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Chapter 2 Marketing Research: Process and Systems for Decision Making High-Level Chapter Outline I. The Role of Marketing Research II. The Marketing Research Process A. Purpose of the Research B. Plan of the Research Primary versus Secondary Data Qualitative versus Quantitative Research Company versus Contract Research C. Performance of the Research D. Processing of Research Data E. Preparation of the Research Report F. Limitations of the Research Process III. Marketing Information Systems Detailed Chapter Outline I. The Role of Marketing Research Marketing research is the process by which information about the environment is generated, analyzed, and interpreted for use in marketing decision making. Marketing research does not make decisions, but it can substantially increase the chances that good decisions are made. Marketing managers should recognize that: Even the most carefully executed research can be fraught with errors Marketing research does not forecast with certainty what will happen in the future They should make decisions in light of their own knowledge and experience, since no marketing research study includes all of the factors that could influence the success of a strategy Although marketing research does not make decisions, it can reduce the risk associated with managing marketing strategies. It is vital for investigating the effects of various marketing strategies after they have been implemented. Today, many marketing researchers work hand-in-hand with marketing managers throughout the research process and have responsibility for making strategic recommendations based on the research. II. The Marketing Research Process Marketing research can be viewed as the systematic process for obtaining information to aid in decision-making. There are many types of marketing research. The five Ps of the research process are (Figure 2.1): Purpose of the research Plan of the research Performance of the research Processing of research data Preparation of research report A. Purpose of the Research The first step in the research process is to determine explicitly why the research is needed and what it is to accomplish. Quite often a situation or problem is recognized as needing research, yet the nature of the problem is not clear or well defined nor is the appropriate type of research evident. Managers and researchers need to discuss and clarify the current situation and develop a clear understanding of the problem. Managers and researchers should agree on: The current situation involving the problem to be researched The nature of the problem The specific question or questions the research is designed to investigate This step is crucial since it influences the type of research to be conducted and the research design. B. Plan of the Research A research plan spells out the nature of the research to be conducted and includes an explanation of such things as the sample design, measures, and analysis techniques to be used. Three critical issues influence the research plan are: Whether primary or secondary data are needed Whether qualitative or quantitative research is needed Whether the company will do its own research or contract with a marketing research specialist Primary versus Secondary Data Primary data are the data collected specifically for the research problem under investigation. Secondary data are the data that have previously been collected for other purposes but can be used for the problem at hand. Secondary information has the advantage of usually being cheaper than primary data, although it is not always available for strategy- specific research questions. There are many types of secondary data that could be useful for understanding a market and for answering a particular research question. Some of these data can be found from sources internal to the organization such as sales invoices, quarterly sales reports, and marketing research done by the organization. Other secondary data must be obtained from sources external to the organization and include information such as syndicated data providers and by the government, such as U.S. census data. Figure 2.2 lists the common types of information that is available in a secondary data research. Qualitative versus Quantitative Research Qualitative research typically involves face-to-face interviews with respondents designed to develop a better understanding of what they think and feel concerning a research topic. The two most common types of qualitative research are focus group and long interviews. Focus groups typically involve discussions among a small number of consumers led by an interviewer and are designed to generate insights and ideas about products and brands. Long interviews are conducted by an interviewer with a single respondent for several hours. Quantitative research involves more systematic procedures designed to obtain and analyze numerical data. There are four common types of quantitative research in marketing are observation, surveys, experiments, and mathematical modeling. Observational research involves watching people and recording relevant facts and behaviors. Survey research involves the collection of data by means of a questionnaire either by mail, phone, online or in person. Experimental research involves manipulating one variable and examining its impact on other variables. Mathematical modeling research often involves secondary data. It is useful because it provides an efficient way to study problems with extremely large secondary data sets. Company versus Contract Research Most large consumer goods companies have marketing research departments that can perform a variety of types of research. In addition many marketing research firms, advertising agencies, and consulting companies do marketing research on a contract basis. C. Performance of the Research Performance of the research involves preparing for data collection and actually collecting them. In terms of actual data collection, a cardinal rule is to obtain and record the maximal amount of useful information, subject to the constraints of time, money, and respondent privacy. Failure to obtain and record data clearly can obviously lead to a poor research study, while failure to consider the rights of respondents raises both practical and ethical problems. Thus, both the objectives and constraints of data collection must be closely monitored. D. Processing of Research Data Processing research data includes the preparation of data for analysis and the actual analysis of them. The appropriate analysis techniques for collected data depend on the nature of the research questions and the design of the research. Qualitative research data consist of interview records that are content analyzed for ideas or themes. Quantitative research data may be analyzed in a variety of ways depending on the objectives of the research. A critical part of this stage is interpreting and assessing the research results. Marketing researchers should always double-check their analysis and avoid overstating the strength of their findings. E. Preparation of the Research Report The research report is a complete statement of everything in a research project and includes a write-up of each of the previous stages as well as the strategic recommendations from the research. Figure 2.4 lists the types of questions marketing researchers and managers should discuss prior to submitting the final research report. Research reports should be clear and unambiguous with respect to what was done and what recommendations are made. Researchers should work closely with managers to ensure that the study and its limitations are fully understood. F. Limitations of the Research Process Many problems and difficulties must be overcome if a research study is to provide valuable information for decision making. The major goal of most test marketing is to measure new product sales on a limited basis where competitive retaliation and other factors are allowed to operate freely. Problems that could invalidate test marketing study results are listed below. Test market areas are not representatives of the market in general in terms of population, characteristics, competition, and distribution outlets. Sample size and design are incorrectly formulated because of budget constraints. Pretest measurements of competitive brand sales are not made or are inaccurate, limiting the meaningfulness of market share estimates. Test scores do not give complete support to the study, such that certain package sizes may not be carried or prices may not be held constant during the test period. Test-market products are advertised or promoted beyond a profitable level for the market in general. The effects of factors influence sales, such as the sales force, season, weather conditions, competitive retaliation, shelf space, and so forth, are ignored in the research. The test-market period is too short to determine whether the product will be repurchased by customers. Careful research planning, coordination, implementation, and control can help reduce such problems and increase the value of research for decision making. III. Marketing Information Systems Most marketers use computer-based systems to help them gather, sort, store, and distribute information for marketing decisions. A popular form of marketing information system is the marketing decision support system, which is a coordinated collection of data, tools, and techniques involving both computer hardware and software by which marketers gather and interpret relevant information for decision making. These systems require three types of software: Database management software for sorting and retrieving data from external and internal sources. Model base management software for manipulating data in ways that are useful for marketing decision making. A dialog system that permits marketers to explore data base and use models to produce information to address their decision-making needs. Marketing decision support systems are designed to handle information from both internal and external sources. External information is gathered from outside the organization and concerns changes in the environment that could influence marketing strategies. KEY TERMS Experimental research: Experimental research involves manipulating one variable and examining its impact on other variables. Focus groups: A type of qualitative research that typically involves discussions among a small number of consumers led by an interviewer and designed to generate insights and ideas about products and brands. Long interviews: A type of qualitative research conducted by an interviewer with a single respondent for several hours and designed to find out such things as the meanings various products and brands have for the person or how a product influences the person's life. Marketing research: Marketing research is the process by which information about the environment is generated, analyzed, and interpreted for use in marketing decision making. Most often consumers or organizational buyers are the subject of the research. Mathematical modeling: Mathematical modeling involves developing equations to model relationships among variables to investigate the impact of various strategies and tactics on sales and brand choices. Observational research: Observational research involves watching people and recording relevant facts and behaviors. Primary data: Primary data are data collected specifically for the research problem under investigation. Qualitative research: Qualitative research typically involves face-to-face interviews with respondents designed to develop a better understanding of what they think and feel concerning a research topic, such as a brand name, a product, a package, or an advertisement. Quantitative research: Quantitative research involves more systematic procedures designed to obtain and analyze numerical data. Secondary data: Secondary data are those that have previously been collected for other purposes but can be used for the problem at hand. Survey research: Survey research involves the collection of data by means of a questionnaire either by mail, phone, or in person. Test marketing: The major goal of most test marketing is to measure new product sales on a limited basis where competitive retaliation and other factors are allowed to operate freely. In this way, future sales potential can often be estimated reasonably well. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Burns, Alvin C. and Ronald Bush. Marketing Research, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2014. Churchill, Gilbert A., Jr.; Tom J. Brown; and Tracy A. Suter. Basic Marketing Research. 8th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western, 2014. Hair, Joseph F., Jr., Robert P. Bush, and David J. Ortinau. Marketing Research. 4th ed. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw Hill/Irwin, 2009. Iacobucci Dawn, and Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western, 2010. Molhatra, Naresh K. Marketing Research. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2010. Zikmund William G., and Barry J. Babin. Essentials of Marketing Research. 5th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western, 2013. Chapter 3 Consumer Behavior High-Level Chapter Outline I. Social Influences on Consumer Decision Making A. Culture and Subculture B. Social Class C. Reference Groups and Families II. Marketing Influences on Consumer Decision Making A. Product Influences B. Price Influences C. Promotion Influences D. Place Influences III. Situational Influences on Consumer Decision Making IV. Psychological Influences on Consumer Decision Making A. Product Knowledge B. Product Involvement V. Consumer Decision Making A. Need Recognition B. Alternative Search C. Alternative Evaluation D. Purchase Decision E. Postpurchase Evaluation Detailed Chapter Outline I. Social Influences on Consumer Decision Making Behavioral scientists have become increasingly aware of the powerful effects of the social environment and personal interactions on human behavior. In terms of consumer behavior, culture, social class, and reference group influences have been related to purchase and consumption decisions. These influences can have both direct and indirect effects on the buying process. A. Culture and Subculture Culture is one of the most basic influences on an individual’s needs, wants, and behavior. Cultural antecedents affect everyday behavior, and there is empirical support for the notion that culture is a determinant of certain aspects of consumer behavior. Cultural values are transmitted through three basic organizations: the family, religious organizations, and educational institutions. Marketing managers should adapt the marketing mix to cultural values and constantly monitor value changes and differences in both domestic and global markets. In large nations such as the United States, the population is bound to lose a significant amount of its homogeneity, and thus subcultures arise. Subcultures are based on such things as geographic areas, religion, nationalities, ethnic groups, and age. Many subcultural barriers are decreasing because of mass communication, mass transit, and a decline in the influence of religious values. However, age groups, such as the teen market, baby boomers, and the mature market, have become increasingly important for marketing strategy. Marketing Insight 3–1 provides a summary of American cultural values. B. Social Class Social classes develop on the basis of such things as wealth, skill, and power. The single best indicator of social class is occupation. For marketing purposes, four different social classes have been identified: Upper Americans comprise 14 percent of the population and are differentiated mainly by having high incomes. This class remains the group in which quality merchandise is most prized and prestige brands are commonly sought. The middle class comprises 34 percent of the population, and these consumers want to do the right and buy what is popular. They are concerned with fashion and buying what experts in the media recommend. The working class comprises 38 percent of the population, people who are “family folk” who depend heavily on relatives for economic and emotional support. The emphasis on family ties is only one sign of how much more limited and different working-class horizons are socially, psychologically, and geographically compared to those of the middle class. Lower Americans comprise 16 percent of the population and are as diverse in values and consumption goals as are other social levels. Some members of this group are homeless and penniless although most work part-time or full-time jobs at low wages. The primary demands of this group are food, clothing and other staples. C. Reference Groups and Families Groups that an individual looks to (uses as a reference) when forming attitudes and opinions are described as reference groups. Primary reference groups include family and close friends, while secondary reference groups include fraternal organizations and professional associations. Secondary reference groups include fraternal organizations and professional associations. A person normally has several reference groups or reference individuals for various subjects or different decisions. The family is generally recognized to be an important reference group, and it has been suggested that the household, rather than the individual, is the relevant unit for studying consumer behavior. It is important for marketing managers to determine not only who makes the actual purchase but also who makes the decision to purchase. It has been recognized that the needs, income, assets, debts, and expenditure patterns change over the course of what is called the family life cycle. The family life cycle can be divided into a number of stages ranging from single, to married, to married with children of different age groups, to older couples, to solitary survivors. The lifecycle is a useful way of classifying and segmenting individuals and families because it combines trends in earning power with demands placed on income. II. Marketing Influences on Consumer Decision Making Marketing strategies are often designed to influence consumer decision making and lead to profitable exchanges. Each element of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place) can affect consumers in various ways. A. Product Influences Many attributes of a company’s product, including brand name, quality, newness, and complexity, can affect consumer behavior. One of the key tasks of marketers is to differentiate their products from those of competitors and create consumer perceptions that the product is worth purchasing. B. Price Influences The price of products and services often influences whether consumers will purchase them at all, and, if so, which competitive offering is selected. For some offerings, higher prices may not deter purchase because consumers believe that the products or services are higher quality or are more prestigious. Many of today’s value-conscious consumers may buy products more on the basis of price than other attributes. C. Promotion Influences Advertising, sales, promotions, salespeople, and publicity can influence what consumers think about products, what emotions they experience in purchasing and using them, and what behaviors they perform, including shopping in particular stores and purchasing specific brands. Since consumers receive so much information from marketers and screen out a good deal of it, it is important for marketers to devise communications that: Offer consistent messages about their products Are placed in media that consumers in the target market are likely to use D. Place Influences The marketer’s strategy for distributing products can influence consumers in several ways: Products that are convenient to buy in a variety of stores increase the chances of consumers finding and buying them. When consumers are seeking low-involvement products, they are unlikely to engage in extensive search, so ready availability is important. Products sold in exclusive outlets may be perceived by consumers as having higher quality. Offering products by nonstore methods, such as on the Internet or in catalogs, can create consumer perceptions that the products are innovative, exclusive, or tailored for specific target markets. III. Situational Influences on Consumer Decision Making Situational influences can be defined as all those factors particular to a time and place that have a demonstrable and systematic effect on current behavior. These influences may be perceived either consciously or subconsciously and may have considerable effect on product and brand choice. Physical features are the most readily apparent features of a situation. These features include geographical and institutional location, decor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and visible configurations of merchandise or other materials. Social features provide additional depth to a description of a situation. These include other persons present, their characteristics, their apparent roles and interpersonal interactions. Time is a dimension of situations that may be specified in units ranging from time of day to season of the year. Time also may be measured relative to some past or future event for the situational participant. Task features of a situation include an intent or requirement to select, shop for, or obtain information about a general or specific purchase. Task may reflect different buyer and user roles anticipated by the individual. Current conditions make up final features that characterize a situation. These are momentary moods (such as acute anxiety, pleasantness, hostility, and excitation) or momentary conditions (such as cash on hand, fatigue, and illness) rather than chronic individual traits. IV. Psychological Influences on Consumer Decision Making Information from group, marketing, and situational influences affect what consumers think and feel about particular products and brands. However, a number of psychological factors influence how this information is interpreted and used and how it affects the consumer decision-making process. Two of the most important psychological factors are product knowledge and product involvement. A. Product Knowledge Product knowledge refers to the amount of information a consumer has stored in her or his memory about particular product classes, product forms, models, and ways to purchase them. Group marketing and situational influences determine the initial level of product knowledge as well as changes in it. The initial level of product knowledge may influence how much information is sought when deciding to make a purchase. Product knowledge influences how quickly a consumer goes through the decision-making process. B. Product Involvement Product involvement refers to a consumer’s perception of the importance or personal relevance of an item. Product involvement influences consumer decision making in two ways: If the purchase is for a high-involvement product, consumers are likely to develop a high degree of product knowledge so that they can be confident that the item they purchase is just right for them. A high degree of product involvement encourages extensive decision making by consumers, which likely increases the time it takes to go through the decision-making process. V. Consumer Decision Making Consumers recognize a need for a product, search for information about alternatives to meet the need, evaluate the information, make purchases, and evaluate the decision after the purchase. The process by which consumers make decisions to purchase various products and brands is shown in Figure 3.2. There are three types of decision making, which vary in terms of how complex or expensive a product is and how involved a consumer is in purchasing it. Extensive decision making requires the most time and effort since the purchase involves a highly complex or expensive product that is important to the consumer. Limited decision making is more moderate but still involves some time and effort searching for and comparing alternatives. Routine decision making is the most common type and the way consumers purchase most packaged goods. A. Need Recognition The starting point in the buying process is the consumer’s recognition of an unsatisfied need. Any number of either internal or external stimuli may activate needs or wants and recognition of them. Internal stimuli are such things as feeling hungry and wanting some food, feeling a headache coming on and wanting some Excedrin, or feeling bored and looking for a movie to go to. External stimuli are such things as seeing a McDonald’s sign and then feeling hungry or seeing a sale sign for winter parkas and remembering that last year’s coat is worn out. A well-known classification of needs was developed many years ago by Abraham Maslow and includes five types. Maslow’s view is that lower-level needs, starting with physiological and safety needs, must be attended to before higher-level needs can be satisfied. Maslow’s hierarchy is described below: Physiological needs—this category consists of primary needs of the human body. Physiological needs will dominate when all needs are unsatisfied. Safety needs—these needs consist of such things as protection from physical harm, ill health, and economic disaster and avoidance of the unexpected. Belongingness and love needs—these needs are related to the social and gregarious nature of humans and the need for companionship. Esteem needs—these needs consist of both the need for awareness of importance to others (self-esteem) and actual esteem from others. Satisfaction of these needs leads to feelings of self-confidence and prestige. Self-actualization needs—these can be defined as the desire to become everything one is capable of becoming. This means that the individual will fully realize her or his talents and capabilities. B. Alternative Search Once a need is recognized, the individual then searches for alternatives for satisfying the need. The individual can collect information from five basic sources for a particular purchase decision: Internal sources: For many purchases, consumers have had previous experience dealing with particular needs and wants. Thus, consumers can usually “search” through their memories for stored information and experience dealing with need satisfying alternatives. This is quite common for routine or habitual purchases. Group sources: A common source of information for purchase decision comes from communication with other people. Group sources are often the most powerful influence on purchase decisions. Marketing sources: Marketing sources include factors such as advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, and displays. It provides a major means by which consumers learn about purchase options. Public sources: Public sources of information include such things as product ratings in Consumer Reports; buyer reviews on websites like Amazon.com; and articles written about the product in newspapers, in magazines, on independent blogs, and on other websites. Experimental sources: Experimental sources refer to handling, examining, and perhaps trying on or using a product. Information processing is viewed as a four-step process in which the individual is: Exposed to information Becomes attentive to the information Understands the information Retains the information C. Alternative Evaluation During the process of collecting information or, in some cases, after information is acquired, the consumer evaluates alternatives on the basis of what he or she has learned. One approach to describing the evaluation process is as follows: The consumer has information about the number of brands in a product class. The consumer perceives that at least some of the brands in a product class are viable alternatives for satisfying a recognized need. Each of these brands has a set of attributes (color, quality, size, and so forth). A set of these attributes is relevant to the consumer, and the consumer perceives that different brands vary in how much of each attribute they possess. The brand that is perceived as offering the greatest number of desired attributes in the desired amounts and the desired order will be the brand the consumer will like best. The brand the consumer likes best is the brand the consumer will intend to purchase. D. Purchase Decision If no other factors intervene after the consumer has decided on the brand that is intended for purchase, the actual purchase is a common result of search and evaluation. Actually, a purchase involves many decisions, which include product type, brand, model, dealer selection, and method of payment, among other factors. Traditional risk theorists believe that consumers tend to make risk-minimizing decisions based on their perceived definition of the particular purchase. The perception of risk is based on the possible consequences and uncertainties involved. Perceived risk may be either functional (related to financial and performance considerations) or psychosocial (related to whether the product will further one’s self- or reference-group image). The perceived risk literature emphasizes that consumers generally try to reduce risk in their decision making. In general, the more information the consumer collects prior to purchase, the less likely postpurchase dissonance is to occur. E. Postpurchase Evaluation In general, if the individual finds that a certain response achieves a desired goal or satisfies a need, the success of this cue-response pattern will be remembered. For some marketers this means that if an individual finds that a particular product fulfills the need for which it was purchased, the probability is high that the individual will repurchase the product the next time the need arises. Although many studies in the area of buyer behavior center on the buyer’s attitudes, motives, and behavior before and during the purchase decision, behavior after the purchase has also been studied. The occurrence of postdecision dissonance is related to the concept of cognitive dissonance. This theory states that there is often a lack of consistency or harmony among an individual’s various cognitions, or attitudes and beliefs, after a decision has been made. It is more likely that the intensity of the anxiety will be greater when any of the following conditions exist: The decision is an important one psychologically or financially, or both. There are a number of forgone alternatives. The forgone alternatives have many favorable features. Researchers have also studied postpurchase consumer satisfaction. Much of this work has been based on what is called the disconfirmation paradigm. Basically, this approach views satisfaction with products and brands as a result of two other variables. The first variable is the expectations a consumer has about a product before purchase. The second variable is the difference between expectations and postpurchase perceptions of how the product actually performed. One implication of this view for marketers is that care must be taken not to raise prepurchase expectations to such a level that the product cannot possibly meet them. KEY TERMS Belongingness and love needs: According to Maslow, the needs related to the social and gregarious nature of humans and the need for companionship. Cognitive dissonance: A lack of harmony among among a person’s thoughts after a decision has been made—that is, the individual has doubts and second thoughts about the choice that was made. Current conditions: Situational influences such as momentary moods and conditions that influence consumer behavior. Disconfirmation paradigm: Approach that views consumer satisfaction as the degree to which the actual performance of a product is consistent with expectations a consumer had before purchase. If the product is as good as expected, then the consumer will be satisfied; if not, then the consumer’s expectations are disconfirmed. Esteem needs: According to Maslow, the needs that consist of both the need for awareness of importance to others (self-esteem) and actual esteem from others. Experiential sources of information: The information a consumer gets from handling, examining, and perhaps trying a product while shopping. Extensive decision making: Level of decision making that requires the most time and effort since the purchase typically involves a highly complex or expensive product that is important to the consumer. Family life cycle: Framework that divides the development of a family into a number of stages based on the needs, assets, debts, and expenditures that change as a family begins, grows, and matures. Group sources of information: A common source of information for purchase decisions that comes from communication with other people, such as family, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances. Internal sources of information: Stored information and experience a consumer has in memory for dealing with a particular need. Limited decision making: Level of decision making that requires a moderate amount of time and effort to search for and compare alternatives. Lower Americans: Comprise 16 percent of the population and have the lowest education levels and resources; the bottom of the social class hierarchy. Marketing sources of information: Include such things as advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, and displays offered by marketers to influence consumer decision making and behavior. Middle class: Middle social class; comprises 34 percent of the population and is concerned with doing the right thing and buying what is popular. This class tends to emulate Upper Americans. Need recognition: The first step in the consumer decision making process; the recognition by the consumer of a felt need or want. Physical features of a situation: The geographical and institutional decor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and visible configurations of merchandise or other materials. Physiological needs: According to Maslow, the primary needs of the human body such as food, water, and sex. Product knowledge: The amount of information a consumer has stored in her or his memory about particular product classes, product forms, brands, and models, and ways to purchase them. Public sources of information: Publicity, such as newspaper articles about the product, and independent ratings of the product, such as Consumer Reports. Reference groups: Groups that an individual looks to (uses as a reference) when forming attitudes and opinions. Routine decision making: The most common type of decision making, involves little in the way of thinking and deliberation. It is often habitual and is the way consumers commonly purchase packaged goods that are inexpensive, simple, and familiar. Safety needs: According to Maslow, things such as protection from physical harm, ill health, and economic disaster and avoidance of the unexpected. Self-actualization needs: According to Maslow, the desire to become everything one can become and fully realize talents and capabilities. Situational influences: All of the factors particular to a time and place that have a demonstrable and systematic effect on current behavior. Social features of a situation: Include other persons present in a situation, their characteristics, their apparent roles and interpersonal interactions. Task features of a situation: Include the intent or requirement to select, shop for, or obtain information about a general or specific purchase. Time dimension of a situation: The temporal dimension of a situation such as the time of day or season of the year. It can also be relative to other life events such as the time since the last purchase or time until payday. Upper Americans: Social class that comprises 14 percent of the population and is differentiated mainly by having high incomes. This social class remains the group in which quality merchandise is most prized and prestige brands are commonly sought. Working class: Social class that comprises 38 percent of the population; “family folk” who depend heavily on relatives for economic and emotional support. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Hawkins, Del I., and David L. Mothersbaugh. Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy. 12th ed. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2013. Hoyer, Wayne D., and Deborah J. MacInnis. Consumer Behavior. 6th ed. Mason OH: Southwestern, 2013. Peter, J. Paul and Jerry C. Olson. Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy. 9th ed. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2010. Schiffman, Leon G., and Leslie Kanuck. Consumer Behavior. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010. Solomon, Michael R. Consumer Behavior, 10th ed. Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall, 2013. Instructor Manual for A Preface to Marketing Management J. Paul Peter, James H. Donnelly, Jr. 9780077861063, 9781259251641

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