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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 2 Chapter 1 The Profession of Transportation 1-1 To illustrate the importance of transportation in our national life, identify a transportation-related article that appears in a local or national newspaper. Discuss the issue involved and explain why the article is newsworthy. In 2012, many areas in New York City were devastated by Hurricane Sandy. An article was published on December 2, 2012 in The New York Times to illustrate the importance of transportation on society, especially facing an emergency. Transit officials said that normal train services to the Rockaways were not going to resume for several months. People still needed to go to places, especially in a city like New York, where car ownership is relatively low and many people depend on transit. The article describes the solution found for the transit agency to reduce the impacts of Hurricane Sandy in daily activities of the population of the Rockaways; a special line, the shuttle line H, started running through a stretch of the devastated area, making stops at a limited number of stations. This is an example of an article in a major newspaper that mainly keeps the population informed of their options for transportation after an emergency. In this case, this article also was important to show population in general a sign of progress after a tragedy; the article shows the effort of the transit agency to keep society’s daily activities as normal as possible after the hurricane. 1-2 Arrange an interview with a transportation professional in your city or state (that is, someone working for a consulting firm, city, county or state transportation department, transit or rail agency). Inquire about the job he or she performs, why he or she entered the profession and what he or she sees as the future challenges in the field. Background: Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering. During undergraduate study, worked part-time for the Traffic Engineering Division of the Department of Public Works. Earned a Master of Science in Civil Engineering degree with a major in transportation. Currently employed by a consulting firm, conducting research in multimodal and intermodal transportation systems. Envisions the transportation industry becoming cohesive in that modes will connect with one another at strategic points to allow for the seamless transfer of people and goods. Note: This is a brief transcript of an interview with a transportation professional. 1-3 Keep a diary of all trips you make for a period of three to five days. Record the purpose of the trip, how you traveled, the approximate distance traveled and the trip time. What conclusions can you draw from the data? The table shown on the next page provides a list of all trips made by a student during a five-day period. The following conclusions can be reached about the student’s travel behavior. 24 trips were made (an average a 5.4 trips per day) 8 trips by bus 9 trips by car 7 trips by walking 248 minutes were spent traveling (an average of 49.6 minutes per day) 77 minutes of travel by bus (31% of total travel time) 90 minutes of travel by car (36% of total travel time) 81 minutes of travel by walking (33% of total travel time) About an equal amount of time was spent riding buses, walking, and driving a car.

Date Mode Purpose Time (minutes)
Friday, Jan. 22 Bus Home to class 10
Walk Class to class 7
Bus Class to fraternity house 10
Walk Fraternity house to class 15
Bus Class to home 10
Car Home to store and back 10
Car Home to fraternity house and 10
Saturday, Jan 23 Car Home to store and back 10
Car To store, library, and home 20
Car To library and back 10
Sunday, Jan 24 Car To library and back 10
Car To sister's place and back 5
Monday, Jan 25 Bus Home to Class 10
Walk Class to Class 7
Walk Class halfway home 7
Bus Rest of way to fraternity house 7
Bus Fraternity house to class 10
Walk Class to home 15
Tuesday, Jan 26 Bus Home to class 10
Walk Class to fraternity house 15
Walk Fraternity house to class 15
Bus Class to home 10
Car Home to fraternity house and 10
Car Home to gym and back 5
1-4 Identify one significant transportation event that occurred in your city or state. Discuss the significance of this event. An important event in transportation in Charlottesville, Virginia occurred in 1970, when the University of Virginia began its own bus service. The significance of this event is that the bus service, in a sense, enlarged the University. That is, students could reside off grounds and still be able to commute to classes. This opened the door to develop student housing projects off grounds. In addition, the University now could add new facilities further from central grounds and still have them accessible to students. 1-5 Describe how transportation influenced the initial settlement and subsequent development of your home city or state. Norfolk, Virginia was one of the early settlements in this state due to its proximity to water and near the Jamestown Settlement. Its transportation evolution began mainly as water transportation due to its accessibility to the Elizabeth River. Downtown Norfolk grew around the river, which became a harbor for the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. As Norfolk's population grew, there became a need for more living area and people began to settle further away from the harbor area. As a result of this migration, horse drawn vehicles became the choice mode when people traveled to and from the river. Eventually the mode of transportation that originated Norfolk and Portsmouth, water, became its main industry for employment. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, located in Portsmouth, is a major employer for the area which services and repairs ships used for the transportation of military goods and service personnel. 1-6 Describe your state’s transportation infrastructure. Include both passenger and freight transportation. Virginia's transportation infrastructure is vast. The highway system, as of 2011, according to data from the Federal Highway Administration, includes 74,461 miles of public roads. Of these 74,461 miles, 58,272 miles are statemaintained, with the remainder maintained by cities, towns, and counties. Virginia's rail network, excluding yards and sidings, totals 3,399 miles. In addition, two of the nation's largest railroads, the CSX Corporation and the Norfolk Southern Corporation, are headquartered within the state. Intercity rail passenger service is provided by AMTRAK, which operates eight trains with scheduled stops in Virginia. Rapid rail transit is provided by Metrorail to commuters in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C. Commuter rail service is provided by the Virginia Rail Express (VRE), which operates from Fredericksburg and Manassas to Washington, D.C. Virginia is also served by 9 airports with commercial service to over 600 worldwide destinations. Another 66 airports are licensed for public use, and the majority of these can accommodate multi-engine aircraft. Virginia also has one of the finest natural ports in the world as well as three inland ports. The port of Hampton Roads is served by an ice-free 50-ft. deepwater channel capable of handling large volumes of cargo. Virginia also maintains the Virginia Inland Port, located in Front Royal, which serves the Ohio Valley and beyond. Note: These data are available from the Internet site of FHWA’s Office of Highway Policy Information at “”, The Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation at “”, and at Virginia Department of Aviation “”. 1-7 What is the total number of miles of public roadways in your state? What percentage of the highway system mileage is maintained by the state government (as opposed to local and federal government)? What percentage of the total public highway system in your state is comprised of Interstate highways? Virginia’s total number of miles of public roadways was 74,461 miles in 2011. There were 58,272 state-maintained miles of highways in 2011, which represented 78.258% of the highway system. Also, there were 1,120 miles of Interstate highways in Virginia, which represented 1.504% of the total public highway system. Note: These data are available from the Internet site of FHWA’s Office of Highway Policy Information at “ ” 1-8 Estimate the number of personal motor vehicles in your city or state. What is the total number of miles driven each year? How much revenue is raised per vehicle per year for each 1 cent/gallon tax? Assume that the average vehicle achieves 25 miles per gallon in fuel economy. In Virginia, as of 2011, there were 6,998,385 registered motor vehicles. An estimated 80,974,000,000 vehicle-miles were traveled. Assume the average vehicle has a gasoline consumption rate of 25 miles per gallon (mpg). Thus the total amount of gasoline (TG) consumed in one year is: TG = (miles driven/year)/(mpg) TG = (80,974,000,000)/25 TG = 3,238,960,000 gallons The total revenue (TR ) raised by the 1 cent/gallon tax would be: TR = ($0.01/gallon) × TG TR = 0.01 × 3,238,960,000 TR = $32,389,600 1-9 How many railroad trains pass through your city each week? What percentage of these are passenger trains? In Charlottesville, Virginia, an average of 63 freight trains pass through the city weekly (14 of these stop while 49 pass through). 20 Amtrak trains pass through weekly. Percentage passenger trains = (20/(20 + 63)) × 100 = 24% 1-10 Compare the extent of the U.S. railroad system of today with that of 100 years ago. What changes have occurred and what factors have led to these changes? Today, the U.S. active railroad track consists of approximately 140,000 rail miles operated by seven Class I railroads, 21 regional railroads, and 510 local railroads. 100 years ago, approximately 260,000 miles of railroad track were active. The "Golden Age" of the railroad system was from 1850s to 1920s, when it was the faster, cheaper, and more adaptable means of long-distance transportation. After World War II, a decline of passengers could be observed, as traffic dropped significantly. Automobile and airplane were emerging as competitive means of transportation for passengers while trucks were high speed, free vehicles available to move goods. In 1956, highway construction entered a new era with the authorization of a 42,500 mile National Interstate Highway System by President Eisenhower. This authorization changed the way people lived and traveled and further reduced the role of rail transportation. In addition to that, the railroad system faced a relevant adversity during the 1960s and 1970s when several companies were either purchased by stronger ones or went bankrupt. Also, a decline of passengers began in the 1950s until deregulation in 1980, as a result of severe sanctions and regulation by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). 1-11 What proportion of American household expenditures is associated with transportation, and what is the breakdown of these expenditures by category (such as ownership, fuel, maintenance, etc.)? Estimate the proportion of your monthly budget that is spent on transportation. The annual average American household expenditures are $49,705, which represents $4,142.03 per month; $8,294 are annual expenditures related to Transportation, which represents $691.17 per month. Therefore, Transportation represents approximately 16.7% of total expenditures for an average American household. The breakdown of Transportation expenditures by category is:
Vehicle purchases $2,669 5.4%
Gasoline and motor oil $2,655 5.3%
Other expenses (finance charges, maintenance and repairs, insurance, rental, leases) $2,454 4.9%
Public transportation $516 1.1%
TOTAL $8294 16.7%
Note: These data are available from the Internet site of the United States Department of Labor “”. Data from 2011. A possible monthly budget of a college student is:
Housing (rent and utilities) $525 47.5%
Food $350 31.7%
Clothing and miscellaneous $130 11.8%
Transportation (gas, parking, bus, repairs, etc...) $100 9.0%
TOTAL $1105 100%
Approximately 9 percent of the monthly budget is dedicated to transportation. 1-12 Identify an ITS project or application that is underway in your home state. Describe the project, its purpose, and the way it is operated. The Virginia Department of Transportation is implementing a traffic management system in the Richmond region. This system includes the installation on Interstates 64, 95, and 295, of permanent changeable message signs installed prior to major interchanges, video detection equipment at critical congestion locations, and highway advisory radio throughout the region. This system is intended to monitor traffic and ultimately ease congestion associated with major reconstruction projects on the region’s Interstate highways. The Richmond Smart Traffic Center is located adjacent to an interchange on Interstate 95 and houses the control and communications systems for the traffic management system. 1-13 Most Departments of Transportation incorporate at least five major transportation engineering subspecialties within their organization. List and briefly indicate at least three tasks falling under each specialty. Most state departments of transportation have at least five major transportation engineering sub-classes. Five of these subspecialties in the Virginia Department of Transportation are the planning division, location and design division, maintenance division, traffic engineering division, and a construction division. The planning division is primarily concerned developing long-range transportation plans. This is accomplished by first defining transportation needs, gathering and analyzing data, and then evaluating alternatives. The location and design division is primarily concerned with designing the transportation system. Usually with the design of highways, this division is responsible for the selection of dimensions for all geometric features, which include the longitudinal profiles, vertical curves and elevations, and right-of-way. The maintenance division is responsible for maintaining the transportation system to ensure it is in proper working order. This includes repairing damaged roadway sections and the scheduling of maintenance operations. The traffic engineering division is responsible for the integration of the vehicles, drivers, and pedestrians into the transportation system in a manner that improves the safety and capacity of streets and highways. This includes analyzing traffic accidents, design of parking areas, and the design of roadway traffic signing plans. The construction division is another subspecialty. This division is responsible for the building of the facilities designed by the location and design division. The primary tasks of this division include the development of contracts for highway construction, inspection of highway construction projects as performed by contractors, and publishing of manuals such as road and bridge specifications. 1-14 List four major detrimental effects that are directly related to the construction and use of our highway transportation system. There are many benefits that have come from the highway system; however, these benefits have not come without significant costs. The most obvious cost is that of safety, highway accidents claim approximately 40,000 lives each year. The transportation system also creates air, water, and even noise pollution. It also spoils and changes forever the natural beauty of an area, and consumes vast quantities of precious energy resources. 1-15 Cite four statistics that demonstrate the importance of transportation in the United States. The following statistics illustrate the importance of the transportation sector in the U.S. 8.7 % of the United States’ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is accounted for expenses related to transportation. (2009 data) Approximately 5% of the U.S. workforce is employed by transportation industries. (2010 data) Of all the petroleum used in the U.S., 73.5% is for transportation. (2008 data) • Expenditures on transportation totaled $1.22 trillion. (2009 data) Note: These data are available from the Internet site of Census“”. 1-16 A state has a population of 17 million people and an average ownership of 1.1 cars per person, each driven an average of 12,000 mi/year, at an average fuel economy of 24 mi/gal of gasoline (mpg). Officials estimate that an additional $60 million per year in revenue will be required to improve the state’s highway system, and they have proposed an increase in the gasoline tax to meet this need. Determine the required tax in cents per gallon. First, determine the number of vehicles in the state. 17,000,000 people × 1.1 cars/person = 18,700,000 vehicles in this state. Next, determine the number of miles driven each year. 18,700,000 cars × 12,000 miles/year/car = 2.244 × 1011 miles driven per year Now determine the number of gallons consumed each year. (2.244 × 1011 miles/year)/24 mpg = 9,350,000,000 gallons/year Finally, determine the required tax increase. (9.35 × 109 gallons / year) × TAXINCREASE = $60,000,000 / year TAXINCREASE = $0.00642/gallon TAXINCREASE = 0.642 cents per gallon Therefore, impose a 0.7 cents per gallon tax to raise the required revenue. 1-17 Select a single event in Table 1-1 and explain why this is a significant achievement in the history of transportation. In my opinion, the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869 was the most significant transportation event in U.S. history. This is because the completion of the railroad meant that goods and people could now be transported with relative ease to the western part of the country. This also meant that the development of the west would become more intense. The completion of the railroad spawned the development of the remainder of the U.S., which facilitated trade on both coasts. 1-18 Name and describe the first successful turnpike effort in the newly independent United States of America. The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road Company was chartered by Pennsylvania in 1791 to build road between the two cities. This serves as an early example of a profitable toll road and a roadway with specified design standards. 1-19 What mode of transportation was the primary contributor to the demise of road construction in the U.S. in the early 19th century, and what advantages did the new mode offer? Canals became popular in the early 19th century through large projects such as the Erie Canal and several smaller efforts. Recent improvements in waterway transportation, such as the successful demonstration of the steamboat in 1807, generated interest in use waterways. Waterways provided advantages over the roadways in their level profiles and relative ease of effort in moving freight when compared with roadways. 1-20 What mode of transportation succeeded the mode noted in Problem 1-19, and what advantages did it offer? Canals were succeeded by railways as the primary mode of long-distance travel. Railroads first appeared in the U.S. around 1830. By 1840, the mileage of railways was approximately equal that of canals. Railroads continued flourish while investment in canals declined. Locations for railroads were not confined to watercourses and therefore could be built almost anywhere. 1-21 What was the interest of the U.S government in supporting expansion of railroads in the mid-19th century, and how did the government provide support? There was a growing demand for rail connections between towns, villages, lakes, and seaports. Railroads were indispensable to the development of a national market in the United States. To encourage railroad expansion westward, the federal government provided land grants to railroads totaling over 40 million acres. 1-22 The expectations the public has for the transportation system continue to increase. What is the principal challenge faced by the transportation engineer in meeting these expectations? What fields of knowledge beyond traditional transportation engineering are needed? The public increasingly expects an efficient, effective, long-lasting, and safe transportation system. This challenge requires a knowledge base beyond traditional transportation engineering, including an understanding of human factors, system performance, and technological advances. Chapter 2 Transportation Systems and Organizations 2-1 How would your typical day be changed without availability of your principal mode of transportation? Consider both personal transportation as well as goods and services that you rely on. A typical day in my life would be significantly different without the airplane. Although I do not use this mode daily, goods and services that I do purchase are transported via this mode. Other modes, such as trucking, trains, and the automobile, could serve as replacements to the airplane; however, the airplane significantly lowers the transit time for shipping goods. For example, I mail a letter to California. Typical transit time for this letter using the airplane is three days. By using another mode other than the airplane, the transit time for the same letter would probably exceed seven days. As for my personal transportation, long distance travel is accomplished by using the airplane. For example, I take a vacation to Europe. If I travel using a cruise ship, it would take me in excess of seven days to reach Europe. However, if I fly, I can arrive in Europe within nine hours. Having the ability to transport people and goods quickly allows the international trade market to prosper, which in turn provides me with goods in a timely and efficient manner. 2-2 What are the most central problems in your state concerning one of the following: (a) air transportation, (b) railroads, (c) water transportation, (d) highways, or (e) public transportation. (To answer this question, obtain a copy of the governor’s plan for transportation in your state or contact a key official in the transportation department.) (a) A problem in Virginia concerning air transportation is the high cost associated with short haul flights from airports such as Richmond and Norfolk to connection hubs for major airlines. Another problem is that our air transportation system is aging while the demand continues to increase; our air transportation system is approaching capacity and requiring substantial capital investment to provide modern terminals, increase the number of gates and available parking. (b) Virginia is experiencing a new dilemma with its railroads. For the first time in nearly 30 years, freight railroads are expanding their operations and growing to serve their market segment. To continue to compete with other railroads in neighboring states, Virginia must investigate the possibility of providing rail clearances to facilitate double-stacking of containers into the Port of Hampton Roads. Another problem associated with the increase in freight rail transportation is the conflict encountered with passenger trains running on freight company-owned tracks. As the demand for passenger rail service increases and the freight market share increases, more conflicts will likely occur and the passenger services may require parallel or additional track mileage to meet demand. The most central problem concerning water transportation in Virginia is the increased build-up of silt in our channels. In order for Virginia to remain competitive, it will have to continue to dredge our navigable waterways. Another problem is the increased volume of pleasure crafts and cargo vessels. The increased interaction between these types of vessels will likely result in more serious accidents. To mitigate this, more boater safety classes should be provided to ensure all boat operators are responsible on the water. Virginia's highways are experiencing increased volumes and delays while the overall infrastructure is continuing to age. The volume of trucks on Virginia's highways are significantly increasing annually. As a result, Virginia is experiencing an accelerated deterioration of our highways as well as more serious accidents. The major problem concerning public transportation is that modern systems such as the ones in Atlanta and San Francisco are not present in Virginia. Only Northern Virginia and the suburbs of Washington, D.C. have rapid rail transit in form of the Metro system that is now facing major renovations. Virginia does not have a sophisticated rural public transportation system that provides all individuals with a means of transportation. 2-3 A bridge has been constructed between the mainland and an island. The total cost (excluding tolls) to travel across the bridge is expressed as C = 50 + 0.5V, where V is the number of veh/hr and C is the cost/vehicle in cents. The demand for travel across the bridge is V = 2500 −10C . Determine the volume of traffic across the bridge. If a toll of 25 cents is added, what is the volume across the bridge? What volume would be expected with a 50 cent increase? A tollbooth is to be added, thus reducing the travel time to cross the bridge. The new cost function is C = 50 + 0.2V. Determine the volume of traffic that would cross the bridge. Determine the toll to yield the highest revenue for demand and supply function in part (a), and the associated demand and revenue. Determine the volume of traffic across the bridge. Substitute the total cost function into the demand function and solve for V. V = 2500 –10(50 + 0.5V) V = 2500 – 500 – 5V 6V = 2000 V = 333.33 vehicles/ hour Therefore, the number of vehicles wanting to cross this bridge is 334 vehicles/hour. If a 25 cent toll was added, what is the new volume crossing the bridge? What volume would be expected with a 50 cent increase? 1. Add 25 cents to the original cost function. C = 50 + 0.5V + 25 C = 75 + 0.5V Substitute the above cost function into the demand function and solve for V. V = 2500 – 10(75 + 0.5V) V = 2500 – 750 – 5V 6V = 1750 V = 291.667 Therefore, the new volume crossing the bridge will now be 292 vehicles / hour with a 25 cents toll. 2. Add 50 cents to the original cost function. C = 50 + 0.5V + 50 C = 100 + 0.5V Substitute the above cost function into the demand function and solve for V. V = 2500 – 10(100 + 0.5V) V = 2500 – 1000 – 5V 6V = 1500 V = 250 With no toll, the volume would be 334 vehicles/hour; with 50 cents toll, the volume would be 250 vehicles/hour. That means that an increase of toll by 50 cents reduces traffic by 334 – 250 = 84 vehicles/hour. An additional toll booth changed the cost function to C = 50 + 0.2V. Determine the new volume of vehicles wanting to cross this bridge. Substitute the new cost function into the demand function and solve for V. V = 2500 –10 (50 + 0.2V) V = 2500 – 500 – 2V 3V = 2000 V = 666.67 vehicles/ hour Therefore, the new number of vehicles wanting to cross this bridge is 667 vehicle/hour. Determine the toll to yield the highest revenue for part a. Assume toll rate at T. The new cost function will be C = 50 + 0.5V + T. Since the revenue generated is the toll rate, T, time the volume, V, first solve for V with the new cost function. V = 2500 – 10(50 + 0.5V + T) V = 2500 – 500 – 5V – 10T V = (2000 – 10T) / 6 Since the revenue generated is R = T × V, substitute the above expression into the revenue formula and differentiate with respect to T. R = T × ((2000 – 10T) / 6) R = (2000T – 10T2) / 6 dR/dT (2000T – 10T2) / 6 = 0 (2000 – 20T) / 6 = 0 Therefore, the toll which would yield the maximum revenue is T = 100, or T = $1.00. R = T × V R = (2000T – 10T2) / 6 R = (2000(100) – 10(100)2) / 6 R = 16,666.67 Therefore, a toll of $1.00 will yield a revenue of $166.67 per hour. 2-4 A toll bridge carries 6,000 veh/day. The current toll is $3.50/vehicle. Studies have shown that for each increase in toll of 50 cents, the traffic volume will decrease by 500 veh/day. It is desired to increase the toll to a point where revenue will be maximized. Write the expression for travel demand on the bridge, related to toll increase and current volume. Determine toll charge to maximize revenues. Determine traffic in veh/day after toll increase. Determine total revenue increase with new toll. Write the expression for travel demand on the bridge. Let V = travel demand. V = 6000 – 500(x / 50) Determine the toll charge to maximize revenues. Let T = toll charge. Since the original toll was 350 cents per vehicle, the new toll charge will be T = 350 + x The revenue (R) is generated by the equation R = V × T. Substitute the above expressions into the revenue function and differentiate with respect to x, setting the derivative equal to zero. R = (6000 – 500(x / 50)) × (350 + x) R = (6000 – 10x) × (350 + x) R = 2100000 + 6000x – 3500x – 10x2 dR/dx (2100000 + 2500x – 10x2) = 0 2500 – 20x = 0 x = 125 Therefore, an increase in toll of 125 cents will maximize revenues. Determine the traffic volume per day after the toll increase. Now, substitute the new toll, x, into the demand function developed in part a. V = 6000 – 500(x / 50) V = 6000 – 500(125/50) V = 6000 – 1250 V = 4750 vehicles per day The new demand for the bridge will be 4,750 vehicles per day. Determine the total revenue with the new toll. R = V × T R = 4750 × (350 + 125) R = 4750 × 475 R = $2,256,250 The total revenue to be generated with the new toll will be $2,256,250 per day. 2-5 Consideration is being given to increasing the toll on a bridge now carrying 4500 veh/day. The current toll is $1.25/veh. It has been found from past experience that the daily traffic volume will decrease by 400 veh/day for each 25¢ increase in toll. Therefore, if x is the increase in toll in cents/veh, the volume equation for veh/day is V = 4500 −400 ( / 25)x , and the new toll/veh would be T = 125 + x. In order to maximize revenues, what would the new toll charge be per vehicle and what would the traffic in veh/day be after the toll increase? First, solve for the revenue to be generated by the new toll. R = V × T R = (4500 – 400(x / 25)) × (125 + x) R = (562,500 + 4500x – 2000x – 16x2 dR/dT (562,500 + 2500x – 16x2) = 0 32x = 2500 x = 78.125 Therefore, a toll increase of 78.125 cents per vehicle will maximize revenues for the bridge. For practical purposes and traveler convenience, round the toll increase to 75 cents. Next, determine the resulting volume after the new toll increase. Simply substitute the new toll into the demand function above. V = 4500 – 400(75/25) V = 4500 – 1200 V = 3,200 vehicles per day An increase in toll of 75 cents per vehicle will result in a new demand for the bridge of 3,200 vehicles per day. 2-6 A large manufacturer uses two factors to decide whether to use truck or rail for movement of its products to market: cost and total travel time. The manufacturer uses a utility formula that rates each mode. The formula is U = 6C + 14T, where C is cost ($/ton) and T is time (hrs). For a given shipment of goods, a trucking firm can deliver in 12 hrs and charges $30/ton, whereas a railroad charges $22/ton and can deliver in 16 hrs. Which mode should the shipper select? What other factors should the shipper take into account in making a decision? (Discuss at least two.) Which mode should the shipper select? Let Utruck be the (dis)utility function for the trucks and Urail the (dis)utility function for the railroad. Utruck = 6(30) + 14(12) Utruck = 348 Next solve the utility formula for shipping via the railroad. Urail = 6(22) + 14(16) Urail = 356 Based on the results of the above utility formula, the shipper should ship his goods by truck since Utruck < Urail. List at least two other factors that shippers should take into consideration when choosing modes to ship products by. Reliability: Does the mode consistently operate on schedule? Convenience: Which mode can deliver the freight to a serviceable location? Security: Which mode reduces the risk of pilfering. Rideability: Which mode provides the best ride for the product? In other words, which mode is less likely to cause damage to the product while in transit? 2-7 An individual is planning to take an 600-mile trip between two large cities. Three possibilities exist: air, rail, or auto. The person is willing to pay $25 for every hour saved in making the trip. The trip by air costs $450 and travel time is 6 hrs, by rail the cost is $400 and travel time is 10 hrs, and by auto the cost is $250 and travel time is 15 hrs. Which mode is the best choice? What factors other than cost might influence the decision regarding which mode to use? Determine the total cost (initial cost plus time cost) for each mode. Total Cost(air) = 450 + (6 × 25) Total Cost(air) = $600 Total Cost(rail) = 400 + (10 × 25) Total Cost(rail) = $650 Total Cost(auto) = 250 + (15 × 25) Total Cost(auto) = $625 From the above analysis, it appears that the best mode to choose to make this trip is air. Other factors to consider, other than costs, when selecting a mode to travel might include the following: personal comfort the modes have to offer, whether additional connections need to be made to reach the final destination, the level of stress that can be anticipated by traveling by that mode, or whether the reason for travel is for business or pleasure. 2-8 Name the two key influences on transit system carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is influenced by headway (the “spacing” in seconds between each vehicle, and (2) level-of-service (the “comfort factor” experienced by passengers. 2-9 What factors affect the long-term viability of fuel taxes as a stable source of revenue to fund highway system improvements? The long-term viability of the fuel tax is affected by crude oil shortages, improved automobile efficiency, use of alternative energy sources, and shifts to public transportation. Additionally, the availability of revenue is reduced by diversion of fuel taxes to support transit, ethanol, and government general funds. 2-10 What emerging concepts for financing highway improvements are currently being explored? Several financing concepts, including road use metering, electronic toll collection, and value pricing, may help to offset ineffectiveness in the fuel tax as vehicles become more fuel-efficient. Road use metering involves charging highway users according to consumption (vehicle-miles traveled), similar to many utilities. Electronic tolling is a related concept that can be applied on toll roads. Value pricing involves payment for values of service rendered as a function of demand. 2-11 Describe the organization and function of your state highway/transportation department. Under the Governor, responsibility for the general administration of Virginia's government is distributed among eight cabinet secretaries, one of whom is the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary of Transportation is empowered to oversee Virginia's transportation program. The secretary is also the chairperson of the Commonwealth Transportation Board, a 16 member policy board that functions as a board of directors to (i) oversee the construction of highways and make regulations governing the use of state highways, (ii) ensure compliance with transportation-related federal laws, (iii) collect transportation statistics, (iv) regulate the location of outdoor advertising, (v) oversee the administration of the Transportation Trust Fund, and (vi) generally oversee the operation of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). VDOT is headed by a Commissioner, who is also appointed by the Governor. VDOT's core function is to construct and maintain the roadways of Virginia. This includes the daily maintenance and repair, design and engineering of future road projects, and the long range planning based on future demand projections. It is VDOT's responsibility to keep the roadways in good working condition throughout the year. This organization has its central headquarters located in Richmond, Virginia, and nine other District offices strategically located in other areas of the state. These District offices employ individuals to maintain the roads and the right-of-way year round, which includes the mowing of grass in the summer and plowing snow in the winter. In addition to the roadways, VDOT is also responsible for all of the roadway signs, signals, and street lighting. 2-12 What are the major activities performed by the highway/transportation department in your state as described by the organization chart and other information furnished on their website? The activities focus around the phase of transportation project development: planning, design, construction, operations, and maintenance. Organizational structure supports these responsibilities. 2-13 Consult with the U.S. Department of Transportation website and identify the name and location of highways in your state that are included as part of the National Highway System. According to 2011 data, Virginia has approximately 3,430 miles of the NHS. On Rural areas, there are 1,903 miles of highways in the NHS: 656 miles of Interstates, 1,219 miles of other Principal Arterials, 13 miles of Minor Arterials, 6 miles of Major Collectors, and 8 miles of Local roads. In Urban areas, there are 1,527 miles of highways: 463 miles of Interstates, 241 miles of other Freeways and Expressways, 779 miles of other Principal Arterials, 36 miles of Minor Arterials, 6 miles of Major Collectors, and 2 miles of Local roads. This includes Interstates 64, 77, 81, 85, 95, and Principal Arterials and strategic connectors, such as U.S. 29 and 460. Note: These data are available from the Internet site of FHWA Highway Statistics: “” 2-14 List three transportation organizations located in your state. What services do they provide? Charlottesville Transit Service: Provides local bus service to the residents of Charlottesville. United Airlines: Provides passenger airline service to several cities outside the state. Norfolk Southern Corporation: Provides freight rail service throughout the eastern U.S. 2-15 Obtain a copy of a Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (published by the Transportation Research Board) . Select one article and write a short summary of its contents. Describe the technical area of transportation covered by this article. Title: Comparisons of Contractor and State Transportation Agency Quality Assurance Test Results on Mat Density of Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete: Findings of Multistate Analysis Authors: Rod E. Turochy and Frazier Parker Source: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board No. 2040, pp. 41-47 (2007) Abstract: A typical component of highway construction quality assurance programs is the process by which highway construction elements are sampled and tested to ensure compliance with specifications and other project requirements. The results of contractor-performed tests on in-place properties of hot-mix asphalt are increasingly used in the acceptance decision in many states. Results of tests performed by contractors and state departments of transportation (DOTs) in North Carolina, Florida, and Kansas consistently indicate that differences between contractors and state DOT test results for hot-mix asphalt concrete mat density are statistically significant. Furthermore, these comparisons consistently indicate less variable and more favorable contractor test results, relative to specification limits, that give more favorable acceptance outcomes. Details of quality assurance processes (sampling and testing frequencies, test methods, verification procedures, and acceptance procedures) appear to have little if any effect on these comparisons. These findings provide information for state DOTs to consider in structuring their quality assurance programs, specifically the role of contractorperformed tests in acceptance decisions. 2-16 Write out names of the organizations represented by these acronyms and, for each organization, briefly note the type of organization, its purpose, and its members and constituency. AAA, AAR, AASHTO, APTA, ARTBA, FHWA, TRB AAA: American Automobile Association. It is a not-for-profit, fully tax-paying corporation. It is a federation of affiliated motor clubs with more than 1,100 offices in the U.S. and Canada. AAA provides services to its members such as travel, automotive, insurance, financial, and discounts. It has over 53 million members in the United States and Canada. Each AAA club is an independent, not-for-profit organization, chartered and incorporated in its own state and controlled by its own Board of Directors. AAR: Association of American Railroads. It is an industry trade group representing primarily the major railroads of North America. AAR represents its members' interests to the public at large and to Congress and government regulators in particular. The AAR works to improve the efficiency, safety and service of the railroad industry, such as through its responsibility for the industry's interchange rules and equipment specifications. AAR includes the major freight railroads in the United States, Canada and Mexico, as well as Amtrak. Account for more than 43 percent of intercity freight rail volume and almost 100 percent of intercity passenger service in the U.S. The Association is governed by several committees. AAR has affiliate and associate members; the affiliate members can participate in all activities and are eligible to be part of AAR committees while only some associate members are elected as representatives of associate members at AAR committees. The President of AAR is elected by the members and presides at the Washington D.C. Headquarters and is the official spokesperson and authorizing body for policies and plans. AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It is a nonprofit, nonpartisan association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The primary goal is to foster the development, operation, and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system. AASHTO is composed only of instrumentalities of government. The membership of this Association is by Member Departments, which are those Departments or Agencies of the States of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia in which the official highway responsibility for that State or Territory is lodged, and the United States Department of Transportation, which is an ex-officio member. AASHTO is guided by a Board of Directors made up of the chief transportation officers from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The 12-member Executive Committee is led by AASHTO's elected officers, and is assisted by its executive director. APTA: American Public Transportation Association. It is a nonprofit organization which serves as an advocate for the advancement of public transportation programs and initiatives in the United States. APTA serves and leads its diverse membership through advocacy, innovation and information sharing. APTA and its members and staff work to ensure that public transportation is available and accessible for all Americans in communities across the country. APTA consists of public organizations that are engaged in the areas of bus, paratransit, light rail, commuter rail, subways, waterborne passenger services, and high-speed rail. Members also include large and small companies who plan, design, construct, finance, supply, and operate bus and rail services worldwide. All membership classes have the right to vote on Association matters and other such privileges and services as prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is comprised of the members of the executive committee; the designated committee chair directors, the designated transit system directors, the designated business member directors, the at-large directors, and the APTA president. ARTBA: American Road and Transportation Builders Association. It is a trade association. ARTBA intends to aggressively grow and protect transportation infrastructure investment to meet the public and business demand for safe and efficient travel. There are more than 5,000 members from the public and private sectors. ARTBA membership divisions include: contractors, planning and design, transportation officials, traffic safety, materials and services, public-private partnerships, research and education, and equipment manufacturers. Members can be elected to serve one-year terms as officers for the Executive Committee. Top executives of industry firms and organizations serve on the ARTBA Board of Directors. FHWA: Federal Highway Administration. It is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. FHWA supports State and local governments in the design, construction, and maintenance of the Nation’s highway system and various federally and tribal owned lands. Through financial and technical assistance to State and local governments, the Federal Highway Administration is responsible for ensuring that America’s roads and highways continue to be among the safest and most technologically sound in the world. Key Personnel include Administrator Victor M. Mendez, Executive Director Jeffrey F. Paniati, and Deputy Administrator Greg Nadeau. It is overseen by an Administrator appointed by the President of the United States by and with the consent of the United States Senate. The Administrator works under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation and Deputy Secretary of Transportation. The internal organization of FHWA includes several offices. TRB: Transportation Research Board . It is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council— a private, nonprofit institution that is the principal operating agency of the National Academies in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. TRB provides leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. TRB annually engages more than 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest by participating on TRB committees, panels, and task forces. The TRB Executive Committee, whose members are appointed by the chairman of National Research Council, exercises oversight responsibility for the Board’s programs and activities. Members include senior transportation industry executives, top officials of public-sector transportation agencies, and distinguished researchers from academia. 2-17 List the seven categories of transportation organizations and cite one example of each. There are several organizations and associations active in transportation. There are seven categories of these organizations. The categories are listed below along with an example of an organization in each category: PRIVATE TRANSPORTATION COMPANIES United Airlines REGULATORY AGENCIES Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FEDERAL AGENCIES U.S. Army Corps of Engineers STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES AND AUTHORITIES Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation TRADE ASSOCIATIONS Association of American Railroads PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES Institute of Transportation Engineers CONSUMER ASSOCIATIONS American Automobile Association 2-18 Explain the role of AASHTO with respect to state highway/transportation agencies. AASHTO represents the common interest of state departments of transportation. AASHTO is an international leader in setting technical standards for all phases of highway system development. Standards and policies are issued for design, construction of highways and bridges, materials, and many other technical areas. AASHTO serves as a catalyst for excellence in transportation by offering: Smart solutions and promising practices; Critical information, training and data; • Direct technical assistance to states; and • Unchallenged expertise. 2-19 What are the four principal modes for moving freight? Which of these modes carries the largest share of ton-miles? Which carries the lowest? The four principal modes for carrying freight are highways, railroads, water, and pipeline. Of these four modes, railroads carry the highest share of tonmiles, while water transportation carries the lowest share of ton-miles. 2-20 What are the four principal modes for moving people? Which of these modes accounts for the largest share of passenger-miles? Which mode accounts for the lowest? Air, automobile, bus, and rail are the four principal modes for moving people. Of these four modes, the automobile accounts for the highest share of passenger-miles. Conversely, the lowest share of passenger-miles is associated with the rail mode. 2-21 List four major factors that will determine the future of public transportation in the United States. Indicate if the factor is positive, neutral or negative to the success of transit. According to the TRB report, A Look Ahead: Year 2020, four key trends that will affect the future of public transportation in the United States are (1) increasing suburb-to-suburb commuting, (2) increasing legislation to encourage “livable cities” and “smart growth”, (3) increasing emphasis on improving air quality, and (4) increasing use of teleworking. Suburb-to-suburb commuting is difficult for public transit systems to accommodate and therefore will have a negative impact on mass transit. Popularity of “livable cities” and “smart growth” will have a positive impact on mass transit, as will an increasing focus on improving air quality. The reduction in travel associated with teleworking will have a neutral impact on mass transit. 2-22 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using intercity bus transportation? There are several advantages and disadvantages of using intercity bus transportation. The advantages to using this mode are that it is highly energy efficient. To demonstrate, this mode achieves nearly 300 seat-miles per gallon of fuel consumed. In addition to its energy efficiency, this mode is very safe. It has a relatively low crash rate of 12 fatalities per 100 billion passenger miles. This mode also has disadvantages to using it. For the most part, it is slow in comparison to other modes. Intercity bus transportation is less convenient, it lacks through ticketing, less comfortable seats, and its terminating points are usually located in downtown locations in less active parts of the city. Solution Manual for Traffic and Highway Engineering Nicholas J. Garber, Lester A. Hoel 9781133605157

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