low levels of absenteeism and turnover.
D. poor product quality.
E. employee complaints.
Answer: C. low levels of absenteeism and turnover.
22. In addition to unsafe conditions, which of the following are work-related factors that
contribute to accidents?
A. the psychological climate of the workplace and the work itself
B. the job itself, the work schedule and the psychological climate of the workplace
C. the work schedule and the job itself
D. the work schedule and the psychological climate of the workplace
E. none of the above
Answer: B. the job itself, the work schedule and the psychological climate of the workplace
23. Many experts believe that the psychological climate of the workplace affects
A. labour relations.
B. the accident rate.
C. the external environmental workforce.
D. teamwork.
E. the management rights clause.
Answer: B. the accident rate.
24. Most safety experts and managers know that it is impossible to eliminate accidents just by
reducing
A. high-tech firms.
B. automation in the workplace.
C. hours of work.
D. unsafe conditions.
E. gross domestic product.
Answer: D. unsafe conditions.
25. Accidents can be caused by behaviour tendencies and undesirable attitudes that result in

A. occupational hazards.
B. unsafe human conditions.
C. accident-prone acts.
D. unsafe acts.
E. at-risk behaviours.
Answer: D. unsafe acts.
26. Personal characteristics, such as personality and motivation, serve as the basis for certain
unsafe "behaviour tendencies," such as
A. creating human resource plans and environmental forces.
B. deciding whether to join or not join a labour union.
C. focusing on detail rather than the "big picture."
D. formulating policy and creating norms.
E. the tendency to take risks.
Answer: E. the tendency to take risks.
27. A person who is accident prone on one job may not be on a different job. Thus, accident
proneness is
A. age-related.
B. situational.
C. inherited.
D. consistent.
E. unchanging.
Answer: B. situational.
28. Accidents are generally most frequent between the ages of 17 and 28, declining thereafter
to reach a low
A. in the late twenties and thirties.
B. in the late forties and fifties.
C. in the late thirties and forties.
D. in the late fifties and sixties.
E. at age 65.
Answer: D. in the late fifties and sixties.
29. One researcher concludes that a worker who reacts more quickly than he or she can
perceive is

A. less likely to have accidents.
B. no better off with respect to frequency of accidents than others.
C. more likely to have accidents.
D. a safe worker.
E. definitely not accident prone.
Answer: C. more likely to have accidents.
30. You are the new human resources professional at a plastics manufacturing company. In
improving the workplace health and safety program, which basic activities should you focus
on?
A. policies and procedures within the department
B. turmoil and morale in the plant
C. healthy labour-management relations
D. pro-union or non-union voting
E. reducing unsafe conditions and unsafe acts
Answer: E. reducing unsafe conditions and unsafe acts
31. You are the new human resources professional at a plastics manufacturing company.
Which of the following tests human traits that might be related to accidents on a specific job
and could be used to determine whether test scores are related to accidents on the job?
A. intelligence tests
B. literacy tests
C. emotional stability and personality tests
D. measures of muscular coordination and visual skills
E. self-awareness tests
Answer: D. measures of muscular coordination and visual skills
32. Amin is the manager of an auto parts manufacturing plant in Oakville, Ontario. The plant
has experienced a rise in workplace injuries over the past year. Amin is considering which
questions he can ask during candidate interviews. Which of the following questions would
not pose a legal risk to the company if he asked it?
A. Have you ever been injured at work?
B. How many workers compensation claims have you filed?
C. Do you know of any reason that you would not be able to perform the essential functions
of this job?
D. Have you suffered from a workplace-related illness?

E. Are you currently being compensated for a workplace injury?
Answer: C. Do you know of any reason that you would not be able to perform the essential
functions of this job?
33. Unsafe acts can be reduced by using a behavioural approach, specifically
A. discipline.
B. extinction.
C. behaviour modification.
D. positive reinforcement.
E. negative reinforcement.
Answer: D. positive reinforcement.
34. One of the most consistent findings in the literature is that successful safety programs
require
A. employee teams.
B. career development.
C. behaviour modification.
D. strong management commitment.
E. achievement.
Answer: D. strong management commitment.
35. Senior management commitment to safety can be demonstrated in all of the following
ways except by
A. giving the company safety officer high rank and status.
B. giving safety matters high priority in company meetings.
C. including safety training in new workers' training.
D. minimizing the organization's investment in safety equipment.
E. senior managers being personally involved in safety activities on a routine basis.
Answer: D. minimizing the organization's investment in safety equipment.
36. Workers' compensation premiums for employers are proportional to
A. the safety reputation of the firm.
B. the number of employees in the firm.
C. the location of the workplace.
D. the number of workers' compensation claims (experience rate).

E. the variety of different jobs being done by workers.
Answer: D. the number of workers' compensation claims (experience rate).
37. After a workplace accident occurs, the employer can reduce workers' compensation
claims in any of the following ways except by
A. telling the worker to take as much time off as necessary.
B. filing any required accident reports.
C. making it clear to the worker that the employer is interested in the employee and his or her
fears and questions.
D. providing first aid and ensuring that the injured worker gets medical attention.
E. documenting the accident.
Answer: A. telling the worker to take as much time off as necessary.
38. Perhaps the most important and effective thing that an employer can do to reduce
workers' compensation costs is to develop an aggressive
A. accident investigation program.
B. loss-control program.
C. health and safety program.
D. return-to-work program.
E. accident-reporting program.
Answer: D. return-to-work program.
39. Wellness programs take a ________ approach to employee well-being and EAPs take a
________ to employee health issues.
A. proactive; proactive
B. reactive; reactive
C. reactive; proactive
D. proactive; reactive
E. none of the above
Answer: D. proactive; reactive
40. A program that takes a proactive approach to employee health and well-being is called
A. workplace accommodation.
B. an employee assistance program.
C. a loss-control program.
D. management by objectives.

E. an employee wellness program.
Answer: E. an employee wellness program.
41. A number of health-related issues and challenges can undermine employee performance
at work. These can include any of the following except
A. smoking.
B. employee welfare programs.
C. workplace toxins.
D. alcoholism and substance abuse.
E. workplace violence.
Answer: B. employee welfare programs.
42. Maike is a supervisor of a team of oil rig workers. She has discovered that two of her
direct reports have a substance abuse problem. Which of the following actions should she
take?
A. Make a written record of observed behaviour and follow up on each incident.
B. Ask the employees to see the HR representative since supervisors are never the company's
first line of defence with employee substance abuse issues.
C. Troubled employees should be escorted to the organizational psychologist's office for
counselling.
D. Fire the employees if they are unfit to work.
E. Regardless of suspicion of substance abuse, only focus on the work to be performed by the
employee.
Answer: A. Make a written record of observed behaviour and follow up on each incident.
43. The following are all traditional techniques used for dealing with worker alcoholism and
substance abuse problems except
A. referral to an outside agency.
B. discharge.
C. outplacement counselling.
D. in-house counselling.
E. disciplining.
Answer: C. outplacement counselling.
44. Specific actions that employers can take to deal with employee alcoholism include any of
the following except
A. referral to EAP programs.

B. use of outside agencies such as clinics and AA.
C. taking personal responsibility for the employee.
D. in-house counselling through the HR department or medical staff.
E. use of treatment centres.
Answer: C. taking personal responsibility for the employee.
45. In Canada, when dealing with alcohol and substance abuse, employers must balance
conflicting legal obligations from occupational health and safety legislation and
A. employment standards legislation.
B. human rights and privacy laws.
C. employment equity/pay equity legislation.
D. Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
E. WHMIS.
Answer: B. human rights and privacy laws.
46. In order for drug and alcohol testing to be legal in Canada, one of the conditions that must
be met is that
A. everyone in the organization must undergo the same testing.
B. the test is rationally connected to the performance of the job.
C. the individuals tested must have complete privacy while the test is administered.
D. the test must be administered by an independent third party within two hours of a
suspicion of drug or alcohol use or the start of a work shift, whichever is earlier.
E. there are no restrictions to administering drug or alcohol tests in Canada.
Answer: B. the test is rationally connected to the performance of the job.
47. The two main sources of job stress are
A. a lack of control over work and environmental factors.
B. personal factors and unclear company direction.
C. personal factors and inconsistent performance management.
D. environmental factors and personal factors.
E. environmental factors and poor supervision.
Answer: D. environmental factors and personal factors.
48. The consequences of job stress can include any of the following except
A. job satisfaction.

B. anger.
C. anxiety.
D. depression.
E. accidents.
Answer: A. job satisfaction.
49. Too little stress can create
A. employee commitment.
B. accidents.
C. anxiety.
D. boredom and apathy.
E. creativity.
Answer: D. boredom and apathy.
50. Abacus Inc., a mining company, recently polled its employees about the level of stress
they experience at work. The survey indicated that 45% of employees experience moderate to
high levels of stress. Which of the following would not be an appropriate measure for
managing workplace stress at this company?
A. Provide career planning to ensure the employee moves toward a job that makes sense in
terms of his or her aptitude.
B. Insist on strict deadlines for all work projects.
C. Monitor each employee's performance to identify symptoms of stress.
D. Ensure effective person-job match.
E. Use attitude surveys to identify organizational sources of stress.
Answer: B. Insist on strict deadlines for all work projects.
51. The total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach
some unrealistic work-related goal is referred to by the term
A. nervous breakdown.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. stress-related illness.
D. emotional instability.
E. burnout.
Answer: E. burnout.
52. Virtually all of the energies of burnout victims are focused on

A. family matters.
B. commitment to the organization.
C. attaining unrealistic work-related goals.
D. client problems.
E. getting a promotion.
Answer: C. attaining unrealistic work-related goals.
53. The art of fitting the workstation and work tools to the individual is known as
A. retrofitting.
B. workplace accommodation.
C. ergonomics.
D. retooling.
E. due diligence.
Answer: C. ergonomics.
54. Warning signs of repetitive strain injury can include any of the following except
A. frequent dropping of tools.
B. hands falling asleep.
C. numbness and tingling in fingertips.
D. tightness or stiffness in the hands, elbow, wrists, shoulder and neck.
E. headaches.
Answer: E. headaches.
55. Ergonomics will become more and more important as the workforce ages and requires
accommodation of physical changes in all of the following except
A. muscular strength.
B. hand function.
C. vision.
D. tolerance for pain.
E. cardiovascular capacity.
Answer: D. tolerance for pain.
56. Short-term eye problems like burning, itching, and tearing, as well as eye strain and eye
soreness, are common complaints among:
A. human resources managers.

B. students.
C. accountants and bookkeepers.
D. video display operators.
E. industrial engineers.
Answer: D. video display operators.
57. General recommendations regarding the use of video display operators include all of the
following except
A. work stations designed for maximum flexibility.
B. glare reduction with devices such as antiglare shades over windows and terminal screens.
C. adequate employee rest breaks every hour.
D. complete pre-placement vision exams.
E. maximum amount of sunlight.
Answer: E. maximum amount of sunlight.
58. The leading cause of work-related deaths around the world is
A. accidents/violence.
B. communicable diseases.
C. mental disorders.
D. cancer.
E. none of the above.
Answer: D. cancer.
59. There is an erroneous perception that cancer-causing agents in the workplace are
A. affecting men and women in the same way.
B. increasing in significance.
C. affecting management's position in collective bargaining.
D. disappearing.
E. increasing costs for employers.
Answer: D. disappearing.
60. In general, when compared to non-smoking employees, smokers exhibit the following
characteristics except for
A. higher disability claims.
B. reduced productivity.

C. endangering of coworkers who breathe smoky air.
D. a greater risk of occupational accidents.
E. higher turnover.
Answer: E. higher turnover.
61. Smoking in the workplace creates the following costs for an employer except for
A. significantly greater risk of occupational accidents.
B. higher supplementary health care/medical insurance costs.
C. higher disability insurance costs.
D. increased attendance.
E. reduced productivity.
Answer: D. increased attendance.
62. Victims of workplace violence are generally
A. police officers.
B. women in health care professions.
C. postal workers.
D. convenience store clerks.
E. construction workers.
Answer: B. women in health care professions.
63. An employer may be sued directly by the victim of an employee's violent act on the basis
of
A. insufficient security.
B. blackmail and duress.
C. malice and larceny.
D. negligence in hiring.
E. employee discrimination.
Answer: D. negligence in hiring.
64. The following are all steps employers can take to reduce the incidence of workplace
violence except
A. enhancing security arrangements.
B. improving employee screening.
C. promoting unstructured security systems.

D. training for violence reduction.
E. instituting a workplace violence policy.
Answer: C. promoting unstructured security systems.
65. Employees, are responsible for taking reasonable care to protect their own health and
safety and, in most cases, that of their co-workers.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
66. The "due diligence" requirement for employees mandates that they take every reasonable
precaution to ensure their own health and safety.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
67. The function of joint health and safety committees is to provide a non-adversarial
atmosphere where management and labour can work together to ensure a safe and healthy
workplace.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
68. Government health and safety inspectors may enter a workplace at any time, provided
they have a warrant and give prior notification.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
69. Canadian corporate executives and directors may be held directly responsible for
workplace injuries.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
70. WHMIS is the outcome of a cooperative effort between Canada, the United States of
America, and Mexico.
a. True
b. False

Answer: b. False
71. Most safety experts agree that safety commitment must begin with hourly employees.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
72. In addition to unsafe working conditions, other work-related factors contribute to
accidents, such as the job itself, work schedules and the psychological climate of the
workplace.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
73. An employee whose perceptual skill is at a lower level than his or her motor skill is a
relatively safe worker.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
74. Vision is related to accident frequency for many jobs, since workers who have high visual
skills have fewer injuries than those who do not.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
75. Safety programs based on positive reinforcement have improved safety at work.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
76. HR managers have an important role to play in communicating the importance of health
and safety to senior management by demonstrating how it affects the bottom line.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
77. Employers should inquire about the workers' compensation history of job applicants in
order to avoid hiring accident-prone individuals.

a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
78. The appropriate time to begin "controlling" workers' compensation claims is before the
accident happens, not after.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
79. Supervisors are the company's first line of defence in combating substance abuse in the
workplace and they must act as company detectives.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
80. Employee drug testing can be used in virtually all work-related circumstances.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
81. Ergonomics is the art of fitting the workstation and work to the individual.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
82. Employees who smoke have a significantly lower risk of occupational accidents than nonsmokers.
a. True
b. False
Answer: b. False
83. Employers can be found liable for the violent acts of their employees.
a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
84. Several studies suggest that a test such as the Employee Reliability Inventory (ERI) can
help employers reduce unsafe acts at work.

a. True
b. False
Answer: a. True
85. List and describe the three basic rights of employees under the joint responsibility model
of occupational health and safety and describe the employer's "due diligence" requirement.
Answer: Three points for accurate identification and description of:
1. The right to know about workplace hazards
2. The right to participate in the health and safety process
3. The right to refuse unsafe work the employee has "reasonable cause" to believe is
dangerous
One point for the definition of "due diligence"—employers must take every reasonable
precaution to ensure the health and safety of their workers.
86. Briefly discuss the three basic causes of accidents in the workplace.
Answer: Two points for "Chance Occurrences" as a cause and four points each for identifying
and accurately describing unsafe conditions and unsafe acts.
87. Amin is the manager of an auto parts manufacturing plant in Oakville, Ontario. The plant
has experienced a rise in workplace injuries over the past year. Discuss what Amin should
focus on to prevent accidents in the workplace.
Answer: 2.5 points for accurate identification and description of:
1. Selection testing
2. Top management commitment
3. Training and education
4. Positive reinforcement.

Test Bank for Management of Human Resources: The Essentials
Nina D. Cole, Gary Dessler, Nita Chhinzer
9780133807332, 9780134305066

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