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This Document Contains Chapters 4 to 5 Folk and Popular Culture 4 Thinking Geographically Questions 4.1: In what ways does age affect the distribution of leisure activities in folk or popular culture? Answer: Elderly people in folk culture and popular culture may be limited to only a select number of leisure activities, due to certain disabilities attributed to old age (e.g. a game of chess in a park, rather than competing in triathlons). Folk culture leisure activities enjoyed by older people may include woodworking in Amish communities, or performing bonsai gardening in Japan. Popular culture leisure activities practiced by the elderly may include playing a game on a smart phone, or playing bingo. Their younger counterparts in folk culture in Japan may participate in sumo wrestling, while in Japanese popular culture they may engage in playing video games at an arcade. 4.2: In what might gender affect the diffusion of material culture in folk or popular culture? Answer: Folk culture women may have limited access to many areas of the city. In fundamentalist Muslim societies women are typically not allowed out of the home without a male escort. Their leisure activities are mostly limited to the home. Women in a popular culture are not restricted to where they can go. Many businesses in malls cater exclusively to women. Many women use the mall as a place to meet up with other women. Many female oriented businesses are also clustered around aerobics studios. Women spend time patronizing these businesses after working out. Women also tend to congregate in parks with large playgrounds because many are taking care of small children. 4.3: Why do many governments consider it important to limit the freedom to use social media? Answer: Governments may see social media as an avenue to introduce unsavory ideas and views to their citizens. These ideas may foment dissent in these countries, generating the possibility for protest or revolutionary groups to be born. For instance, in the People’s Republic of China, the government does not allow the use of Twitter and Facebook, so they have banned these “threatening” sites in their country. 4.4: What types of folk customs might be able to be communicated through social media? Answer: Folk customs, such as traditional music, may be able to be communicated through social media. For instance, on the social media website Facebook, traditional Azerbaijani may be shared whereas it typically would be relatively hard to access. Oral traditions may also be typed out and stored online, and diffused through social media. Pause and Reflect Questions 4.1.1: Can you think of an entertainer, a politician, or another public figure who displays a distinctive habit in choice of clothing? Answer: Regarding political parties in the United States, the Republican and Democratic parties are generally associated with the colors red and blue, respectively. For instance, in a debate between two candidates for President, the participants will generally wear red or blue accented attire. 4.1.2: What geographic factors account for the diversity of cultures in the Himalayas? Answer: Topographic features, primarily the Himalayan Mountains, played an important role in isolating groups of people. This isolation led these groups to develop distinct folk cultures in this region. 4.1.3: What type of music do you like? On what “line” in Figure 4-9 does it fit? Answer: I prefer experimental music – I would most likely would fit on the gray “avant-garde” line. 4.1.4: Do you like your state’s favorite artist? Answer: Jay-Z is my state’s favorite artist. 4.1.5: How many Olympic sports are played at your school? Answer: Golf, tennis, basketball, volleyball, and women’s track are the Olympic sports played at my school. 4.2.1: Can you think of other restrictions on clothing styles in developed countries, perhaps in schools? Answer: Children in schools can’t wear clothes with obscene images or words. Girls in school can’t wear clothing that is too revealing and boys can’t wear pants that expose their underwear. Clothing related to gangs may also be banned from schools. 4.2.2: What sort of folk or popular clothing do you typically wear? Answer: I generally wear clothes associated with the “hipster” subculture in the winter months (e.g. tight jeans, boots), while in the warmer times of year I wear clothes associated with the “yuppie” aesthetic (e.g. short shorts, oxford shirts). 4.2.3 What foods do you avoid? Do you avoid foods because of taboos or for other reasons? Answer: I am a vegan, so I abstain from any foods containing animal products. I avoid these foods for moral reasons. 4.2.4: Do your food preferences match the predominant ones in your region? Answer: My food preferences do not match those of my region (I do not eat Krispy Kreme doughnuts). 4.2.5: What factors were considered in the arrangement of the bed in your bedroom? Answer: I have my bed arranged in my bedroom to maximize floor space, as there isn’t much room in my apartment. 4.3.1: The United States has slightly less than 1 TV per person. Does your household have more than 1 TV or less than 1 TV per person? Why might you have more or less than the national average? Answer: My household has one television per person (just me). One might have less than the national average due to budgetary reasons, while one might have more than the national average because they love television, or perhaps use them for multiple purposes (such as a computer monitor). 4.3.2: A recent study of University of Maryland students found that not using any electronics for 24 hours produced anxiety, craving, and other symptoms akin to withdrawal from alcohol or drugs. How do you think you would react to a 24-hour ban on all electronics? Answer: I think I could manage without electronics for 24 hours with no issue – I often camp outside and have no qualms having no access to electronics in the wild. 4.3.3: If you lived in a “not free” country, what use of electronic media might get you into trouble? Why? Answer: Social media and the use of message boards (a relatively outdated web phenomenon) would probably get me in trouble, as all manner of issues are discussed in the outlets. These topics can be critical of the government (and other people in power), so they most likely would see reason to censor it. 4.4.1: In what ways might Amish people need to interact with popular culture? Answer: As far as participating in any sort of leisure activity, they would see little reason to interact with popular culture. However, if they are enterprising, they could open up a gift shop on their property and sell Amish-made goods to tourists who are not familiar or a part of the Amish community. 4.4.2: Summarize two principal ways that popular culture can adversely affect the environment. Answer: Car culture is an enduring part of American life, and has been for generations. People take car rides for leisure, and the interstate system laid the foundation for a wide network of automotive activity for all kinds of purposes. Automobiles emit carbon dioxide, a pollutant known to contribute to global warming – obviously this is detrimental to the environment. Popular music is also an important part of popular culture in the United States. Since bottom lines at record companies have taken a hit as a result of music piracy, touring is relied on by bands to make up the difference lost in record sales. The growing touring itineraries have increased the need for trucks to carry to equipment, or private jets to transport musicians – these elements of touring also contribute to global warming. Explore Use Google Earth to explore the place in London where the 2012 Summer Olympics were held. Fly to Answer: Olympic Stadium, London. Click Historical Imagery. Move the time slider to 9/1999. What sort of structures occupied the site of the stadium then? Answer: It appears to be an industrial area – long buildings appearing to be factories occupied the area of the stadium. There are approximately seven large structures in the area. Click More, then Transportation. Zoom out until you see the nearest subway station. What is the straight-line distance from the station to the stadium? What feature prevents walking in a straight line from the station to the stadium? Answer: Hackney Wick is the nearest subway station, at 0.49 miles away. The River Lea prevents one from walking in a straight line from the station to the stadium. Click View in Google Maps. What is the function of the football-shaped building immediately to the east of the stadium? Answer: It is the Olympic Park Aquatics Centre. GeoVideo Questions How is the fact that mountain climbing is forbidden in Bhutan a reflection of the country’s folk culture? Answer: Tibetan Buddhism is the predominant religion in Bhutan, and as the predominant religion, beliefs associated with Tibetan Buddhism have impacted local customs and regulations. According to their beliefs, deities live at the mountain peaks, making climbing these sacred areas forbidden. Based on the video, how prevalent is global, popular culture in Bhutan? Explain. Answer: Global culture has not reached Bhutan as much as it has neighboring countries, due to government intervention and policies of isolation. For instance, traditional clothes are to be worn by law. List and discuss at least three reasons for the survival of folk culture in Bhutan. Answer: First, Bhutan is a culturally homogenous country, engendering an enduring folk culture. Second, government intervention has prevented the rise of global culture in Bhutan. Third, strict visa laws have prevented mass tourism (e.g., for a stay in the Bhutanese capital of Thimphu, one must pay a daily $200.00 fee). Resources American Cultural History, 19th and 20th Centuries Entertaining and informative details of American popular culture from the last 200 years. Produced by Lone Star College Library references librarians, Kingwood, Texas. http://www.lonestar.edu/library/kin_AmHistory2.htm The National Museum of American History http://americanhistory.si.edu/Exhaustive resource for educators and students. Connections between Chapters Back to Chapter 1 The spread and influence of different elements of material culture can be understood in the discussion of diffusion. Remind students of the importance of these terms in understanding how folk and popular cultures spread. The globalization of culture is also referenced in Chapter 1. Back to Chapter 3 Remind your students that folk cultures are most often spread by relocation diffusion, so the link between Chapters 3 and 4 should be clearer. Students might reflect on whether it is simply migration that is a source of conflict, or whether culture plays a larger role. Forward to Chapter 5 Language and popular culture are interrelated in the formation of new slang and the creation of new words. As a transition to Chapter 5, have the students list words that did not exist 10 to 20 years ago. Numerous examples from the Internet and technology will be offered. Cultural Geography Term Paper Ethnicity is identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland. Our own ethnicity (culture and experience) shapes our beliefs and also influences our perceptions of differing people and places encountered throughout our lives. Therefore, it is important to reflect on and understand our own opinions. Furthermore, we need to increase our awareness of the diversity of people and places not only in the world at large, but also in our own fascinating, multicultural Southern California environment. You must, however, get out and about to experience and taste this richness for yourself. This assignment (fieldwork) is intended to be enjoyable. You choose the time and the place. Many students have combined this assignment with a family outing, a date, time with friends or even have formed informal groups with classmates to venture out together. It is your choice. Procedure Choose one of the locations from the attached list. No passports are required to explore Southern California’s many ethnic neighborhoods. You need to thoughtfully answer the questions below using as much detail as possible in your descriptions. Be observant to the sights, sounds, and smells that create this unique sense of place. Your responses to the questions need to be typed (using 12 point font) and double spaced. Your responses need to be numbered and you should not write out the questions. You will be required to turn in at least two full pages, but most students usually need more than two pages to adequately respond to all the questions. You need to write an essay discussing your visit from a geographical perspective. The essay needs to be at least one full page. Your essay must be typed (using twelve point font) and double spaced. Some possible topics in your essay could be: (1) how the landscape is arranged, (2) the creation of a cultural landscape (architecture), (3) characteristics of the homeland country (political, economic, environmental, cultural) that creates push factors for migration, and so on. Be sure to connect the attributes of the homeland your ethnic enclave represents. Include your internal reactions and feelings about this place briefly in your conclusion. Questions Where did you go? Which ethnic, cultural group is dominant here? Answer: You could choose any location or event that offers exposure to a different cultural or ethnic group. For example, you might visit a cultural festival, a restaurant serving cuisine from a different culture, or a neighborhood known for its diverse population. After your visit, reflect on your experience and consider which ethnic or cultural group seems dominant in that particular environment. Why do you think most of the people in this area migrated to the United States? What do you think are the push/pull factors? Answer: Most people in the area may have migrated to the United States for a variety of reasons, which can be categorized into push and pull factors. Push factors are reasons why people leave their homeland, while pull factors are reasons why they are attracted to a new country. Push factors may include economic hardship, lack of job opportunities, political instability, persecution, war, or natural disasters in their home country. These conditions can create a strong desire or need to seek a better life elsewhere. Pull factors for migration to the United States may include the perception of better economic opportunities, political stability, freedom, better living conditions, access to quality education and healthcare, and the presence of established communities from their home country that provide support and familiarity. Additionally, historical ties between the United States and certain countries, such as trade relationships or former colonial ties, can also influence migration patterns. Overall, the decision to migrate is complex and influenced by a combination of push and pull factors that vary for each individual or group. What landscape elements do you think give this area a distinctive appearance from surrounding areas? Be specific—describe buildings, architecture, spatial arrangement, clothing, types of stores, and music that you encounter. Answer: Based on the description provided, the area in question appears to be rich in cultural diversity, which likely contributes to its distinctive appearance. Here are some potential landscape elements that could contribute to its unique character: 1. Buildings and Architecture: The area may feature a mix of architectural styles from various cultures, such as Spanish, Mexican, Asian, and European influences. This could include traditional buildings alongside modern structures, reflecting the area's historical and cultural evolution. 2. Spatial Arrangement: The layout of the area may be influenced by cultural norms and practices, such as the presence of community gathering spaces, religious buildings, or markets that are central to the local culture. 3. Clothing: Residents and visitors may wear traditional clothing from their respective cultures, adding to the vibrant and diverse visual landscape of the area. 4. Types of Stores: The area may have a wide variety of stores offering products and services specific to different cultures, including ethnic markets, restaurants, and specialty shops. 5. Music: The soundscape of the area may be filled with a mix of music styles from various cultures, reflecting the diverse musical traditions of the community. Overall, these elements combine to create a visually and culturally rich environment that sets the area apart from its surrounding areas. Try a new ethnic food (it doesn’t have to be expensive, just a little exotic to you and typical of what is common in the homeland). What did you try? Did you like or dislike it? What ingredients were in it? Answer: For this assignment, I tried Ethiopian food, which was a new and exotic experience for me. I ordered a dish called "Doro Wat," which is a traditional Ethiopian chicken stew. The stew was made with chicken drumsticks simmered in a spicy sauce made from berbere spice blend, which includes ingredients like chili peppers, garlic, ginger, basil, and fenugreek. The sauce also contained onions, tomatoes, and butter, giving it a rich and flavorful taste. I found the dish to be delicious, although quite spicy, which was a new taste sensation for me. The flavors were bold and complex, and I enjoyed the combination of spices and textures. Overall, it was a delightful culinary adventure that I would definitely be willing to try again. Do you see outward symbols of religious systems that are associated with the homeland? Look closely and describe. Does it help or hinder your cultural understanding of this ethnic group? Answer: When observing outward symbols of religious systems associated with different ethnic groups in Southern California, one can notice a variety of visual cues that reflect the diversity of beliefs and practices. For example, one might see churches with distinct architectural styles, such as Gothic cathedrals or modern megachurches, indicating Christian denominations. Mosques with minarets and domes might represent Islamic communities. Temples adorned with intricate carvings and statues could signify Hindu or Buddhist traditions. These outward symbols can provide valuable insights into the cultural and religious practices of different ethnic groups. They can help deepen our understanding by offering a glimpse into the beliefs, values, and traditions that shape their identity. Additionally, they can serve as a point of connection and dialogue, fostering greater cultural awareness and appreciation. However, it's important to note that outward symbols alone may not fully capture the complexity and nuance of a culture or religion. They are just one aspect of a broader cultural context that includes language, traditions, rituals, and social norms. Therefore, while outward symbols can be informative, they should be understood within the larger framework of cultural understanding. Do you see evidence of the convergence of traditional and modern worlds? If so describe them—look for impacts of communications and technological systems. What kind of connections are going on between the homeland and this region? Answer: In Southern California, evidence of the convergence of traditional and modern worlds can be observed in various ways, particularly through the impacts of communication and technological systems. One prominent example is the use of social media and digital platforms to maintain connections with homelands and cultural roots. Many ethnic communities in Southern California use digital communication tools such as WhatsApp, Skype, and social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram to stay connected with family and friends in their homelands. These platforms allow for instant communication, sharing of photos and videos, and participation in cultural events and celebrations, bridging the gap between traditional practices and modern technology. Additionally, advancements in transportation have made it easier for individuals to travel between Southern California and their homelands, facilitating the exchange of ideas, goods, and cultural practices. This has led to the blending of traditional and modern lifestyles, as people incorporate aspects of their cultural heritage into their daily lives in Southern California. Furthermore, the region's diverse population has contributed to the popularity of ethnic festivals, cultural events, and culinary experiences that showcase the convergence of traditional and modern worlds. These events provide a platform for cultural exchange and appreciation, highlighting the dynamic nature of cultural identity in Southern California. Look at products sold in stores and businesses. Do you see references to specific locations in the homeland? What cities and regions are on the labels of products? Where are the goods made? Answer: When examining products sold in stores and businesses in Southern California, one can often find references to specific locations in the homelands of various ethnic groups. These references can be found on labels of food products, clothing, and other goods, providing insights into the origin and cultural significance of these items. For example, in grocery stores catering to Hispanic communities, one might find products with labels indicating they are from specific cities or regions in Mexico or Central America. These labels might mention cities like Oaxaca, Michoacán, or Jalisco, known for their distinct culinary traditions and food products. Similarly, in stores serving Asian communities, one might find products with labels indicating they are from cities or regions in countries like China, Japan, Korea, or Vietnam. These labels might mention cities like Beijing, Tokyo, Seoul, or Hanoi, known for their unique cultural and culinary contributions. The goods themselves are often made in the homeland or in regions with a strong connection to the cultural traditions of that homeland. This connection to specific locations adds value to the products for consumers who are seeking authentic cultural experiences through their purchases. What types of economic activities and businesses do you find here? Are there any surprises? Are there any specific businesses that reflect social customs from the homeland? Describe. Answer: In Southern California, a multicultural environment like this likely hosts a wide range of economic activities and businesses that cater to the diverse population. Here are some general observations and potential surprises: 1. Ethnic Restaurants and Food Stores: Given the cultural diversity, there are likely numerous restaurants and food stores offering cuisine from various countries. This includes not only traditional restaurants but also food trucks and pop-up eateries. 2. Cultural and Ethnic Clothing Stores: Stores selling traditional clothing and accessories from different cultures are common, reflecting the diverse population. 3. Religious Goods and Services: Businesses catering to different religious groups, such as bookstores, places of worship, and religious goods stores, are likely present. 4. Cultural Centers and Community Organizations: These may include cultural centers, museums, and community organizations that promote and preserve the heritage of different ethnic groups. 5. Surprises: One potential surprise could be the presence of businesses that offer services or products unique to a specific culture or ethnic group, such as traditional healing practices or cultural ceremonies. 6. Businesses Reflecting Social Customs: For example, businesses that offer traditional matchmaking services, language classes, or cultural events can reflect social customs from the homeland. These businesses serve as important hubs for maintaining cultural connections and traditions within the community. Overall, the economic activities and businesses in Southern California likely reflect the rich cultural tapestry of the region, providing residents and visitors with a unique and diverse array of experiences. Any interesting (or perhaps strange to you) items for sale in these stores? People and cultures perceive and utilize resources differently—what is your cultural response to the unique items you see? Answer: In Southern California's multicultural environment, stores catering to different ethnic groups may offer a variety of interesting or unique items for sale. These items can vary widely, reflecting the diverse cultural backgrounds of the community. Some examples of interesting items one might encounter include: 1. Traditional Clothing and Accessories: Stores may offer traditional clothing items such as saris, kimonos, or traditional African attire, along with accessories like jewelry, scarves, and headwear. 2. Cultural Art and Decor: Stores may sell artworks, sculptures, and decorative items that are unique to different cultures, showcasing traditional craftsmanship and artistic styles. 3. Cultural Foods and Ingredients: Specialty food stores may offer a wide range of unique ingredients, spices, and condiments used in traditional cooking, allowing customers to recreate authentic dishes from their homeland. 4. Traditional Musical Instruments: Stores may sell traditional musical instruments from different cultures, providing musicians and enthusiasts with access to unique and authentic instruments. 5. Religious and Spiritual Items: Stores may offer a variety of religious and spiritual items such as prayer beads, incense, religious texts, and artifacts that are important in different faith traditions. 6. Cultural Books and Literature: Bookstores may carry literature and books in different languages, as well as works by authors from various cultural backgrounds, providing insights into different worldviews and perspectives. My cultural response to these unique items would likely be one of curiosity and interest. I would be intrigued by the craftsmanship and artistry of these items, as well as their cultural significance and the stories they represent. It would be an opportunity for me to learn more about different cultures and appreciate the diversity of human expression and creativity. New immigrant groups have always tried to recreate their homelands when they migrated to the United States. Why do you think it is helpful for new arrivals to the United States to live in or near an ethnic enclave? Do you think you would be attracted to an American enclave if you moved to a foreign country? Answer: Living in or near an ethnic enclave can be beneficial for new arrivals to the United States for several reasons. Firstly, ethnic enclaves often provide a sense of familiarity and comfort, as they offer a community of people who share similar cultural backgrounds, traditions, and language. This can help new immigrants adjust to their new surroundings and reduce feelings of isolation or homesickness. Secondly, ethnic enclaves can serve as a support network for new immigrants, providing access to resources, services, and information that are specific to their cultural needs. This can include assistance with language barriers, finding employment, accessing healthcare, and navigating the immigration system. Additionally, ethnic enclaves can help preserve and promote cultural heritage and traditions, allowing new immigrants to maintain a connection to their homeland while adapting to their new country. This can be particularly important for preserving language, customs, and values across generations. If I were to move to a foreign country, I can see the appeal of living in an enclave or community of fellow Americans. It would provide a sense of familiarity and support, especially during the initial stages of adjusting to a new culture and environment. However, I would also be interested in experiencing the local culture and integrating into the broader community, so I would likely seek a balance between living in an enclave and exploring the wider cultural landscape of the foreign country. Due Date: The day of the Final Exam. No late papers will be accepted. AROUND THE WORLD: ETHNIC AREAS PROVIDE GLIMPSES OF OTHER CULTURES Compiled by Lori E. Miller, Recreated from Los Angeles Times, Southland Funbook Alpine Village in Torrance: www.alpinevillage.net 833 West Torrance Boulevard at Harbor (110) Freeway Features: This Bavarian-style marketplace, started by German speaking shopkeepers is laced with stores, eateries, nightly entertainment, a market and a wedding chapel. An outdoor Oktoberfest is held September–October. Hours: Shops generally open from 11A.M.–6 P.M. daily with extended hours for restaurants Parking: Free Chinatown in Los Angeles: www.lachinesechamber.org Bounded by Cesar Chavez Boulevard and Bernard, Figueroa, and Alameda streets Features: Central Plaza, guarded by its Filial Piety, is flanked with narrow walkways and tiny shops. Nearby are herb shops, fresh fish stores, and eateries. Hours: Shops generally open from 10 A.M.–6 P.M. daily with extended hours for restaurants Parking: Lots and metered parking along city streets El Pueblo de Los Angeles (Olvera Street) in Los Angeles Intersection of Main and Alameda Streets Features: Considered to be the birthplace of Los Angeles, this historic enclave consists of 27 landmark buildings, as well as a strip of colorful shops and taquerias lining Olvera Street. Hours: 10 A.M.- 9 P.M. daily. Docent-led walking tours are offered at 10 A.M., 11A.M., and noon Wednesday through Sunday Parking: Various lots and metered parking along city streets Fairfax District in Los Angeles Fairfax Boulevard between Beverly Boulevard and Melrose Avenue Features: Home to a large Jewish population. This district remains an intricate part of the city’s Jewish community. Lining the pavement are storefronts containing mostly delicatessens and Kosher markets. Hours: Stores generally open from 10A.M.–6 P.M. daily with extended hours for restaurants Parking: Various lots and metered parking along city streets Koreatown in Los Angeles Between 4th Street and Olympic Boulevard, and Western and Vermont Avenue Features: Colorful storefronts and restored bungalows can be found in this area that is home to the Korean Cultural Center (offering art exhibits and a resource library); Korean grocery, music, and clothing stores; and Korean restaurants. Hours: Vary by establishment Parking: Various lots and metered parking along city streets Leimert Park in Los Angeles Bounded by Crenshaw Boulevard, 43rd Street, Leimert Boulevard, and 43rd Place Features: Consisting of nearly a dozen pedestrian-friendly blocks, this urban village offers a wealth of Afrocentric themed shops and services. Also a popular area for African-American artists, poets, and musicians. Hours: Stores generally open from 10A.M.–6 P.M. daily with extended hours for restaurants Parking: Various lots and metered parking along city streets Little India in Artesia Pioneer Boulevard between 183rd and 187th streets Features: Among the flour-block stretch of mini malls and Indian eateries are shops laden with silk saris, jewelry, home accessories, and other exotic imports. Hours: 11A.M.–8 P.M. Tuesday through Sunday Parking: Two-hour street parking is available along Pioneer Boulevard from 7am- 6pm Little Saigon in Westminster 9200 block of Bolsa Avenue Features: The Asian Garden and New Saigon Mall is the gateway to Orange County’s most exotic community. A variety of shops and restaurants, which number more than 200, contain healing herbs, imported wares, jewelry, and a variety of other items. A visit to the Cultural Court reveals a display of artwork and statues depicting Asian history. Hours: Vary by establishment Parking: Free Little Tokyo in Los Angeles: www.janet.org Bounded by Los Angeles Street, Central Avenue, and 1st and 3rd streets Features: This historic neighborhood is home to a cultural center, theater, museum, Buddhist temple, plaza-style shopping center, boutiques, and restaurants. Hours: Stores generally open from 10A.M.–6 P.M. daily with extended hours for restaurants Parking: Various lots and metered parking along city streets Thai Town in Hollywood: thaicdc.org Along Hollywood Boulevard (between Western and Normandie Avenues) Features: Shops, marketplaces, bookstores, and cafes. Hours: Most businesses operate from 8 A.M.–10 P.M. Parking: Free parking at Thailand Plaza, as well as metered parking along Hollywood Boulevard and neighboring streets Languages 5 Thinking Geographically Questions 5.1: As Chinese languages become increasingly important as lingua franca, what distinctive elements make it especially attractive to use, and which make it especially difficult to use? Answer: Chinese languages are written primarily with logograms, making it difficult for non-speakers to learn thousands of different characters to adequately communicate. However, this may also be an attractive element of the language, in that it is a more “compact” written language. 5.2: The two theories of the origin of Indo-European depend on different views underlying the reasons that people migrate. Do you think the “war” theory or the “peace” theory better explains the migration of early humans? Why? Answer: I believe the sedentary farmer is more accurate, as the evidence has more historical context (goes 2,000 years further back than the nomadic warrior theory). 5.3: According to Figure 5-28c, which dialects of British English are forecast to expand, and which are expected to contract by 2030? Answer: The Southern dialect is expected to expand further northward, while the Midlands and Northern dialects are projected to contract by 2030. 5.4: What geographic factors might account for this changing distribution? Answer: This changing distribution may be attributable to shifting migration patterns both to and within England. 5.5: Myaamia is an example of a reawakening language. What would have to happen for the language to become even more vigorous in the future? Answer: The children of the people currently taking part in the revitalization of the language will have to continue efforts to protect and preserve the language. An essential piece of continuing this reawakening will be teaching their children the language, and ensuring their children also teach their children, and so on. Pause and Reflect Questions 5.1.1: What forms of power would have moved boats 2,000 years ago? Answer: Wind and human power would have moved boats 2,000 years ago. 5.1.2: Based on Figure 5-3, which four other languages with at least 5 million speakers belong to the same language family, branch, and group as English? Answer: Afrikaans, German, Bavarian, and Dutch all have at least 5 million speakers and belong to the same language family, branch, and group as English. 5.1.3: Sino-Tibetan is the second-most widely used language family, but it appears on Figure 5-6 to encompass a smaller land area than several other language families. Why is this the case? Answer: Because the areas where people speak languages belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family are relatively more densely populated than, say, the Niger-Congo language family, which actually covers more land area. 5.1.4: Most languages are named for regions or countries. For example, based on their names, how would you expect the distributions of Austronesians and Austro-Asiatic to differ? Answer: Austro-Asiatic, by virtue of its name, seems like it would encompass a comparatively larger area of the world, whereas Austronesian would be confined to the Australian/Polynesian area. This is purely conjecture based on the names alone, though. 5.2.1: Which branch predominates to the north in Europe, which to the south, and which to the east? Answer: The Balto-Slavic branch predominates to the east, the Germanic branch predominates to the north, and the Romance branch predominates to the south. 5.2.2: Which hypothesis appeals more to you: the “war” hypothesis or the “peace” hypothesis? Why? Answer: The “peace” hypothesis appeals more to me, because I would like to think that at their core, humans are peaceful. 5.2.3: School and University: Which word entered the English language through the German invasions and which through the Norman invasion? Answer: School entered the English language through the German invasions, and university through the Norman invasion. 5.2.4: What is the title of the book in Figure 5-20? Type the letters into Google Translate. Answer: The title of the book is тренировочные тесты. It translates to “Practice Tests.” 5.2.5: Is English an official language in your state? Answer: Yes. 5.3.1: In what ways do you learn about differences between American and British English? Answer: It is quite easy to familiarize oneself with British English through watching British television and movies, and reading British literature. It also helps to communicate directly with someone from the U.K., whether that be online or in person. 5.3.2: Does your English fall into one of these dialects? Why or why not? Answer: Not especially. My dialect is a mixture of Chicago and “Inland South,” growing up in both locations and drawing words and pronunciations from both. 5.3.3: Does your Internet search engine show tildes, cedillas, and circumflexes? Answer: My search engine does, however my keyboard doesn’t have dedicated keys for these accent marks. 5.3.4: What is the most widely used language in the same family as Hausa? What religion’s holiest book is written in that language? Answer: The most widely Afroasiatic language is Arabic. Islam’s holiest book, the Quran (Koran) is written in Arabic. 5.4.1: Asia has 60 percent of the world’s population but only 20 percent of the world’s dying languages. Why might Asia’s large population centers have relatively few dying languages? Answer: Because the effects of globalization may not have diffused fully to these areas, allowing for a diversity of languages. Parents may be continuing to teach their languages to their children, and the governments of these countries may also have policies implemented to help protect and preserve these languages. 5.4.2: Google Translate includes Irish and Welsh. Type something in English and see whether similar words are used in Irish and in Welsh and whether the words are similar to English. Answer: “Good morning” is “maidin mhaith” in Irish and “bore da” in Welsh. They aren’t very similar at all to their English counterpart, although in the Welsh phrase I suppose “da” may be related to “day.” 5.4.3: Why do you think the sign in Figure 5-47 is written in both Icelandic and English? Answer: Most likely because the government recognizes English as an official language, or perhaps they realize that with English’s status as a lingua franca, it would be wise to include an English translation for tourists who cannot speak Icelandic. Explore Use Google Earth to explore Wentworth Avenue in Chicago. Fly to 2230 S Wentworth, Chicago, IL. Use Street View to click on Wentworth Avenue. 1. What language other than English do you see? Answer: Signs appear to be in Chinese. 2. What factors probably determine the amount of English used on signs along Wentworth Avenue? Answer: For safety signs, the government probably mandates that the signage be in English. However, commercial signage may be in English to attract non-Chinese speaking customers. GeoVideo Questions 1. What were the advantages to using Hebrew as the national language of Israel? Answer: Israel is a nation of migrants, and the different groups of people that came to live in Israel spoke different languages. Russian was “too limited” and Yiddish was “polluted,” so they resolved to revive Hebrew as a standard language. 2. What are the disadvantages to using an ancient language in the modern world? Answer: Many objects in the modern world do not have a word from Hebrew that can properly encapsulate their function or meaning, so some words are borrowed from other languages (see: hand brake) or old words are reconfigured to be associated with modern day objects. 3. How does the video explain using a modernization of an ancient term (such as for “battery”) and for using an English term (such as for “puncture”)? Answer: Many objects had Hebrew words created for them, but did not “catch on,” so an English loan word was used in its place; in other instances, old words are reconfigured to be associated with modern day objects. Resources Ethnologue This is the definitive online source for cataloging, documenting, and understanding world languages. Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, sixteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: www.ethnologue.com/ National Association for Bilingual Education www.nabe.org/ U.S. English, Inc. Despite widespread belief to the contrary, there is no official language of the federal government of the United States. Here is the website of one organization that hopes to make it so: www.us-english.org/ Office of English Language Acquisition, U.S. Department of Education http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oela/index.html Connections between Chapters Back to Chapter 4 An obvious parallel is comparing culture’s globalization and corresponding diminishment of folk cultures and cultural diversity to the globalization of English and the corresponding threat to smaller languages. While efforts to preserve both folk cultures and local languages are underway, globalization poses a threat to diversity in each case. Forward to Chapter 6 A major difference between language and religion is the problem of exclusive adherence: While conflicts can arise over language differences, it is possible for people to learn more than one language and/or for translation to occur. Contrastingly, most religious ideologies prohibit the practice of more than one faith and strongly discourage communication with other religions for any purpose other than conversation! Solution Manual for The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography James M. Rubenstein 9780321831583, 9780321956712, 9780321831576, 9780132435734

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