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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 12 CHAPTER 1 1-1. The mass communication theory that states that the media are all-powerful and can accomplish almost anything by influencing or manipulating public opinion and social policy is known as the a. cumulative effects theory b. magic bullet theory c. N-step theory d. agenda-setting theory e. cognitive dissonance theory Answer: b. magic bullet theory 1-2. The psychological theory that describes how individuals tend to ignore or “explain away” messages that are inconsistent with previously held beliefs is known as the a. cumulative effects theory b. magic bullet theory c. N-step theory d. agenda-setting theory e. cognitive dissonance theory Answer: e. cognitive dissonance theory 1-3. The audience theory that states that persuasion is most effective when it does not have to compete with existing attitudes is called the a. reinforcement theory b. activation theory c. unstructured attitude theory d. spiral of silence theory Answer: b. activation theory 1-4. The audience theory that states that persuasion is most effective when it complements or strengthens existing attitudes is called the a. Klapper's reinforcement theory b. clean slate theory c. N-step theory d. spiral of silence theory Answer: a. Klapper's reinforcement theory 1-5. The audience theory that states that persuasion can be effective on audiences that are somewhat in opposition (but not strongly in opposition) is called the a. N-step theory b. clean slate theory c. unstructured attitude theory d. spiral of silence theory Answer: c. unstructured attitude theory 1-6. The native American proverb, “Tell me and I will forget, show me and I will remember, involve me and I will understand,” is paraphrased by what communications theory? a. hierarchy of needs b. two-step flow of communication c. interaction theory d. social learning theory e. agenda-setting Answer: c. interaction theory 1-7. What is the difference between the concepts of gatekeeping and censorship? a. censorship is a function voluntarily performed by media personnel; gatekeeping is performed by an authority figure outside of the media organization b. gatekeeping is a function voluntarily performed by the media; media; censorship is performed by an authority figure outside of the media organization c. censorship is the deletion of material that is otherwise legal to publish or broadcast, gatekeeping is the removal of material that would be illegal to publish or broadcast d. gatekeeping is the deletion of material that is otherwise legal to publish or broadcast, censorship is the removal of material that would be illegal to publish or broadcast e. there is no difference; the terms are synonymous Answer: b. gatekeeping is a function voluntarily performed by the media; media; censorship is performed by an authority figure outside of the media organization 1-8. A public relations professional who designs a campaign to communicate to members of an intermediate audience and intends the message be passed on to its intended audience is basing it on which of the following theories? a. cumulative effects theory b. diffusion theory c. two-step flow of communication d. unstructured attitude theory e. predisposition or reinforcement theory Answer: c. two-step flow of communication 1-9. The theory of mass communications that says that the mass media do not tell people what to think, but rather what to think about, is a. N-step theory b. agenda-setting c. diffusion theory d. uses and gratifications theory e. magic bullet theory Answer: b. agenda-setting 1-10. Which of the following needs are at the top of Abraham Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” model? (meaning that they are sought only after those on lower levels are satisfied) a. physiological needs such as food, air, water and shelter b. safety needs; freedom from fear and danger c. self-actualization or self-fulfillment d. ego needs such as respect and status e. social needs such as group activity and interpersonal relations Answer: c. self-actualization or self-fulfillment 1-11. According to Everett Rogers’ “diffusion theory,” there are five steps that individuals go through in adopting new ideas. These five levels are labeled a. research, planning, communication, evaluation, repetition b. reception, belief, acceptance, change in attitude, change in behavior c. awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, and adoption d. primary, secondary, sub-primary, sub-secondary, repetition e. Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Bashful, and Doc Answer: c. awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, and adoption 1-12. The theory that some needs are more basic than others and must be fulfilled before other needs is called a. N-step theory b. agenda-setting hypothesis c. diffusion theory d. magic bullet theory e. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Answer: e. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs 1-13. The textbook defined individuals who are in a position to influence others and/or are sought out for their advice and leadership in the decision-making process as a. college professors b. process facilitators c. opinion leaders d. trouble makers Answer: c. opinion leaders 1-14. A theory that suggests that persuasive campaigns can be most effective when the message comes from a variety of sources and/or is repeated from the same source over an extended period of time is known as the a. cumulative effects theory b. magic bullet theory c. N-step theory d. agenda-setting theory e. cognitive dissonance theory Answer: a. cumulative effects theory 1-15. In their 1992 book, Propaganda and Persuasion, media theorists Garth S. Jowett and Victoria O’Donnell drew what distinction between the terms “persuasion” and “propaganda”? a. “persuasion” takes place in the real world, while “propaganda” is largely a theoretical concept b. “persuasion” serves the interest of both the communicator and the audience, while “propaganda” serves only the interests of the communicator c. “propaganda” is undertaken by ordinary people, while only politicians engage in “persuasion” d. “persuasion” is undertaken by ordinary people, while only politicians engage in “propaganda” e. Jowett and O’Donnell stated that no distinction exists; the two terms are interchangeable Answer: b. “persuasion” serves the interest of both the communicator and the audience, while “propaganda” serves only the interests of the communicator 1-16. The propaganda technique in which the persuader uses symbols such as the cross to represent the Christian church or Uncle Sam to represent patriotism is known as what? a. name-calling b. glittering generalities c. transfer d. bandwagon e. plain folks Answer: c. transfer 1-17. The propaganda technique based on encouraging audiences to purchase a product or adopt an idea because “everyone else is doing it” and they “don’t want to be left behind” is called a. glittering generalities b. transfer c. bandwagon d. plain folks e. scare tactics Answer: c. bandwagon 1-18. The propaganda technique in which the persuader makes an argument by presenting one-sided evidence and half-truths and often leaves out important information is known as what? a. name-calling b. glittering generalities c. transfer d. bandwagon e. card-stacking Answer: e. card-stacking CHAPTER 2 2-1. In what context did the textbook use the analogies of the “conga line” and “square dance”? a. to describe the two ways in which public relations is used in dance instruction b. to help explain the difference between advertising and public relations c. to describe the history of public relations and how it evolved over the years d. to explain the difference between linear and dynamic models of public relations Answer: d. to explain the difference between linear and dynamic models of public relations 2-2. While the acronym “P.I.E.” is used to describe the updated, three-step model described in the textbook, the acronym used to describe the older traditional four-step public relations process is a. F.I.R.E. b. R.O.S.E. c. N.E.W.S. d. S.T.A.R. e. R.A.C.E. Answer: e. R.A.C.E. 2-3. “Tactics” is a term used to describe a. specific milestones along the way toward achieving goals b. generalized statements of what you want your campaign to achieve c. specific actions that make up the implementation phase of your campaign d. the first step of the public relations process e. the last step of the public relations process Answer: c. specific actions that make up the implementation phase of your campaign 2-4. In addition to conducting research during the “planning” stage of the public relations process, at which other stage of the process are you most likely to conduct research? a. implementation b. evaluation c. you never do research again Answer: b. evaluation 2-5. Primary research includes which of the following? a. research you obtain directly from the source b. research you find in the library c. research you find at Internet sources d. research you find in a textbook e. all of the above Answer: a. research you obtain directly from the source 2-6. Once a public relations program has been executed and evaluated, the finished product use t summarize the project and/or submit it for awards competitions is called a a. communication portfolio b. program book c. planning memorandum d. binders full of PR Answer: b. program book CHAPTER 3 3-1. A form of research that consists of examining documents such as newsletters, annual reports, correspondence, board meeting minutes and the results of previous campaigns is called a. quantitative research b. focus group research c. field observation d. archival research e. depth interviews Answer: d. archival research 3-2. Formerly titled Editorial Research Reports, this popular source of background information on controversial public issues is now known as a. Time b. Newsweek c. The Wall Street Journal d. CQ Researcher e. The Onion Answer: d. CQ Researcher 3-3. Which of the following demographic categories displays these characteristics: recently established in their careers and/or recently started families; limited leisure time; consume large quantities of entertainment and news media. a. seniors b. baby boomers c. mid-lifers or thirty-somethings d. Generation X e. Generation Y Answer: c. mid-lifers or thirty-somethings 3-4. Which of the following demographic categories displays these characteristics: prefers daily newspapers and lifestyle magazines over television and radio, have more leisure time, travel more, perform more volunteer work, brand loyal, resistant to change, less likely than those in other categories to buy on impulse. a. seniors b. baby boomers c. mid-lifers or thirty-somethings d. Generation X e. Generation Y Answer: a. seniors 3-5. Which of the following demographic categories displays these characteristics: mostly teenagers and pre-teens; spend their money on clothing and entertain-ment; easily influenced by advertising; consumes news media to a lesser degree than other categories. a. seniors b. baby boomers c. mid-lifers or thirty-somethings d. Generation X e. Generation Y Answer: e. Generation Y 3-6. Which of the following demographic categories displays these characteristics: highly sought after by advertisers; consume more entertainment media than other groups; some employers complain that employees in this group do not think well in the long-term. a. seniors b. baby boomers c. mid-lifers or thirty-somethings d. Generation X e. Generation Y Answer: d. Generation X 3-7. Which of the following demographic categories displays these characteristics: previously known mostly for their influence on popular culture but now also influencing politics; vote in large numbers; beginning to think about health care and financial security; most were born in the 1950s and early 1960s a. seniors b. baby boomers c. mid-lifers or thirty-somethings d. Generation X e. Generation Y Answer: b. baby boomers 3-8. According to demographic research, which of the following assumptions about seniors is often wrong? a. they have more discretionary income than most Americans b. they have greater amounts of credit card debt than most Americans c. they are proud of their military service d. they are technophobes and are reluctant to learn new technology e. most are either very conservative or very liberal in their political leanings, with almost none in between Answer: d. they are technophobes and are reluctant to learn new technology CHAPTER 4 4-1. In order to conduct an effective focus group, the moderator should ask mostly a. open-ended questions that lead to meaningful responses b. yes/no questions that lead to short, closed-ended answers c. redundant questions to ensure consistency d. multiple choice questions so the answers can be classified easily e. all of the above Answer: a. open-ended questions that lead to meaningful responses 4-2. Following a focus group, the researchers can provide the information to the clients a. as raw data b. in a written summary that is organized either chronologically or by topic c. as a summary of the results followed by interpretations and recommendations d. any or all of the above Answer: d. any or all of the above 4-3. If members of a survey sample or focus group are said to be “homogeneous,” that means they are a. much different from each other b. similar to each other c. completely unfamiliar with the topic being discussed d. native speakers of English Answer: b. similar to each other 4-4. What is the difference between the terms psychographics and demographics? a. demographics provides results in words, psychographics provides results in numbers b. demographics deals with generalities, psychographics deals with specifics c. demographics deals with characteristics that seldom change (race, nationality, gender); psychographics deals with lifestyle choices (occupation, income) that may change over the course of one’s life d. there is no difference; the two terms are interchangeable Answer: c. demographics deals with characteristics that seldom change (race, nationality, gender); psychographics deals with lifestyle choices (occupation, income) that may change over the course of one’s life 4-5. In qualitative research, results are expressed in a. numbers and statistics b. words and descriptions c. both d. neither Answer: b. words and descriptions 4-6. The division of research results by demographic categories such as age, race and gender is called a (an) a. field observation b. gap research c. ranking scale d. focus group e. cross-tabulation Answer: e. cross-tabulation 4-7. A research method that involves monitoring subjects as they interact with their environment is called a. gap research b. field observation c. secondary research d. focus group e. random sample Answer: b. field observation 4-8. One of the most common applications of focus group research is to help an organization measure its strengths and weaknesses and determine what it needs to do to better serve its publics. The common term for this process is a. field observation b. B-roll c. ranking scale d. cross-tabulation e. gap research Answer: e. gap research 4-9. A sampling procedure that ensures that all members of the larger target audience have an equal chance of being chosen for the survey sample is called a a. quota sample b. focus group sample c. random sample d. field sample e. managerial sample Answer: c. random sample 4-10. A sampling procedure used when the larger target audience is demographically mixed in terms of race, gender and age and those factors may affect answers is called a a. quota sample b. field sample c. focus group sample d. managerial sample e. random sample Answer: a. quota sample 4-11. A form of sampling in which respondents are chosen largely because they are easy to find and willing to cooperate, even though they may not be the most appropriate respondents, is known as a a. random sample b. convenience sample c. representative sample d. cross-tabulation sample e. quota sample Answer: b. convenience sample 4-12. A research instrument that asks respondents to place their responses in order (such as first, second, third preference or most important, second most important, third most important) is called a a. Bernays scale b. Richter scale c. Likert scale d. barometer scale e. ranking scale Answer: e. ranking scale 4-13. A research instrument that asks the respondent to choose responses from a list that includes two extremes and a neutral center mark (such as 1=strongly agree, 2=somewhat agree, 3=no opinion, 4=somewhat disagree, 5=strongly disagree) is called a a. Bernays scale b. Richter scale c. Likert scale d. barometer scale e. ranking scale Answer: c. Likert scale 4-14. What is the major weakness (limitation, drawback) associated with the Delphi study? a. it requires an expensive software program and other technology that most organizations cannot afford b. it has a bad history of being horribly inaccurate c. because it deals mainly with closed-ended questions, the results often leave out important information d. it takes too long to compile the results e. all of the above Answer: d. it takes too long to compile the results 4-15. Prior to being applied to the field of marketing research in the 1960s, focus groups were commonly used for which of the following purposes? a. determining listening habits of radio audiences b. measuring effectiveness of military recruiting efforts c. measuring public awareness of nonprofit organizations d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above 4-16. A type of survey question that offers only two possible answers (such as yes/no or male/female) is called a a. Likert scale question b. ranking scale question c. dichotomous question d. barometer scale question e. gap research question Answer: c. dichotomous question 4-17. A research instrument that asks the respondent to choose responses from a list that moves upward or downward from a natural zero point is a. Bernays scale b. barometer scale c. Richter scale d. ranking scale e. Likert scale Answer: b. barometer scale 4-18. Which of the following is NOT an example of qualitative research? a. focus group b. historical research and case studies c. Likert-scale or ranking scale questionnaire d. field observation e. individual depth interviews Answer: c. Likert-scale or ranking scale questionnaire 4-19. The form of quantitative research most commonly used in public relations work is a. the focus group b. the survey c. field observation d. the Delphi study e. content analysis Answer: b. the survey 4-20. If a survey or other research activity is conducted in a manner by which no one (not even the researcher) can identify the participants, the survey is said to be a. confidential b. representative c. random d. haphazard e. anonymous Answer: e. anonymous 4-21. If a survey or other research activity is conducted in a manner by which the researcher is the only person who can identify the participants, the survey is said to be a. confidential b. representative c. random d. haphazard e. anonymous Answer: a. confidential 4-22. “Courtesy bias” is a term used in public relations research to describe which of the following? a. the reluctance of interviewers to ask respondents questions that are sensitive or highly personal b. the reluctance of researchers to report negative findings to clients c. the reluctance of clients to admit past failures when providing background information to researchers d. the tendency of survey respondents to give answers that will please and/or not offend the interviewer e. the tendency of interviewers to be “too nice” to survey respondents and thereby influence their answers Answer: d. the tendency of survey respondents to give answers that will please and/or not offend the interviewer CHAPTER 5 5-1. According to the textbook, one weakness of the World Wide Web as a public relations tool is that a. Web sites are expensive to produce and maintain b. Web sites are too time-consuming to produce and maintain c. Web sites are harmful to the environment d. Web sites do not go through the same traditional editorial process as conventional media e. Web sites are seldom timely because of the lengthy “lag time” between the posting of information and its consumption Answer: d. Web sites do not go through the same traditional editorial process as conventional media 5-2. Which of the following media channels exhibits these characteristics: effective for emotional appeal; effective for reaching broad consumer audience; research shows that retention is low; ineffective in covering stories requiring depth and detail; bias toward visual stories. a. daily newspaper b. monthly or quarterly magazine c. television d. radio Answer: c. television 5-3. Which of the following media channels exhibits these characteristics: effective for reaching youth audience; more detailed demographic research available on audience (as compared to others); difficult to cover visual stories. a. daily newspaper b. monthly or quarterly magazine c. television d. radio Answer: d. radio 5-4. Which of the following media channels exhibits these characteristics: effective for reaching broad adult audience but lacks appeal to youth; sometimes demonstrates anti-corporate and anti-public relations bias. a. daily newspaper b. monthly or quarterly magazine c. television d. radio Answer: a. daily newspaper 5-5. Which of the following media channels exhibits these characteristics: effective for reaching very small and well-defined target audiences; sometimes difficult to work with due to lengthy lead time necessary for coverage. a. daily newspaper b. monthly or quarterly magazine c. television d. radio Answer: b. monthly or quarterly magazine 5-6. What is the difference between the terms “goals” and “objectives”? a. objectives are the general direction for a public relations program; goals are the specific and quantifiable indicators by which you can measure the results b. goals are the general direction for a public relations program; objectives are the specific and quantifiable indicators by which you can measure the results c. “goals” are the expectations of the agency; “objectives” are the expectations of the client d. “objectives” are the expectations of the agency; “goals” are the expectations of the client e. there is no difference; the two terms are synonymous Answer: b. goals are the general direction for a public relations program; objectives are the specific and quantifiable indicators by which you can measure the results 5-7. The various magazines that serve the housewives and “stay-at-home moms” are known collectively by what nickname? a. the three musketeers b. the four corners c. the fabulous five d. the seven sisters e. the elite eight Answer: d. the seven sisters 5-8. An objective that describes your advocacy of or opposition to a proposed government action, such as a federal law, state law, county ordinance or city ordinance is called a (an) a. informational objective b. statutory objective c. motivational objective d. financial objective Answer: b. statutory objective 5-9. An objective that describes the specific behaviors or actions desired for members of target audiences is called a (an) a. informational objective b. statutory objective c. motivational objective d. financial objective Answer: c. motivational objective 5-10. An objective that describes the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes desired for members of target audiences, but not necessarily specific behaviors or actions, is called a (an) a. informational objective b. statutory objective c. motivational objective d. financial objective Answer: a. informational objective 5-11. According to the textbook, the limitations of social media as part of a public relations campaign include a. the “digital divide” that has many lower-income families without Internet access b. many organizations do not take their social media efforts seriously c. many young participants use social media mostly to socialize and track popular culture rather than serious news stories d. there is not an effective way to correct erroneous information e. all of the above Answer: e. all of the above CHAPTER 6 6-1. A paid advertisement designed to enhance an organization’s visibility or image, but not ask audiences to buy something, vote for or against something, or take any other specific action, is called a (an) a. reputation advertisement b. guest commentary c. position statement d. advocacy advertisement e. infomercial Answer: a. reputation advertisement 6-2. A paid advertisement designed to encourage audiences to behave in a specified way, vote for or against something, or take other specific actions, is called a. reputation advertisement b. guest commentary c. position statement d. advocacy advertisement e. infomercial Answer: d. advocacy advertisement 6-3. The most common and effective model for writing news releases is a. like a letter to the editor b. like a consumer complaint letter c. like a news story d. like an academic term paper e. like a television commercial Answer: c. like a news story 6-4. A formal document used to communicate an organization’s opinion on a public issue to public officials or another organization is called a (an) a. reputation advertisement b. position statement c. inverted pyramid d. guest commentary e. annual report Answer: b. position statement 6-5. The interview format in which the person interviewed remains in a television studio while separate and sequential interviews are conducted electronically is called a. focus group b. satellite media tour c. news flash d. editorial meeting e. streaming video Answer: b. satellite media tour 6-6. A meeting between representatives of a newspaper and an organization that is the subject of media coverage or one that has concerns about how an issue is covered is called a (an) a. field observation b. editorial meeting c. cross-tabulation d. gap research e. focus group Answer: b. editorial meeting 6-7. Which of the following is true concerning prepared statements? a. they are longer and more detailed than other types of news releases b. they are shorter and less detailed than other types of news releases c. they are often sent by third-class mail in order to save money d. they are more likely to win awards in PRSA or IABC competitions Answer: b. they are shorter and less detailed than other types of news releases 6-9. Another term for a guest commentary written by a public relations representative (or any expert) and submitted to a newspaper or news magazine is a. B-roll b. op-ed piece c. opinion news release d. public service announcement Answer: b. op-ed piece 6-10. Which of the following forms of media is/are MOST LIKELY to donate free advertising space or time for a nonprofit organization’s announcements? a. television/radio b. daily newspapers c. magazines d. internet service providers Answer: a. television/radio 6-11. Opinion pieces such as guest commentaries written by public relations professionals (or anyone else) are constitutionally protected under the First Amendment and are therefore not subject to libel action. The legal term for this is a. absence of malice b. fair comment c. ghost-writing d. burden of proof e. freedom of information Answer: b. fair comment 6-12. Frequent users of video news releases include which of the following? a. government agencies b. manufacturers introducing new products c. any organization in a crisis situation or other situation in which quick release of information is important d. all of the above are frequent users e. none of the above are frequent users Answer: d. all of the above are frequent users 6-13. Providing a television station or network with raw videotape, with no music, titles or graphics (instead of a polished video news release) is called a a. public service announcement b. video highlights c. background video or B-roll d. editorial video e. streaming video Answer: c. background video or B-roll 6-14. News releases are often rejected because a. they are poorly written b. they have no news value or local interest c. they are too long or include too much fluff d. they arrive too late e. all of the above Answer: e. all of the above 6-15. According to the textbook, what is the preferred length for news releases? a. 1 or 2 pages b. 5 to 7 pages c. 10 to 15 pages d. there is no preferred length Answer: a. 1 or 2 pages 6-16. A format for news releases adopted from the field of journalism is called the a. double helix b. triple summersault c. quadruple bypass d. inverted pyramid e. weakest link Answer: d. inverted pyramid CHAPTER 7 7-1. Of the 500 million Internet users worldwide, approximately how many are in the United States? a. fewer than 5 percent b. between 12 and 20 percent c. about half d. between 75 and 90 percent e. more than 92 percent Answer: c. about half 7-2. In recent years, the growth in the use of blogs has followed what pattern? a. rapid growth among older audiences; almost no growth among younger ones b. rapid growth among younger audiences; almost no grown among older ones c. the growth has been evenly distributed among all age groups Answer: c. the growth has been evenly distributed among all age groups 7-3. Internet-based programs such as You Tube, MySpace, Facebook, and Twitter are collectively referred to by what term? a. new media b. cyber-reality c. social media d. direct impact media Answer: c. social media 7-4. Compared with more traditional media such as newspapers and television, to what what degree can the effectiveness of Internet-based communication tactics be measured? a. the effectiveness of Internet-based communication can be measured more easily and accurately than that of traditional media b. measuring the effectiveness of Internet-based communication is more difficult and less accurate (as compared to traditional media) c. there is little difference between the two in terms of measurability Answer: b. measuring the effectiveness of Internet-based communication is more difficult and less accurate (as compared to traditional media) 7-5. The technological event most often credited with beginning the modern technological revolution is a. the invention of the telephone b. the invention of the 8-track tape c. the invention of the personal computer for home use d. the use of web streaming to cover the 2003 Super Bowl Answer: c. the invention of the personal computer for home use CHAPTER 8 8-1. Items bearing your organization’s logo and/or messages (such as hats, T-shirts, cups, and key chains) are known in public relations and marketing work as a. product placements b. specialty items c. point-of-purchase giveaways Answer: b. specialty items 8-2. An unstaffed electronic booth or station that provides information about your company or organization in locations such as shopping malls and hotel lobbies is known as a a. distance-learning program b. kiosk program c. remote news station Answer: b. kiosk program 8-3. “Cause marketing” is a. prohibited by the American Marketing Association b. marketing that causes additional public relations problems for an organization c. another fancy name for advertising d. promotion of a company’s products on the Internet e. promoting a company by addressing a social need Answer: e. promoting a company by addressing a social need 8-4. One drawback of corporate sponsorships and other projects in which corporations become involved in the school system is that a. many efforts turn out to be a violation of PRSA and IABC codes of ethics b. many efforts result in fraud and the loss of company money and property c. many efforts are prohibited or limited by school board rules and policies d. many efforts fail to produce any results e. all of the above Answer: c. many efforts are prohibited or limited by school board rules and policies 8-5. The technique of attempting to influence elected government officials by working through their constituents is known as a. direct lobbying b. indirect or grassroots lobbying c. kiosk lobbying d. special interest lobbying e. political partnerships Answer: b. indirect or grassroots lobbying 8-6. The Securities and Exchange Commission requires publicly held corporations to report financial information to their stockholders through a. video news releases b. position statements c. news conferences d. quarterly and annual reports e. guest commentaries Answer: d. quarterly and annual reports 8-7. Of the following implementation tactics, which is an example of twoway communication? a. bill and statement stuffers b. product placements c. newspaper and magazine advertising d. 1-800 customer assistance lines e. none of the above Answer: d. 1-800 customer assistance lines 8-8. A recent study found that 72 percent of consumers are more likely to purchase a product or service if the company that manufacturers the product or provides the service is involved in a social cause that is also important to the buyer. The study also found that figure increases to 80 percent under which of the following conditions? a. the cause is related to health and fitness b. the cause involves children c. the consumer’s employer also uses and endorses the product or service d. the product is endorsed by a political candidate e. all of the above Answer: b. the cause involves children CHAPTER 9 9-1. If a client is unwilling or unable to allocate the necessary resources to carry out a proposed campaign, the most effective strategy is for the agency representatives is to do which of the following? a. explain the importance of the overall program and try again for allocation of the necessary resources b. discuss alternative tactics that will cost less but achieve the same results c. delete specific tactics to adjust to a smaller budget d. quit their jobs and find a less frustrating way to make a living Answer: a. explain the importance of the overall program and try again for allocation of the necessary resources 9-2. Which of the following statements is/are true about the process of competitive bidding? a. the process is a legal requirement for most government agencies and all private companies and nonprofit organizations b. the process is a legal requirement for most government agencies but voluntary for private companies and nonprofit organizations c. the process is not required for any organization d. the ethical codes of professional organizations such as PRSA and IABC discourage competitive bidding because of the potential for dishonesty e. all of the above Answer: b. the process is a legal requirement for most government agencies but voluntary for private companies and nonprofit organizations 9-3. Which of the following expenses ARE NOT customarily included in the preliminary budget section of a campaign proposal? a. overtime compensation for regular employees b. costs of hiring freelancers and other temporary employees c. costs of staff members’ regular salaries d. costs of entertainment e. costs of catering and alcoholic beverages Answer: c. costs of staff members’ regular salaries 9-4. A Gantt chart is used in which subsection of the implementation process? a. media tactics b. timetable c. budgeting d. staffing e. non-media tactics Answer: b. timetable 9-5 Which of the following methods of client billing is LEAST common? a. bill clients for each budget item as the expense is incurred b. divide the total cost of the program by the number of months it will run in order to determine a monthly billing system c. bill the client for the entire cost of the program after its conclusion Answer: c. bill the client for the entire cost of the program after its conclusion 9-6. The reference book that includes suggested rates of payment for freelancers is a. Encyclopedia Britannica b. Writer’s Market c. Freelance Digest d. Billboard e. Stage & Screen Answer: b. Writer’s Market CHAPTER 10 10-1. Making before-and-after comparisons is difficult because a. the process is expensive and time consuming b. expertise is difficult to find c. intervening variables cannot be measured d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above 10-2. A backward-looking form of evaluation which focuses on results of a campaign just completed is called a. ongoing evaluation b. summative evaluation c. formative evaluation d. managerial evaluation Answer: b. summative evaluation 10-3. A forward-looking form of evaluation which uses the results of a campaign just completed to recommend or describe what the client or organization needs to do next is called a. ongoing evaluation b. summative evaluation c. formative evaluation d. managerial evaluation Answer: c. formative evaluation 10-4. Which of the following methods of evaluative research is most often criticized as being superficial and potentially misleading? a. before-and-after comparisons b. pre-test/post-test c. analyzing media coverage d. audience feedback Answer: c. analyzing media coverage 10-5. Public relations researcher Walter K. Lindenmann found in a recent survey that corporate public relations departments typically spend what percentage of a campaign budget on the evaluation stage? a. more than 90 percent b. between 50 and 75 percent c. between 20 and 40 percent d. between 18 and 25 percent e. less than 3 percent Answer: e. less than 3 percent 10-6. If your organization’s message appears twice in a publication with a circulation of 24,000, those 48,000 potential opportunities to reach audience members are known as a. audience variables b. contact points c. media impressions d. information exchanges e. Z variables Answer: c. media impressions 10-7. In evaluative research, the term for an unknown or unanticipated element that affects the results of a measurement is known as the a. X variable b. Y variable c. Z variable Answer: c. Z variable 10-8. In evaluating communications programs entered in PRSA and IABC competitions, judges are likely to consider which of the following the most important? a. completing the program on or below the allocated budget b. completing the program on time c. effective use of money spent d. amount of media coverage generated Answer: c. effective use of money spent 10-9. The method of evaluation that includes informal discussions with outside observers such as journalists and industry analysts is known as a. outside evaluation b. non-linear evaluation c. anecdotal evidence d. non-sequitur evaluation e. the Hawthorne Effect Answer: c. anecdotal evidence 10-10. Which of the following IS NOT one of the “rules of variables”? a. X must happen before Y b. X must be shown to have caused Y c. X and Y must be “equal” variables d. there must be no Z variables Answer: c. X and Y must be “equal” variables 10-11. The “one and a half” rule is a theory that states 27. public relations professionals are one and a half times as smart as journalists and should therefore be paid one and a half times as much a. audiences attach more credibility to paid advertising than conventional news coverage (by that ratio) b. audiences attach more credibility to conventional news coverage than paid advertising (by that ratio) c. it takes more money to reach an audience through print media than through broadcast media (by that ratio) d. it takes more money to reach an audience through broadcast media than through print media (by that ratio) Answer: b. audiences attach more credibility to conventional news coverage than paid advertising (by that ratio) CHAPTER 11 11-1. When asked to decide the issue of public utilities and how they communicate with their customers through bill stuffers, the U.S. Supreme Court has made which of the following determinations? a. because they are regulated monopolies, public utilities do not have free speech rights and their communication to their customers can be regulated by the government b. it’s a free speech issue; how companies choose to communicate to their customers cannot be regulated by the government c. public utilities can communicate with their customers through bill stuffers but must provide opportunities for opposing viewpoints to be included in future bill stuffers d. this is a trick question, as the Supreme Court has never addressed this issue Answer: b. it’s a free speech issue; how companies choose to communicate to their customers cannot be regulated by the government 11-2. Public relations professionals are required by law to register with the federal government as lobbyists when a. they represent their clients in advocating or opposing political or regulatory issues at the federal level b. they represent their clients at meeting of the chamber of commerce and other business organizations c. they represent their clients in court cases d. they represent their clients at stockholder meetings e. all of the above Answer: a. they represent their clients in advocating or opposing political or regulatory issues at the federal level 11-3. One common defense in libel cases is that of “opinion,” which has been used successfully in defending a number of cases involving public relations materials. The legal term for the opinion defense is a. quid pro quo b. double-dipping c. habeas corpus d. stereotyping e. fair comment Answer: e. fair comment 11-4. Copyright protection for materials copyrighted by an organization (rather than a person) lasts for what period of time? a. 30 years from date of creation or 20 years from date of first usage b. 120 years from date of creation or 95 years from date of first usage c. forever d. this is a trick question, because only people can hold copyrights Answer: b. 120 years from date of creation or 95 years from date of first usage 11-5. When considering cases of (alleged) deceptive advertising, the Federal Trade Commission uses a guideline that limits the extent to which its rules apply to persons of limited intelligence. This provision is known as the a. intelligent customer clause b. realistic advertising code c. reasonable consumer standard d. advertising review principle Answer: c. reasonable consumer standard 11-6. A 1913 law known as the Gillett Amendment has what effect on the practice of public relations? a. it requires public relations professionals to abide by “truth in advertising” laws b. it requires public relations agencies to protect the confidentiality of former clients c. it established a government licensing program for the public relations profession d. it requires PRSA and IABC to administer codes of ethics for their members e. it prohibits government agencies from using taxpayer money to pay for promotional activities and legislative advocacy unless authorized by law Answer: e. it prohibits government agencies from using taxpayer money to pay for promotional activities and legislative advocacy unless authorized by law 11-7. The unauthorized use of a person’s name, photograph, image, likeness, or voice to endorse or promote a commercial product or service without the individual’s consent is known as a. quid pro quo b. libel c. appropriation d. unfair business practice e. insider trading Answer: c. appropriation 11-8. The Supreme Court case of Bank of Boston v. Bellotti led to which of the following legal determinations? a. companies have the same “free speech” rights as individuals b. a company’s right to communicate to its customers through the mail c. can be regulated by the government d. there is no legal difference between the fields of advertising and public relations e. regular employees and freelancers have different legal relationships with the companies that employ them Answer: a. companies have the same “free speech” rights as individuals 11-9. While the term “freelancer” is generally considered slang, the more formal term (as recognized in court) for an individual who produces communications materials on a perproject basis is a. intern b. communication assistant c. account executive d. independent contractor e. part-time employee Answer: d. independent contractor 11-10. Ethical codes require that public relations representatives “safeguard the confidences and privacy rights of their employers and clients.” From the list of F through I below, pick the two statements that are true: • the rule only applies during the course of employment; once terminated the rule no longer applies • the rule remains in place after termination of the relationship; confidences must still be maintained • the rule applies in most cases but would not hold up in court; in legal proceedings, public relations representatives must sometimes reveal information previously considered confidential • the rule applies in all cases, even in legal proceedings a. both F and H b. both F and I c. both G and H d. both G and I Answer: c. both G and H 11-11. Under current copyright law, material created by an individual is owned for what period of time? a. 10 years beyond the life of the author b. 24 years beyond the life of the author c. 70 years beyond the life of the author d. 200 years beyond the life of the author e. forever Answer: c. 70 years beyond the life of the author 11-12. An unethical agreement to exchange one favor for another is known as a. quid pro quo b. churning c. habeas corpus d. fair comment e. double-dipping Answer: a. quid pro quo 11-13. A written agreement between an employer and a freelance writer, photographer, or graphic artist that requires the freelancer to surrender the permanent rights to the employer is known as a a. communication portfolio b. works for hire agreement c. quid pro quo d. churning e. stereotyping Answer: b. works for hire agreement 11-14. The government agency that enforces truth in advertising laws is a. Public Relations Society of America b. American Advertising Federation c. National Bureau of Advertising Standards and Practices d. Federal Trade Commission e. Department of Homeland Security Answer: d. Federal Trade Commission 11-15. The common law principle that allows public relations firms to sue prospective clients for stealing their ideas submitted as part of the RFP process is called a. quid pro quo b. unfair business practice c. habeas corpus d. churning e. works for hire Answer: b. unfair business practice 11-16. According to generally accepted principles as established by the major professional organizations, a public relations representative’s primary obligation is to a. act in the best interests of the client rather than legal or ethical obligations b. to respect and abide by the law, rather than obligation to a client or employer c. act in the best interests of himself or herself rather than either of the above d. there are no professional standards or guidelines dealing with this issue Answer: b. to respect and abide by the law, rather than obligation to a client or employer 11-17. What is the scope of authority of PRSA and IABC? a. to reprimand and punish all public relations professionals around the world, regardless of whether or not they are members b. to reprimand and punish all public relations professionals (in the United States only), regardless of whether or not they are members c. to reprimand and punish public relations professionals, but only those who are members and only to a limited degree Answer: c. to reprimand and punish public relations professionals, but only those who are members and only to a limited degree 11-18. “Churning” is a term used to describe what ethical offense? a. trading one product or service for another b. a public relations agency violating the confidence of a client c. a public relations agency creating unnecessary work or exaggerating the amount of staff time involved in a project in order to pad the client’s bill d. accepting kickbacks or commissions for referrals e. a public relations agency promising results to the client that are beyond the agency’s control Answer: c. a public relations agency creating unnecessary work or exaggerating the amount of staff time involved in a project in order to pad the client’s bill 11-19. What is the strongest punishment that PRSA or IABC can apply to practitioners who violate the organization’s Code of Ethics? a. not allowing them to renew their licenses b. revoking their membership in the organization c. monetary fines up to $100,000 d. prison sentences up to five years e. forcing them to watch World Cup soccer on television Answer: b. revoking their membership in the organization 11-20. In ethical guidelines established by the major professional organizations and paraphrased in the textbook, the term “in the public interest” refers to the rights and privileges granted by what document? a. the Declaration of Independence b. the U.S. Constitution and its amendments c. the Civil Rights Act of 1964 d. the Truth in Advertising Act of 1974 Answer: b. the U.S. Constitution and its amendments 11-21. Accepting compensation from two different sources for performing the same work is known as what? a. quid pro quo b. double-dipping c. churning d. stereotyping e. fair comment Answer: b. double-dipping CHAPTER 12 12-1. What position have PRSA and IABC taken on the issue of workplace diversity and multiculturalism? a. they recommend that responsibility be given to company attorneys and human resources departments and not to public relations departments b. they are encouraging public relations professionals to become advocates within their organizations for multicultural and diversity issues c. they encourage their members to be knowledgeable about such issues but not to advocate those concepts unless directed to by company leaders d. neither organization has taken a position on these issues Answer: b. they are encouraging public relations professionals to become advocates within their organizations for multicultural and diversity issues 12-2. In the early 1990s, Irish-Americans objected to television commercials produced by several American companies for what reason? a. the ads portrayed them as being dishonest and unethical in business b. the ads portrayed them as being obsessed with sex c. the ads portrayed their ancestors as being heavy drinkers d. the ads portrayed Ireland as a country plagued by civil war and social unrest e. the ads listed Irish holidays but left out St. Patrick’s Day Answer: c. the ads portrayed their ancestors as being heavy drinkers 12-3. The textbook mentioned three national companies who lost multi- million dollar racial discrimination lawsuits in the 1990s. Which of the following was NOT one of those companies? a. Texaco b. Denny’s c. Microsoft d. Shoney’s Answer: c. Microsoft 12-4. A 1980 study indicated that 23 million Americans speak a language other than English at home. More recent studies have shown that number a. has dropped to less than 10 million b. has dropped to about 18 million c. has stayed about the same d. has increased to more than 32 million e. has increased to more than 250 million Answer: d. has increased to more than 32 million 12-5. In Miami, Los Angeles, and San Antonio, radio stations with the largest audiences broadcast in what language? a. Klingon b. German c. Canadian d. Spanish e. French Answer: d. Spanish 12-6. Which of the following demographic or psychographic categories displays the following characteristics: at least 20 million American households include at least one individual in this category; more than $200 million per year in discretionary spending; not interested in special treatment, just equal treatment. a. teenagers and pre-teens b. the disabled c. illegal immigrants d. the terminally ill e. atheists f. single parents Answer: b. the disabled Test Bank for Developing the Public Relations Campaign: A Team-Based Approach Randy Bobbitt, Ruth Sullivan 9780205943593

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