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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 2 Chapter 01 Introduction to Personality Psychology Multiple Choice Questions 1. Features of personality that differentiate one person from another usually take the form of _______________ in language. A. differential pronouns B. trait-descriptive adjectives C. action-descriptive verbs D. trait-differentiating adverbs Answer: B. trait-descriptive adjectives 2. If I describe Juan as "possessive" or Anita as "friendly," I am employing the use of A. trait-descriptive adjectives. B. inner psychological states. C. strategies to attain goals. D. inner qualities of personality. Answer: A. trait-descriptive adjectives. 3. How many trait-descriptive adjectives are there in the English language? A. More than 500 B. More than 1,800 C. More than 5,000 D. More than 20,000 Answer: D. More than 20,000 4. Psychologists have found it difficult to define personality because A. psychologists are not smart enough to determine the boundaries of human personality. B. personality has a common sense definition that psychologists find hard to falsify. C. the idea of studying human personality is a rather new concept in psychology. D. any definition of personality needs to be sufficiently comprehensive to include a multitude of concepts. Answer: D. any definition of personality needs to be sufficiently comprehensive to include a multitude of concepts. 5. Research on personality traits asks all of these questions EXCEPT A. how many fundamental personality traits there are. B. how personality traits are organized. C. where personality traits come from. D. which cues cause behavior in a situation. Answer: D. which cues cause behavior in a situation. 6. Immanuel walks the same path every day at the same time. To state that he will most likely take the same route at the same time next Wednesday is using the _______________ nature of personality traits. A. descriptive B. explanatory C. predictive D. individualistic Answer: C. predictive 7. Mike makes several social errors at a party. He calls the host by the wrong name, spills his red wine on the carpet, and insults the guest of honor. We label Mike's behavior as "socially inept." This labeling of Mike's behavior utilizes the _______________ research approach to personality traits. A. explanatory B. descriptive C. intuitive D. presumptive Answer: B. descriptive 8. Traits define the _______________ tendencies of an individual person. A. central B. average C. overt D. outlying Answer: B. average 9. A talkative person will A. always talk more than a quiet person. B. never shut up. C. talk more than a quiet person in theatres. D. talk more, on average, than a quiet person. Answer: D. talk more, on average, than a quiet person. 10. To say that someone will tend to display a trait with regularity is to say that the person has a(n) A. average tendency. B. obsessive-compulsive disorder. C. adaptation. D. social-cognitive approach. Answer: A. average tendency. 11. Which of the following questions does research on personality traits NOT emphasize? A. How many fundamental traits are there? B. How are traits organized within individuals? C. What are the origins of traits? D. How are all persons similar? Answer: D. How are all persons similar? 12. Psychological mechanisms differ from traits in that mechanisms A. are less stable. B. refer more to processes. C. do not have decision rules. D. are biologically "hard wired." Answer: B. refer more to processes. 13. Which of the following is NOT part of most personality mechanisms? A. Access codes B. Decision rules C. Inputs D. Outputs Answer: A. Access codes 14. The trait of courageousness is an especially good example of A. an adaptive trait. B. how traits are consistent. C. how traits are activated only under certain conditions. D. how traits change over time. Answer: C. how traits are activated only under certain conditions. 15. Personality is A. outside the person. B. inside the person. C. both outside and inside the person. D. inside or outside, depending on the person. Answer: B. inside the person. 16. To say that someone has the trait of happiness, you need to know that the person A. is happy at a given moment. B. is frequently happy. C. remembers being happy. D. makes others happy. Answer: B. is frequently happy. 17. Which of the following is NOT defined as part of the person-environment interaction? A. Serializations B. Perceptions C. Manipulations D. Selection Answer: A. Serializations 18. Responses to an ink-blot test can demonstrate which part of the person-environment interaction? A. Perceptions B. Manipulations C. Evocations D. Selections Answer: A. Perceptions 19. Mo looks at the ink blot and sees two birds nesting. Heidi looks at the ink blot and sees a tranquil forest. Joe looks at the ink blot and sees something sexual. These three responses are illustrating that _______________ are important components of the person-environment interaction. A. prostheses B. provocations C. perceptions D. projections Answer: C. perceptions 20. Evocations are demonstrated when A. different people see the same situation differently. B. our characteristics unintentionally cause other people to act a certain way. C. we intentionally attempt to make other people act in a certain way. D. individuals select environments to match their traits. Answer: B. our characteristics unintentionally cause other people to act a certain way. 21. Every time Sid walks into the room everyone laughs. This demonstrates the person-environment interaction of A. evocation. B. elocution. C. exultation. D. emaciation. Answer: A. evocation. 22. Bianca always picks out restaurants that have a very quiet, subdued atmosphere. She always tries to avoid loud restaurants. _______________ is the person-environment fit mechanism that may account for this behavior. A. Sublimation B. Selection C. Suggestion D. Sophistication Answer: B. Selection 23. To say that a trait is adaptive means that the trait A. is the result of sexual selection. B. easily changes as necessary. C. serves a useful function. D. indicates psychopathology. Answer: C. serves a useful function. 24. At the psychological level, the physical environment may lead to the development of A. shivering mechanisms when people are cold. B. hunger pangs to motivate people to seek food. C. friction mechanisms to prevent calluses in skin. D. fear mechanisms to help us avoid environmental threats. Answer: D. fear mechanisms to help us avoid environmental threats. 25. In the social environment, our "effective environment" represents the/a A. strongest environmental cues that are found in any given environment. B. environmental cues that are directly related to survival in the immediate environment. C. set of cues emitted by other people in the environment. D. subset of environmental features people attend to based on their psychological mechanisms. Answer: D. subset of environmental features people attend to based on their psychological mechanisms. 26. The intrapsychic environment is A. not as objectively verifiable as the social or physical environment. B. often easy to verify through the analysis of dreams. C. relatively consistent across social, but not physical, environments. D. based on how others in the environment react to a person. Answer: A. not as objectively verifiable as the social or physical environment. 27. The human nature level of personality analysis addresses how every human is A. like all others. B. like some others. C. like no others. D. somewhat like other mammals. Answer: A. like all others. 28. The group differences level of personality analysis addresses how every human is A. like all others. B. like some others. C. like no others. D. somewhat like other mammals Answer: B. like some others. 29. The individual uniqueness level of personality analysis addresses how every human is A. like all others. B. like some others. C. like no others. D. somewhat like other mammals Answer: C. like no others. 30. The ability to learn spoken language is an example of the A. human nature level of analysis. B. individual and group differences level of analysis. C. individual uniqueness level of analysis. D. social psychological level of analysis. Answer: A. human nature level of analysis. 31. Studying how people vary in levels of anxiety, self-esteem, or worry represents a/an _______________ approach to studying personality psychology. A. individual differences B. human nature C. ideographic D. environmental Answer: A. individual differences 32. Which of the following is an example of "idiographic research"? A. Comparing men and women on emotionality. B. Developing a questionnaire that measures sociability. C. Writing a case study of Albert Einstein's personality. D. Conducting a field study of helping behaviors. Answer: C. Writing a case study of Albert Einstein's personality. 33. Which of the following is an example of "nomothetic research"? A. Preparing a case study of Sigmund Freud. B. Comparing freshmen and seniors on a personality inventory. C. Attempting to identify the genes related to impulsivity. D. Analyzing the correspondence of Chris Rock. Answer: B. Comparing freshmen and seniors on a personality inventory. 34. The study of a single individual is an example of A. idiographic research. B. nomothetic research. C. correlational research. D. cognitive psychology research. Answer: A. idiographic research. 35. Most current personality research is done at the _______________ level of analysis. A. idiographic B. human nature C. individual uniqueness D. group and individual differences Answer: D. group and individual differences 36. Most grand theories of personality focus on the _______________ level of analysis. A. idiographic B. human nature C. individual uniqueness D. group and individual differences Answer: B. human nature 37. A problem with studying only the grand theories of personality is that only portions of the grand theories A. have stood the test of time and inform modern personality research. B. apply to men. C. are based on non-German populations. D. address the human nature level of analysis. Answer: A. have stood the test of time and inform modern personality research. 38. Grand theories of personality are usually based on statements about the A. universal core of human nature. B. major individual differences. C. individual uniqueness of all humans. D. differences between the sexes. Answer: A. universal core of human nature. 39. In modern personality psychology, the grand theories A. guide all modern personality research. B. are still argued about in the literature. C. are seen as having primarily historical interest. D. are used only in clinical applications of personality theory. Answer: C. are seen as having primarily historical interest. 40. The textbook presents the example of the three blind men and the elephant to suggest that A. people are like animals in some ways and all living creatures have a personality. B. individual and group differences are the most effective approach to studying personality. C. each of the different approaches to personality research is inadequate for studying the full range of human personality. D. using ancient legends is an inadequate approach to explaining the full range of differences in human personality. Answer: C. each of the different approaches to personality research is inadequate for studying the full range of human personality. 41. The fact that there are many differing views on personality suggests that A. researchers study different domains of knowledge. B. most views about personality psychology are incorrect. C. one of the views is probably more accurate than others. D. personality psychologists ignore one another's theories. Answer: A. researchers study different domains of knowledge. 42. A "domain of knowledge" is a A. laboratory where personality research is conducted. B. single theory about the nature of personality. C. specialty area of science and scholarship. D. grand theory of personality psychology. Answer: C. specialty area of science and scholarship. 43. Researchers in a given domain of personality share all of these EXCEPT A. common methods of inquiry. B. foundations of known facts. C. theoretical explanations. D. common laboratory space. Answer: D. common laboratory space. 44. The domains of knowledge in personality differ mainly in the A. number of active researchers. B. degree to which they emphasize internal or external factors. C. degree to which they emphasize adaptation and adjustment. D. degree to which they understand personality. Answer: B. degree to which they emphasize internal or external factors. 45. When different domains of knowledge contradict one another, we can conclude that A. the most recent domains are most correct. B. the more historical domains are most correct. C. none of the domains is correct. D. the contradictions may be more apparent than real. Answer: D. the contradictions may be more apparent than real. 46. The dispositional domain focuses on A. understanding the ways individuals differ from one another. B. the emotional consequences of dispositions. C. the biological nature of dispositions. D. the outer nature of dispositions. Answer: A. understanding the ways individuals differ from one another. 47. Which of the following does NOT fall within the biological domain of knowledge? A. Subjective experience B. Genetics C. Psychophysiology D. Evolution Answer: A. Subjective experience 48. A researcher who compares identical twins to fraternal twins probably conducts most of her research within which domain? A. Intrapsychic B. Biological C. Adjustment D. Cognitive-Experiential Answer: B. Biological 49. The domain of knowledge most concerned with unconscious mechanisms is the A. Cognitive-experiential domain. B. biological domain. C. intrapsychic domain. D. adjustment domain. Answer: C. intrapsychic domain. 50. Sigmund Freud's theory of personality falls within the _______________ domain of knowledge. A. biological B. dispositional C. social and cultural D. intrapsychic Answer: D. intrapsychic 51. Jay is interested in investigating unconscious conflict in a sample of college interns. Jay will most likely use the methods and theories associated with the _______________ domain of personality. A. dispositional B. biological C. social and cultural D. intrapsychic Answer: D. intrapsychic 52. Which domain is most concerned with identifying the number of fundamental individual differences? A. Biological B. Dispositional C. Intrapsychic D. Social and cultural Answer: B. Dispositional 53. The lexical strategy (i.e., using natural language to identify fundamental traits) falls most squarely within the A. social and cultural domain. B. cognitive-experiential domain. C. dispositional domain. D. intrapsychic domain. Answer: C. dispositional domain. 54. Which domain relies most on statistical methods to identify fundamental traits? A. Dispositional B. Biological C. Adjustment D. Social and cultural Answer: A. Dispositional 55. Patti collects data on three personality tests from several hundred participants. She then examines the systematic statistical similarities and differences among the traits assessed by each test. Patti is using the logic and methods of the _______________ domain of personality. A. biological B. intrapsychic C. social and cultural D. dispositional Answer: D. dispositional 56. Which domain of knowledge places the most emphasis on the external (to the person) dimensions of personality? A. dispositional B. social and cultural C. biological D. intrapsychic Answer: B. social and cultural 57. The fact that almost all humans live in groups suggests the importance of the _______________ domain. A. intrapsychic B. cognitive-experiential C. adjustment D. social and cultural Answer: D. social and cultural 58. Sidney is interested in differences in the levels of extraversion of British men and Italian men. Sidney will most likely use the methods and theories used by researchers studying personality within the _______________ domain. A. cognitive-experiential B. dispositional C. social and cultural D. intrapsychic Answer: C. social and cultural 59. Which domain focuses most on the relationships between personality and health behaviors? A. dispositional B. adjustment C. social and cultural D. cognitive-experiential Answer: B. adjustment 60. The study of personality disorders falls within the _______________ domain. A. biological B. social and cultural C. adjustment D. intrapsychic Answer: C. adjustment 61. Lillian is interested in how borderline personality disorder affects everyday behaviors in a clinical population. She most likely will use the methods and the models of the _______________ domain of personality in conducting her research. A. dispositional B. biological C. adjustment D. intrapsychic Answer: C. adjustment 62. Which of the following is NOT a function of a theory? A. Guides research B. Eliminates domains of knowledge C. Organizes research findings D. Makes predictions Answer: B. Eliminates domains of knowledge 63. Which of the following is NOT an example of a theory that provides a guide for researchers? A. A Freudian psychoanalyst predicting stinginess from the ideas about development through a particular stage of psychological development. B. A biological psychologist predicting a decrease in social behavior when the frontal lobe of the brain is damaged. C. A personality psychologist analyzing a large pool of responses to questionnaire items to find the underlying structure of the data. D. A cognitive psychologist predicting that how an individual's self evaluation will determine his or her reaction to a specific stimuli. Answer: C. A personality psychologist analyzing a large pool of responses to questionnaire items to find the underlying structure of the data. 64. Which of the following is a scientific theory? A. astrology B. Einstein's ideas on relativity C. reincarnation D. extra sensory perception Answer: B. Einstein's ideas on relativity 65. _______________ are based on systematic observation, whereas _______________ are not. A. Theories; beliefs B. Beliefs; theories C. Domains; approaches D. Approaches; domains Answer: A. Theories; beliefs 66. George's theory of personality leads to the discovery of new links between cognition and brain functioning that were previously believed to be impossible. George's theory has A. comprehensiveness. B. heuristic value. C. testability. D. parsimony. Answer: B. heuristic value. 67. The most important criterion for generating a testable theory is A. the generalizability of its predictions. B. its compatibility with other theories. C. its precision of prediction. D. its comprehensiveness. Answer: C. its precision of prediction. 68. Which trait theory best exemplifies the principle of parsimony? A theory that proposes A. two personality dispositions. B. three personality dispositions. C. five personality dispositions. D. 16 personality dispositions. Answer: A. two personality dispositions. Chapter 02 Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design Multiple Choice Questions 1. What a person tells you about his or her attitudes would be considered A. S-data. B. O-data. C. T-data. D. L-data. Answer: A. S-data. 2. What a person's friend tells you about that person would be considered A. S-data. B. O-data. C. T-data. D. L-data. Answer: B. O-data. 3. How a person performs on an intelligence test would be considered A. S-data. B. O-data. C. T-data. D. L-data. Answer: C. T-data. 4. A person's police record would be considered A. S-data. B. O-data. C. T-data. D. L-data. Answer: D. L-data. 5. Which type of data is most commonly used to measure personality? A. S-data B. O-data C. T-data D. L-data Answer: A. S-data 6. I conduct a study of safe drivers for a major insurance company and collect data from a sample of 1,000 drivers and examine their driving records over a 10-year period. This study is using A. life-outcome data. B. observer-report data. C. test-report data. D. self-report data. Answer: A. life-outcome data. 7. Of the different ways to collect self-report data, which is most common? A. Interviews B. Periodic reports C. Questionnaires D. Experience sampling Answer: C. Questionnaires 8. Which of the following is the best reason for collecting self-report data? A. Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves. B. Observer bias is very difficult to remove from the data. C. The desire to portray oneself in a positive light is very prevalent. D. There is an almost total lack of bias in self-report data. Answer: A. Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves. 9. You are asked to describe Dr. Larsen's personality on a questionnaire. This is an example of A. observer data. B. student data. C. subordinate data. D. omniscient data. Answer: A. observer data. 10. Which of the following is an example of an unstructured questionnaire? A. True/False B. Forced choice C. Open-ended D. Rorschach test Answer: C. Open-ended 11. The Twenty Statements Test (i.e., the "Who am I?" test) is an example of a/an A. structured questionnaire. B. unstructured questionnaire. C. projective test. D. bias-free test. Answer: B. unstructured questionnaire. 12. In the Twenty Statements Test (i.e., the "Who am I?" test), which of the following is important to the scoring? A. The order and syntax of the statements B. The context and structure of the statements C. The order and content of the statements D. The complexity and syntax of the statements Answer: C. The order and content of the statements 13. Which of the following has been noted as a potential problem with the Twenty Statements Test, i.e., the "Who am I?" test? A. It can be biased by intelligence differences in participants. B. It can show biases due to the gender of the participants. C. It can show biases due to the participants' cultural differences. D. It can show differences between people in adjusted and unadjusted marriages. Answer: A. It can be biased by intelligence differences in participants. 14. Personality scales are usually made up of A. one rating on a Likert scale. B. the sum of a few individual ratings. C. open-ended questions. D. projective ratings of personality. Answer: B. the sum of a few individual ratings. 15. Which of the following is NOT a weakness of self-report data? A. People may intentionally lie about themselves. B. People may not know how to answer questions accurately. C. Self-report data is especially difficult to collect. D. People may intentionally distort reports on unusual experiences. Answer: C. Self-report data is especially difficult to collect. 16. One strength of experience-sampling data is that A. one is able to detect rhythms over time in behavior or feelings. B. it is easier to collect than other self-report data. C. it is a completely objective form of self-report data. D. it is free of biases associated with other self-report data. Answer: A. one is able to detect rhythms over time in behavior or feelings. 17. In order to collect experience sampling data, a researcher might A. manipulate participants' experiences in the lab. B. ask participants to fill out the same questionnaire many times. C. record participants' physiological reactions in the lab. D. conduct a telephone survey. Answer: B. ask participants to fill out the same questionnaire many times. 18. Dr. Larsen conducts a study in which participants are given pagers. Every time the participants are paged they complete a short questionnaire. Participants are paged three times for eight days. This type of research is called A. experiential research. B. experience sampling. C. life sampling. D. observer query. Answer: B. experience sampling. 19. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of observer-report data? A. It provides another point of view to self-report data. B. Many observers' data can be combined. C. Observers have unique access to information about a person. D. Observers can best capture the subjective experience of person being measured. Answer: D. Observers can best capture the subjective experience of person being measured. 20. Usually, combining the data from many observers is A. more confusing and less precise than using data from a single observer. B. more valid and reliable than the data from a single observer. C. less reliable and valid than the data from a single clinical psychologist. D. more reliable and valid than using single measures of personality. Answer: D. more reliable and valid than using single measures of personality. 21. Which of the following is a good reason to use many intimate observers to collect O-data? A. You are interested in studying multiple social personalities. B. Professional observers are especially biased. C. You are interested in studying personality in a public context. D. It is important to know if a person has lots of friends. Answer: A. You are interested in studying multiple social personalities. 22. Which of the following statements about O-data is FALSE? A. Intimate observers can fail to see flaws in loved ones they report about. B. Intimate observers are useless if they do not understand personality psychology. C. Intimate observers may have hidden agendas unknown to investigators. D. Intimate observers may not have access to the information the researcher is seeking. Answer: B. Intimate observers are useless if they do not understand personality psychology. 23. Naturalistic observation occurs A. only when a person does not know that he or she is being observed. B. when we observe people in the normal course of their daily lives. C. when we observe people in a natural setting like a forest, beach, or desert. D. only when humans, not machines, provide the personality ratings. Answer: B. when we observe people in the normal course of their daily lives. 24. The "bridge-building test" is an example of A. S-data. B. O-data. C. T-data. D. L-data. Answer: C. T-data. 25. Test data differs from observer-report data in that A. test data usually requires less inference about the behavior of the participants. B. people who collect test data are more objective than observers. C. test data is always more expensive to collect than other types of data. D. test data always is more reliable than observer data. Answer: A. test data usually requires less inference about the behavior of the participants. 26. Which of the following is NOT a potential problem in collecting T-data? A. Participants might guess what is being measured and alter their behavior. B. Attempts to gather T-data often elicit behavior from the participants. C. The testing situation might not be viewed the same by participants and researchers. D. A researcher can inadvertently influence behavior in the testing situation. Answer: B. Attempts to gather T-data often elicit behavior from the participants. 27. The Megargee study of sex roles and dominance found that A. there are no significant differences in dominance between men and women. B. women did not want to be followers as they generally lacked mechanical ability. C. dominant women behave differently then equally dominant men. D. dominant men became submissive under certain experimental conditions. Answer: C. dominant women behave differently then equally dominant men. 28. The Megargee study highlights all of these features of T-data EXCEPT A. laboratory test data is sensitive to personality characteristics. B. there are often interesting links between self-report data and test data. C. the interpersonal style of the experimenter changed the results of the study. D. it is possible to set up conditions that make indicators of personality observable. Answer: C. the interpersonal style of the experimenter changed the results of the study. 29. Megargee found that dominant women tend to _______________ leadership roles when placed in mixed gender dyads with _______________. A. assume; submissive males B. delegate; submissive males C. assume; dominant males D. delegate; submissive females Answer: B. delegate; submissive males 30. The "actometer" has been used to measure A. activity level. B. action counts. C. actor influence. D. length of the activity. Answer: A. activity level. 31. A study discussed in the text showed that activity level measured by a mechanical device at age 3 correlated with all of the following EXCEPT A. activity level measured by the same device at age 4. B. activity level in adulthood. C. teacher's ratings of activity level. D. teacher's ratings of traits other than activity level. Answer: B. activity level in adulthood. 32. The best reason to use a mechanical device, such as an actometer, is that A. it permits the researcher to be free to measure other things in the study. B. it is free from biases associated with human raters. C. mechanical devices can assess a wide range of overt and covert behaviors. D. it is easier to use with children than using questionnaires. Answer: B. it is free from biases associated with human raters. 33. The best way to measure the speed at which people process information would be to use A. physiological data. B. projective tests. C. an actometer. D. fMRI. Answer: A. physiological data. 34. When most people (but not psychopaths) look at fear-inducing photographs, A. their startle response is no different than usual. B. their startle response is faster than usual. C. their startle response is slower than usual. D. they cannot be startled. Answer: B. their startle response is faster than usual. 35. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of physiological data? A. It usually requires an artificial setting. B. Participants may not construe the testing situation as the researchers do. C. It is easy to fake desirable responses. D. It shares most of the other limitations of other types of test data. Answer: C. It is easy to fake desirable responses. 36. The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) A. is extremely useful for eliciting eye blink responses when individuals are startled. B. can be used to assess an individual's activity level. C. measures oxygen flow in the brain due to blood concentrations. D. is used to discover individuals with "magnetic" personalities. Answer: C. measures oxygen flow in the brain due to blood concentrations. 37. Projective techniques are examples of A. S-data. B. O-data. C. T-data. D. L-data. Answer: C. T-data. 38. David is asked to tell the researcher what he sees in a series of inkblots. He is completing a A. projective test. B. ambiguous test. C. psychoanalytic test. D. visual span test. Answer: A. projective test. 39. Projective tests are considered test data for all of these reasons EXCEPT A. all participants are given the same instructions during the testing session. B. all persons are placed in a standardized testing situation. C. the stimuli are ambiguous to all of the participants in the study. D. personality characteristics are believed to be elicited by the stimuli. Answer: C. the stimuli are ambiguous to all of the participants in the study. 40. The use of _______________ differentiates projective tests from other kinds of test data. A. standardized scoring B. ambiguous stimuli C. psychoanalytic assumptions D. video projectors Answer: B. ambiguous stimuli 41. Projective techniques are unlike other types of T-data because A. everyone receives the same instructions. B. they reveal responses that indicate personality. C. they use a standard testing situation. D. responses are usually interpreted. Answer: C. they use a standard testing situation. 42. When scoring an inkblot test, a psychologist considers all of these EXCEPT A. what the person saw in the inkblots. B. where the person saw things in the inkblots. C. how the person acted while taking the inkblot test. D. the length of time the taken by the person. Answer: D. the length of time the taken by the person. 43. Proponents of projective tests argue that they are the best measure of A. subjective experience. B. physiology. C. unconscious material. D. social expectations. Answer: C. unconscious material. 44. Proponents of projective tests believe that these tests A. are useful for assessing wishes, desires, fantasies, etc. a person may not be aware of and cannot disclose in other ways. B. are useful for determining the reactions individuals have when they are placed in ambiguous situations. C. are useful in eliciting unconscious anger and inciting arguments in married couples during laboratory sessions. D. are best used in areas of personality psychology that relate to psychopathology and mental illness. Answer: A. are useful for assessing wishes, desires, fantasies, etc. a person may not be aware of and cannot disclose in other ways. 45. L-data are any data that are concerned with A. lies an individual tells. B. the life of a person. C. the lability of the nervous system. D. the likeability of an individual. Answer: B. the life of a person. 46. A study discussed in the text showed that childhood temper tantrums predicted divorce. This is an example of _______________ predicting _______________. A. T-data; S-data B. O-data; L-data C. L-data; T-data D. S-data; T-data Answer: B. O-data; L-data 47. A study discussed in the text showed that children who had more temper tantrums also had A. more negative life outcomes. B. more positive life outcomes. C. life outcomes similar to children with fewer temper tantrums. D. more temper tantrums as adults. Answer: A. more negative life outcomes. 48. I conduct a study of drivers convicted of speeding for a major insurance company and collect a sample of data from 500 drivers and examine their driving records over a 10-year period. This study is using A. life-report data. B. observer-report data. C. test-report data. D. self-report data. Answer: A. life-report data. 49. Jared is trying to buy a new car. He finds that he can only get a loan at a very unfavorable interest rate due to the financial trouble he created for himself with a credit card he got while a college student. Jared's poor credit rating is an example of _______________ at work. A. life-report data B. observer-report data C. commercial-report data D. investment-report data Answer: A. life-report data 50. S-data will agree more with O-data when A. T-data is not available. B. the trait being assessed is unconscious. C. the trait being assessed requires few inferences. D. the trait being assessed is not easily observable. Answer: C. the trait being assessed requires few inferences. 51. The best reason to use multiple sources of data in personality research is to A. establish cross-data source consistency across all of the sources of data. B. increase the validity of each of the data sources under investigation. C. average out any idiosyncrasies of any particular single source of data. D. increase the resultant split half reliability coefficients. Answer: C. average out any idiosyncrasies of any particular single source of data. 52. "Triangulation" refers to A. assessing personality traits in geometric space. B. a statistical technique that compares three traits. C. assessing personality with various types of data. D. a method for plotting personality profiles. Answer: C. assessing personality with various types of data. 53. I measure dominance in male business executives in a variety of ways. The executives complete a dominance questionnaire and their employees complete observer reports of their boss' dominance. I examine the executives' employment histories and measure their serum testosterone. Collecting all this data about one specific personality characteristic is called A. cross-fertilization. B. triangulation. C. cross-validation. D. data manipulation. Answer: B. triangulation. 54. "Reliability" refers to the ability A. to assign a personality test score to a person. B. to measure what the personality test purports to measure. C. of the personality test to produce the same test score for an individual at other testings. D. of a personality test to measure other personality traits. Answer: C. of the personality test to produce the same test score for an individual at other testings. 55. _______________ is NOT a form of reliability. A. Spilt-half reliability B. Inter-rater reliability C. Construct reliability D. Test-retest reliability Answer: C. Construct reliability 56. If a personality measure is given to a person four times, and each time the person receives the same score, we know the measure is A. reliable. B. valid. C. statistically significant. D. repetitive. Answer: A. reliable. 57. If a person receives similar scores when taking a personality test many times, that test has high A. alternative-form reliability. B. generalization. C. internal consistency. D. test-retest reliability. Answer: D. test-retest reliability. 58. "Validity" refers to the ability A. of the personality test to produce the same test score for an individual at other testings. B. to assign a personality test score to a person. C. of a personality test to measure other personality traits. D. to measure what the personality test purports to measure. Answer: D. to measure what the personality test purports to measure. 59. I develop a Bleemness scale. It consists of one item, "How Bleem are you?" The most likely form of validity represented by this scale is A. criterion. B. face. C. construct. D. internal. Answer: B. face. 60. Which of the following terms describes the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure? A. Reliability B. Validity C. Correlation coefficient D. Internal consistency Answer: B. Validity 61. If a questionnaire test of sociability correlates with the number of conversations people have, the sociability test has high A. discriminant validity. B. face validity. C. generalizability. D. predictive validity. Answer: D. predictive validity. 62. Observer ratings of narcissism correlate with the number of times individuals refer to themselves during subsequent interviews. This relationship demonstrates A. predictive validity. B. inter-rater reliability. C. discriminant validity. D. split-half reliability. Answer: A. predictive validity. 63. When alternative measures of the same construct correlate highly with a test, the test can be described as having high A. convergent validity. B. discriminant validity. C. face validity. D. predictive validity. Answer: A. convergent validity. 64. When three measures of extraversion correlate highly with each other they can be described as having A. discriminant validity. B. triangulated validity. C. convergent validity. D. inter-test validity. Answer: C. convergent validity. 65. Establishing that a test does not correlate with measures of unrelated constructs indicates high A. convergent validity. B. discriminant validity. C. face validity. D. dysfunctional validity. Answer: B. discriminant validity. 66. Shoe size is positively correlated with height and hand size, but not correlated with intelligence. Shoe size has _______________ validity with height and hand size and _______________ validity with intelligence. A. convergent; discriminant B. discriminant; convergent C. predictive; face D. face; predictive Answer: A. convergent; discriminant 67. The type of validity that subsumes all other types of validity is A. predictive validity. B. construct validity. C. face validity. D. discriminant validity. Answer: B. construct validity. 68. If a test of suggestibility measures suggestibility the test has A. face validity. B. test validity. C. predictive validity. D. construct validity. Answer: D. construct validity. 69. All personality variables are A. highly heritable. B. unconscious. C. theoretical constructs. D. easily assessed with questionnaires. Answer: C. theoretical constructs. 70. If a measure is equally valid in persons of different ages, genders and cultures, it can be described as having high A. face validity. B. construct validity. C. statistical significance. D. generalizability. Answer: D. generalizability. 71. A test needs to be _______________ to be a _______________ test, but every _______________ test is NOT NECESSARILY a _______________ test. A. reliable; valid; reliable; valid B. valid; reliable; valid; reliable C. easy; good; easy; good D. good; easy; good; easy Answer: A. reliable; valid; reliable; valid 72. Which of the following is NOT important in evaluating a personality measure? A. Manipulation B. Generalizability C. Validity D. Reliability Answer: A. Manipulation 73. If a measure predicts behaviors in many contexts, it has high A. discriminant validity. B. reliability. C. generalizability. D. coherence. Answer: C. generalizability. 74. A measure of extraversion that has construct validity in samples in the United States also has construct validity with samples of participants assessed for extraversion in Japan. This demonstrates A. convergent validity. B. generalizability. C. test-retest reliability. D. cross-cultural validity. Answer: B. generalizability. 75. Which of the following is NOT one of the major types of research design? A. Correlational B. Physiological C. Experimental D. Case study Answer: B. Physiological 76. Which of the following research methods is best suited to establishing causality? A. Correlational B. Experimental C. Case study D. Historical Answer: B. Experimental 77. In order to show that variable A causes variable B, you need to _______________ variable A. A. manipulate B. counter balance C. randomly assign D. control Answer: A. manipulate 78. In order to establish causality, participants in all conditions should be A. manipulated. B. equivalent. C. undergraduate students. D. counter balanced. Answer: B. equivalent. 79. The process of random assignment helps to ensure A. statistical significance. B. good counter balancing. C. equivalence. D. fairness. Answer: C. equivalence. 80. In an experimental design, the manipulated variable is called the _______________ variable. A. dependent B. controlled C. independent D. causal Answer: C. independent 81. The reason experimental designs are counterbalanced is to control A. manipulations. B. personality effects. C. random assignment. D. order effects. Answer: D. order effects. 82. In an experimental design, it is important to know if observed differences between experimental groups are A. directional. B. statistically significant. C. correlational. D. inferential. Answer: B. statistically significant. 83. Which of the following pieces of information is NOT needed to establish statistical significance in an experimental design? A. The mean B. The standard deviation C. Alpha coefficient D. Sample size Answer: C. Alpha coefficient 84. If a researcher wants to know whether or not people who score high on extraversion also score high on activity level, the researcher should use the _______________ method. A. experimental B. case study C. correlational D. ANOVA Answer: C. correlational 85. If people who score high on extraversion also score high on measures of happiness, extraversion and happiness are A. not correlated. B. positively correlated. C. negatively correlated. D. possibly correlated, but there is not enough information here to know. Answer: B. positively correlated. 86. Self-esteem and depression are probably _______________ correlated. A. not B. positively C. negatively D. irregularly Answer: C. negatively 87. If dominance correlates positively with ego-strength, we know that A. dominance causes ego-strength. B. ego-strength causes dominance. C. people who score high on dominance also tend to score high on ego-strength. D. people who score high on dominance also tend to score low on ego-strength. Answer: C. people who score high on dominance also tend to score high on ego-strength. 88. Correlation cannot provide any information about A. significance. B. causality. C. directionality. D. generalizability. Answer: B. causality. 89. Statistically significant correlations may be observed between two variables that are actually unrelated. This is an example of A. correlations inferring causality. B. the directionality problem. C. the third variable problem. D. the restriction of range problem. Answer: C. the third variable problem. 90. The case study method can be useful for A. generating new hypotheses. B. knowing how two variables are related in a given population. C. establishing causality. D. proving a hypothesis to the scientific community. Answer: A. generating new hypotheses. 91. In using the case study method a researcher A. must follow rigorous guidelines. B. must collect all four types of data. C. must try to generalize findings to other people. D. can gather any kind of data he or she finds useful. Answer: D. can gather any kind of data he or she finds useful. 92. Howard wants to study the relationship between income and dominance. Which personality research method would he be most likely to use? A. Case study B. Correlational design C. Experimental design D. Naturalistic observation Answer: B. Correlational design 93. Jacques is interested in finding out if caffeine affects levels of task performance for introverts and extraverts. From which research method would Jacques benefit the most? A. Case study B. Correlational design C. Experimental design D. Naturalistic observation Answer: C. Experimental design 94. Jeanne is interested in developing a scale to measure entrepreneurial personality types. As an initial step in this research program, what should she do? A. Conduct a case study of famous entrepreneurs like Mary Kay, Estée Lauder, and Donald Trump. B. Have several business people observed in their natural environments. C. Conduct a correlational study of the relationship between social status and social dominance. D. Have two groups of business people play Monopoly with different amounts of start-up money. Answer: A. Conduct a case study of famous entrepreneurs like Mary Kay, Estée Lauder, and Donald Trump. Test Bank for Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge About Human Nature Randy J. Larsen, David M. Buss 9780078035357, 9780071318525

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