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2 The Biological Perspective 1. The function of the _________________________ is to carry information to and from all parts of the body. a. soma b. synapse c. nervous system d. endorphins Answer: c. nervous system Correct. Sending information to and from all parts of the body is the primary function of the nervous system. a. soma Incorrect. The primary responsibility of the soma is to maintain the life of the neuron. 2. The nervous system is defined as ____________________. a. a complex network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body b. a specialized cell that makes up the brain and nervous system c. all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run throughout the body itself d. a gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone Answer: a. a complex network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body Correct. The nervous system is a complex network of cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body. c. all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run throughout the body itself Incorrect. The nervous system includes networks of neurons that are in the brain and spinal cord. 3. The two main divisions of the nervous system are the ________ and ________. a. brain; spinal cord b. autonomic; somatic nervous systems c. peripheral nervous system; central nervous system d. glands; muscles Answer: c. peripheral nervous system; central nervous system Correct. These are the two main divisions of the nervous system. b. autonomic; somatic nervous systems Incorrect. The autonomic and somatic nervous systems are divisions of the peripheral nervous system. 4. The branch of life sciences which involves the structure and function of the brain and nervous system, while also focusing on the relationship between learning and behavior, is called ________. a. neuroscience b. bioscience c. brain scientology d. neurostemology Answer: a. neuroscience Correct. This is the branch of life sciences that covers these topics. b. bioscience Incorrect. The correct answer is a. 5. The part of the neuron whose name literally means “branch” is ________. a. axon b. dendrite c. myelin d. soma Answer: b. dendrite Correct. Dendrite comes from the word tree. a. axon Incorrect. B is the correct answer. 6. A specialized cell that makes up the nervous system that receives and sends messages within that system is called a _________. a. glial cell b. neuron c. cell body d. myelin sheath Answer: b. neuron Correct. A neuron is a specialized cell that makes up the nervous system that receives and sends messages within that system. a. glial cell Incorrect. Glial cells serve as a structure for neurons. 7. What term is used to describe a specialized cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system? a. neuron b. glial cell c. myelin sheath d. dendritic spine Answer: a. neuron Correct. A neuron is a specialized cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system. b. glial cell Incorrect. Glial cells serve as a structure for neurons. 8. The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called ______. a. axons b. nerve bundles c. dendrites d. synapses Answer: c. dendrites Correct. Dendrites receive messages from other neurons. a. axons Incorrect. Axons send but do not receive messages. 9. Which part of the neuron is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell? a. axon b. soma c. dendrite d. cell membrane Answer: b. soma Correct. The soma is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell. d. cell membrane Incorrect. The soma is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell. 10. The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning is the _____. a. axon b. cell membrane c. dendrite d. soma Answer: d. soma Correct. The soma is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell. b. cell membrane Incorrect. The soma is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell. 11. Dendrite is to axon as: a. send is to receive. b. send is to regulate. c. receive is to send. d. receive is to release. Answer: c. receive is to send. Correct. Dendrites are treelike parts of the neuron that are designed to receive messages. The axon sends messages to other neurons. a. send is to receive. Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer. 12. Which part of a neuron is attached to the soma and carries messages out to other cells? a. soma b. axon c. dendrite d. cell membrane Answer: b. axon Correct. The axon carries messages to other cells. c. dendrite Incorrect. Dendrites receive messages. 13. The function of the neuron’s axon is to ______. a. carry messages to other cells b. regulate the neuron’s life processes c. receive messages from neighboring neurons d. insulate against leakage of electrical impulses Answer: a. carry messages to other cells Correct. The function of the axon is to carry messages to other cells. c. receive messages from neighboring neurons Incorrect. Dendrites, not axons, receive messages. 14. _________ receive messages from other neurons and _____________ send messages to other neurons. a. Axons; dendrites b. Axon; soma c. Soma; glial cells d. Dendrites; axons Answer: d. Dendrites; axons Correct. Dendrites receive messages, and axons send messages to other cells. a. Axons; dendrites Incorrect. Axons send messages, and dendrites receive messages. 15. Which of the following best represents the order in which a neuron receives and transmits information? a. dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminals b. axon terminals, dendrites, cell body, axon c. cell body, dendrites, axon terminals, axon d. axon, cell body, dendrites, axon terminals Answer: a. dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminals Correct. The dendrite receives a message, the cell body processes it, the axon takes a message to the axon terminals, and the terminal buttons release neurotransmitters. c. cell body, dendrites, axon terminals, axon Incorrect. Every part of this answer is out of the correct order. 16. Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer? a. dendrites, axon, soma, synaptic knob b. terminal buttons, axon, soma, dendrites c. axon, soma, dendrites, synaptic knob d. dendrites, soma, axon, synaptic knob Answer: d. dendrites, soma, axon, synaptic knob Correct. This answer describes the correct sequence. c. axon, soma, dendrites, synaptic knob Incorrect. The neural impulse begins with the receipt of messages from the dendrites. 17. Neurons make up ________% of the brain whereas glial cells make up ________%. a. 50; 50 b. 25; 75 c. 10; 90 d. 5; 95 Answer: c. 10; 90 Correct: The correct answer is option c, 10% neurons and 90% glial cells. Neurons are the primary functional units of the brain responsible for transmitting information, while glial cells provide support and insulation to neurons. Although neurons are crucial for information processing, they make up only a small percentage of the brain's total cell population compared to glial cells. a. 50; 50 Incorrect. This option suggests an equal distribution of neurons and glial cells, which is not accurate. Neurons are the primary cells involved in information processing, while glial cells primarily support neuronal functions. 18. The two types of glial cells are called ________ and ________. a. occipital; lobitical b. oligodendrocytes; Schwann cells c. occipital; Schwann d. oligodendrocytes; lobitical Answer: b. oligodendrocytes; Schwann cells Correct. These are the two types according to the text. c. occipital; Schwann Incorrect. B is the correct answer. 19. Glial cells make up ____________ of the brain’s cells. a. 10 percent b. 70 percent c. 80 percent d. 90 percent Answer: d. 90 percent Correct. Ninety percent of the brain is composed of glial cells. a. 10 percent Incorrect. Neurons make up ten percent of the cells in the brain. 20. What are two roles of glial cells? a. acting as insulation and providing structure to surrounding neurons b. shaping cells and moving new neurons into place c. regulating metabolic activity and serving as pain detectors d. monitoring neural transmission and releasing hormones in the brain Answer: a. acting as insulation and providing structure to surrounding neurons Correct. This answer defines two roles of glial cells. b. shaping cells and moving new neurons into place Incorrect. Glial cells provide structure and insulation to neurons. 21. A cell in the human nervous system whose primary function is to provide insulation and structure for neurons on which they may develop and work is called a(n) _________. a. epidermal cell b. adipose cell c. glial cell d. myelin sheath Answer: c. glial cell Correct. Glial cells serve as a structure on which neurons develop and work. d. myelin sheath Incorrect. The myelin sheath does not serve as a structure on which neurons develop and work. 22. What is the function of myelin? a. to serve as a structure for neurons b. to monitor neural activity c. to speed up the neural impulse d. to produce neurotransmitters Answer: c. to speed up the neural impulse Correct. Myelin speeds up the neural impulse. a. to serve as a structure for neurons Incorrect. This is the function of glial cells, not myelin. 23. Which of the following is true about myelin? a. It’s a fatty substance. b. It is covered by axons. c. It inhibits neural communication. d. It slows down neuronal operations. Answer: a. It’s a fatty substance. Correct. Myelin is made up of a penny type of tissue called glial cells. b. It is covered by axons. Incorrect. Myelin covers axons. It is not covered by axons. 24. One purpose of the ____________________ is to speed up the neural message traveling down the axon. a. receptor site b. axon terminal c. myelin d. synaptic vesicle Answer: c. myelin Correct. Myelin speeds up the neural impulse. b. axon terminal Incorrect. The axon terminal does not speed up the neural impulse. 25. A group of axons bundled together coated in myelin that travels together through the body is called a ______. a. a synaptic vesicle b. nerve c. neurilemma d. a myelinated pathway Answer: b. nerve Correct. Bundles of myelin-coated axons travel together in cables called nerves. c. neurilemma Incorrect. Neurilemma enable damaged neurons to repair themselves. 26. A nerve is a group of ______ bundled together. a. axons b. interneurons c. dendrites d. glial cells Answer: a. axons Correct. Nerves are bundles of myelin-coated axons. c. dendrites Incorrect. Dendrites are part of the neuron. 27. Juan’s toe was severed and was quickly sewn back on by a surgeon. As a result, he regained some function and feeling in his toe. Which of the following are responsible for Juan’s ability to regain function and feeling in his toe? a. myelin b. glial cells c. dendrites d. neurilemma Answer: d. neurilemma Correct. Neurilemma enable damaged neurons to repair themselves. a. myelin Incorrect. Myelin speeds up the neural impulse. 28. When a cell is “at rest,” it is in a state called the ________. a. stopping point b. obcipitation junction c. resting potential d. action potential Answer: c. resting potential Correct. A cell at rest is in a state called the resting potential. b. obcipitation junction Incorrect. This is a fictitious word. 29. The charge that a neuron at rest maintains is due to the presence of a high number of _________ charged ions inside the neuron’s membrane. a. actively b. passively c. negatively d. positively Answer: c. negatively Correct. Negatively charged ions inside of the neurons membrane is what gives rise to a negative resting potential. d. positively Incorrect. It is during the action potential the positively charged ions flow into the neuron and outnumber the negatively charged ions. 30. When the electric potential in a cell is in action versus a resting state, this electrical charge reversal is known as the _________________. a. resting potential b. excitation reaction c. action potential d. permeable reaction Answer: c. action potential Correct. This is the state where the electrical charge is reversed. a. resting potential Incorrect. This would be when a cell continued to be at rest. 31. The term “fire” when referring to neural transmission indicates that a neuron: a. has become less positive in charge. b. has received, in its dendrites, appropriate inputs from other neurons. c. is unable to transmit information to another neuron. d. has become more negative in charge. Answer: b. has received, in its dendrites, appropriate inputs from other neurons. Correct. A neuron fires after the dendrites receive enough stimulation to trigger the cell body to generate an action potential. d. has become more negative in charge. Incorrect. In fact, the firing state of the neuron occurs when it generates a positive charge rather than a negative charge. 32. What do we call the state of a neuron when it is not firing a neural impulse? a. action potential b. resting potential c. myelination signal d. transmission impulse Answer: b. resting potential Correct. Resting potential is the state a neuron is in when not firing a neural impulse. a. action potential Incorrect. Action potential is the state a neuron is in when firing a neural impulse. 33. The state during which a neuron contains more negatively charged ions inside the cell than outside the cell and is not firing is referred to as the __________. a. action potential b. quiet potential c. synaptic potential d. resting potential Answer: d. resting potential Correct. Resting potential is the state a neuron is in when a cell is not firing a neural impulse. a. action potential Incorrect. Action potential is the state a neuron is in when firing. 34. During action potential, the electrical charge inside the neuron is ______ the electrical charge outside the neuron. a. positive compared to b. larger than c. negative compared to d. smaller than Answer: a. positive compared to Correct. There are more positively charged ions inside the cell than outside. c. negative compared to Incorrect. During resting potential, the inside is more negatively charged. 35. When a neuron fires, it fires in a(n) ________ fashion as there is no such thing as “partial” firing. a. all-or-none b. rapid fire c. accidental patterned d. quick successioned Answer: a. all-or-none Correct. This is the term used to describe how neurons fire according to the book. d. quick successioned Incorrect. This is not the term referred to by the book 36. “All or none” is the principle stating that ______. a. a neuron either fires or does not fire b. a neuron fires at full strength or not at all c. all the dendrites must be receiving messages telling the neuron to fire or it will not fire at all d. all somas must be receiving messages telling the neuron to fire or it will not fire at all Answer: a. a neuron either fires or does not fire Correct. A neuron either fires or does not fire. b. a neuron fires at full strength or not at all Incorrect. Neurons can fire at different strengths. 37. The swellings or knobs at the end of the axon are called ________. a. axon terminals b. synaptic vesicles c. synapses d. receptor sites Answer: a. axon terminals Correct. The axon terminals are located at the ends of the axon. b. synaptic vesicles Incorrect. Synaptic vesicles are structures within the synaptic knobs. 38. What is the term used to describe the bulbs located at the end of the axon? a. axon terminals b. synaptic vesicles c. synapses d. receptor sites Answer: a. axon terminals Correct. The axon terminals are located at the end of the axon. b. synaptic vesicles Incorrect. Synaptic vesicles are structures within the synaptic knobs. 39. What is the term used to describe the rounded areas on the ends of the axon terminals? a. synaptic vesicles b. axons c. dendrites d. synaptic knobs Answer: d. synaptic knobs Correct. Synaptic knobs are located at the tip of each axon terminal. a. synaptic vesicles Incorrect. Synaptic vesicles are structures within the synaptic knobs. 40. The saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals are called ________. a. axon terminals b. synapses c. synaptic vesicles d. receptor sites Answer: c. synaptic vesicles Correct. Synaptic vesicles are structures within the synaptic knobs. a. axon terminals Incorrect. The axon terminals are limblike structures. 41. Which of the following are tiny sacs in a synaptic knob that release chemicals into the synapse? a. synaptic vesicles b. synaptic nodes c. terminal buttons d. synaptic gaps Answer: a. synaptic vesicles Correct. Synaptic vesicles are structures within the synaptic knobs. c. terminal buttons Incorrect. Terminal buttons are the same as synaptic knobs. 42. A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell is called a __________. a. glial cell b. neurotransmitter c. precursor cell d. synapse Answer: b. neurotransmitter Correct. Neurotransmitters are stored in the synaptic vesicles. d. synapse Incorrect. The synapse is the space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell. 43. The term neurotransmitter refers to ______. a. a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that is released into the synapse b. any one of a number of chemical compounds that increase the activity of the endocrine system c. the chemical substance found in the cell membrane d. the DNA contained in the nucleus of every neuron Answer: a. a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that is released into the synapse Correct. Neurotransmitters are chemicals. c. the chemical substance found in the cell membrane Incorrect. The neurotransmitter is found in the synaptic vesicle. 44. The fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell is called the ___________. a. receptor site b. synapse c. synaptic knob d. axon terminal Answer: b. synapse Correct. The synapse is the space between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrites of a receiving neuron. a. receptor site Incorrect. Molecules that float across the synapse fit themselves into receptor sites, thus activating the next cell. 45. The action potential causes neurotransmitters to be released into the ______. a. myelin sheath b. axon c. synapse d. synaptic vesicle Answer: c. synapse Correct. Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse. d. synaptic vesicle Incorrect. Neurotransmitters are stored in the synaptic vesicle. 46. _________________________ are holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands that are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters. a. Neurotransmitters b. Axons c. Synaptic vesicles d. Receptor sites Answer: d. Receptor sites Correct. Molecules that float across the synapse fit themselves into receptor sites like keys fitting into a lock, thus activating the next cell. c. Synaptic vesicles Incorrect. Neurotransmitters are stored in the synaptic vesicle. 47. Which structure is like a locked door that only certain neurotransmitter keys can unlock? a. synapses b. receptor sites c. neural chiasms d. response terminals Answer: b. receptor sites Correct. Only certain neurotransmitters can fit into receptor sites. a. synapses Incorrect. Synapses are microscopic fluid-filled spaces between neurons. 48. ____________ synapses make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas _____________ synapses make it less likely that a neuron will send its message. a. Excitatory; inhibitory b. Inhibitory; excitatory c. Augmentation; depletion d. Depletion; augmentation Answer: a. Excitatory; inhibitory Correct. Excitatory synapses turn cells on and inhibitory ones turn cells off. b. Inhibitory; excitatory Incorrect. Inhibitory synapses turn cells off and excitatory ones turn cells on. 49. Agonist is to antagonist as: a. neuromodulator is to neurotransmitter. b. reuptake is to receptor. c. mimic is to block. d. block is to mimic. Answer: c. mimic is to block. Correct. Agonists mimic neurotransmitters by stimulating specific receptor sites, and antagonists block receptor sites. d. block is to mimic. Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer. 50. Curare, a poison, works by ______. a. blocking receptor sites and acting as an antagonist for acetylcholine b. stimulating the release of excessive amounts of acetylcholine c. stimulating the release of neurotransmitters d. inhibiting the production of inhibitory neurotransmitters Answer: a. blocking receptor sites and acting as an antagonist for acetylcholine Correct. This drug acts as an antagonist for acetylcholine. b. stimulating the release of excessive amounts of acetylcholine Incorrect. This drug inhibits the release of acetylcholine. 51. After being bitten by a black widow spider, Jean starts to convulse. This is a result of a. a lack of GABA being released into her blood stream ______. b. a resurgence of neurotransmitters overstimulating her brain stem c. a surge of chemicals blocking the transmission of fluids to the spinal cord d. a flood of acetylcholine releasing into the body’s muscle system Answer: d. a flood of acetylcholine releasing into the body’s muscle system Correct. This is the result of the bite. The result can also include death. a. a lack of GABA being released into her blood stream ______. Incorrect. The correct answer is d. 52. The poison of the black widow spider works by stimulating the release of excessive amounts of ______. a. acetylcholine b. dopamine c. endorphins d. serotonin Answer: a. acetylcholine Correct. The venom stimulates the release of excessive amounts of acetylcholine. c. endorphins Incorrect. The venom works by stimulating the release of excessive amounts of acetylcholine. 53. ______ plays a critical role as a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscles to contract. a. Acetylcholine b. GABA c. Dopamine d. Endorphin Answer: a. Acetylcholine Correct. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that stimulates muscles to contract. b. GABA Incorrect. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. 54. Sara has been experiencing a serious memory problem. An interdisciplinary team has ruled out a range of causes and believes that a neurotransmitter is involved. Which neurotransmitter is most likely involved in this problem? a. GABA b. dopamine c. serotonin d. acetylcholine Answer: d. acetylcholine Correct. Acetylcholine is found in a part of the brain responsible for forming new memories. a. GABA Incorrect. GABA has a tranquilizing effect. 55. Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? a. serotonin b. GABA c. acetylcholine d. norepinephrine Answer: b. GABA Correct. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. c. acetylcholine Incorrect. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter. 56. GABA functions as _________. a. the major neurotransmitter involved in voluntary movements b. an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain c. the neurotransmitter responsible for slowing intestinal activity during stress d. the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain Answer: b. an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Correct. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. d. the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain Incorrect. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. 57. The effect of alcohol is to enhance the effect of _________, which causes the general inhibition of the nervous system associated with getting drunk. a. GABA b. serotonin c. dopamine d. acetylcholine Answer: a. GABA Correct. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. d. acetylcholine Incorrect. Acetylcholine is not associated with the effects of alcohol. 58. Which neurotransmitter is associated with sleep, mood, and appetite? a. GABA b. serotonin c. dopamine d. acetylcholine Answer: b. serotonin Correct. Serotonin is associated with mood, sleep, and appetite. a. GABA Incorrect. GABA is associated with helping calm anxiety. 59. Andy has decided to seek medical help for mood disturbances and appetite problems. Which neurotransmitter is most likely involved in the problems Andy is experiencing? a. GABA b. dopamine c. serotonin d. acetylcholine Answer: c. serotonin Correct. Serotonin is associated with mood and appetite. a. GABA Incorrect. GABA is involved in sleep and inhibits movement but is not associated with mood or appetite. 60. Endorphins are ______. a. found where neurons meet skeletal muscles b. less powerful than enkaphalins c. pain-controlling chemicals d. radically different in function from neurotransmitters Answer: c. pain-controlling chemicals Correct. Endorphins are pain-controlling chemicals. d. radically different in function from neurotransmitters Incorrect. Endorphins are neurotransmitters. 61. Pain-controlling chemicals in the body are called ______. a. neural regulators b. histamines c. androgens d. endorphins Answer: d. endorphins Correct. Endorphins are pain-controlling chemicals. a. neural regulators Incorrect. Not all neural regulators are endorphins. 62. Because they have similar chemical structures, morphine and heroin are able to lock into receptor sites for ______. a. GABA b. serotonin c. dopamine d. endorphins Answer: d. endorphins Correct. Endorphins are a natural substance that has the same effect as opiates. a. GABA Incorrect. Opiates are not able to lock into GABA receptor sites. 63. Reuptake is ________. a. a chemical that is released into the synaptic gap b. a protein molecule on the dendrite or cell body of a neuron that will interact only with specific neurotransmitters c. a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles d. a chemical that plays a role in learning and attention Answer: c. a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles Correct. This is the definition of reuptake. a. a chemical that is released into the synaptic gap Incorrect. Reuptake is a process. 64. Isabella is putting mustard on her hot dog. She realizes she has put too much and sucks up some of it back into the squeeze bottle. This process is similar to a. the action potential. b. receptor site bindings. c. binding specificity. d. reuptake. Answer: d. reuptake. Correct. Recall take occurs when excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the sending neuron. c. binding specificity. Incorrect. Binding specificity refers to the fact that Iran's receptor sites are designed to receive only one specific neurotransmitter. 65. How is acetylcholine removed from the synapse? a. It is broken down by an enzyme. b. It is taken back up in the synapse. c. It dissipates in the surrounding body fluids. d. Acetylcholine is one of the few neurotransmitters that is continually present in the synapse. Answer: a. It is broken down by an enzyme. Correct. It is broken down by an enzyme. b. It is taken back up in the synapse. Incorrect. It is broken down by an enzyme. 66. The brain and spinal cord are two components of the ______. a. central nervous system b. somatic nervous system c. peripheral nervous system d. autonomic nervous system Answer: a. central nervous system Correct. The brain and spinal cord are two components of the central nervous system. c. peripheral nervous system Incorrect. The two components of the peripheral nervous system are the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. 67. The central nervous system consists of ______. a. the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions b. the brain and spinal cord c. muscles and glands d. sense organs and sensory neurons Answer: b. the brain and spinal cord Correct. The brain and spinal cord are the two most basic components of the central nervous system. a. the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions Incorrect. These are divisions of the autonomic nervous system. 68. Which part of the nervous system takes the information received from the senses, makes sense out of it, makes decisions, and sends commands out to the muscles and the rest of the body? a. spinal cord b. brain c. reflexes d. interneurons Answer: b. brain Correct. That is the responsibility of the brain. a. spinal cord Incorrect. The spinal cord carries messages to and from the body to the brain. 69. The long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes is called the ________. a. spinal cord b. brain c. reflexes d. interneurons Answer: a. spinal cord Correct. The spinal cord carries messages to and from the body to the brain. b. brain Incorrect. The brain receives messages from the spinal cord. 70. Which of the following is a long bundle of neurons that functions as a carrier of messages from the body to the brain and from the brain to the body and is responsible for certain reflexes? a. spinal cord b. cerebellum c. somatic nervous system d. amygdala Answer: a. spinal cord Correct. The spinal cord carries messages to and from the body to the brain. c. somatic nervous system Incorrect. The somatic nervous system carries information from the senses to the central nervous system (CNS) and from the CNS to voluntary muscles of the body. 71. Which of the following are the three basic types of neurons? a. reflexes, sensory neurons, motor neurons b. sensory neurons, motor neurons, stem cells c. motor neurons, stem cells, reflexes d. interneurons, sensory neurons, motor neurons Answer: d. interneurons, sensory neurons, motor neurons Correct. All of these are neurons. a. reflexes, sensory neurons, motor neurons Incorrect. Reflexes are not a type of neuron. 72. Neurons that carry information from the senses to the spinal cord are called ___________. a. motor neurons b. interneurons c. sensory neurons d. reflexes Answer: c. sensory neurons Correct. Sensory neurons carry information from the senses to the spinal cord. b. interneurons Incorrect. Interneurons connect sensory neurons to the motor neurons. 73. LaKeisha stepped on a piece of glass and quickly pulled her foot away from that sharp object. Which of the following are responsible for sending a message to the muscles in LaKeisha’s foot, resulting in her pulling her foot away from the piece of glass? a. motor neurons b. interneurons c. sensory neurons d. reflexes Answer: a. motor neurons Correct. Motor neurons carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. b. interneurons Incorrect. Interneurons connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons. 74. Neurons found in the center of the spinal cord that receive information from the sensory neurons and send commands to the muscles through the motor neurons are called __________. a. motor neurons b. interneurons c. sensory neurons d. reflexes Answer: b. interneurons Correct. Interneurons connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons. a. motor neurons Incorrect. Motor neurons carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. 75. Which of the following are responsible for acting as a facilitator of communication between neurons? a. motor neurons b. interneurons c. sensory neurons d. reflexes Answer: b. interneurons Correct. Interneurons connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons. a. motor neurons Incorrect. Motor neurons carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. 76. Mary put her hand on a hot stove. Which neuron is responsible for sending a pain message up her spinal column, where it would then enter into the main area of the cord? a. motor neuron b. interneuron c. sensory neuron d. reflex Answer: c. sensory neuron Correct. Sensory neurons carry information from the senses to the spinal cord. b. interneuron Incorrect. Sensory neurons carry information from the senses to the spinal cord. 77. Cameron touches a hot iron and immediately pulls his hand away. His quick response occurs because _______. a. the pain message goes up the spinal column to the central area of the spinal cord instead of going all the way to the brain b. the brain has registered that pain is occurring and responds quickly c. his glands have secreted chemical messengers called hormones d. neurons in the spinal cord touch end to end to increase response speed Answer: a. the pain message goes up the spinal column to the central area of the spinal cord instead of going all the way to the brain Correct. Pain messages are spinal reflexes and the response is automatic. b. the brain has registered that pain is occurring and responds quickly Incorrect. This type of pain message does not go all the way to the brain. 78. Why do many reflexes, such as pulling your hand away from a hot iron, happen so quickly? a. They involve the neurotransmitter GABA rather than dopamine. b. The message involved does not have to go all the way to the brain. c. The speed of processing is faster in the frontal lobes than in the occipital lobes. d. The path that reflexes follow to the brain is direct and does not involve any neurotransmitters. Answer: b. The message involved does not have to go all the way to the brain. Correct. The message goes to the central area of the spinal cord and not up to the brain. d. The path that reflexes follow to the brain is direct and does not involve any neurotransmitters. Incorrect. The message involved does not have to go all the way to the brain. 79. Jack suffered a brain injury as a result of hitting his head while waterskiing. One of the problems that developed was that Jack could not pronounce certain words correctly for a long period of time until he had extensive speech therapy and can now speak as he did before his accident. This is an example of the brain’s ______ which allowed the structure and function of his brain cells to change to adjust to the trauma. a. adaptology b. stagnation c. neuroplasticity d. reflex arc Answer: c. neuroplasticity Correct. This allowed Jack’s brain to adapt after the trauma. d. reflex arc Incorrect. Neuroplasticity accounts for Jack’s brain to allow him to speak correctly despite damage. 80. Neuroplasticity is most evident in which of the following circumstances? a. during the elderly years b. when we learn something new or store new information d. when we are trying to undo previous pruning c. when reuptake of excess neurotransmitters is taking place. Answer: b. when we learn something new or store new information Correct. Learning or store new information would cause the brain to change its structure slightly, which demonstrates plasticity. a. during the elderly years Incorrect. As your authors point out, plasticity is higher during childhood than in later years. 81. Which statement is untrue about the peripheral nervous system (PNS)? a. The PNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. b. The PNS consists of the nerves and neurons not in the central nervous system (CNS). c. The PNS allows the brain and spinal cord to coordinate with sensory systems. d. The PNS allows the brain and spinal cord to coordinate with muscles and glands in the body. Answer: a. The PNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. Correct. These are parts of the central nervous system (CNS) b. The PNS consists of the nerves and neurons not in the central nervous system (CNS). Incorrect. This is an accurate definition of the PNS. 82. The peripheral nervous system consists of ______. a. all the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord b. all nerves in the brain and the spinal cord c. the spinal cord and autonomic system d. the brain and the autonomic system Answer: a. all the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord Correct. The peripheral nervous system consists of all the nerve cells that are not in the brain and spinal cord. b. all nerves in the brain and the spinal cord Incorrect. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. 83. The division of the nervous system that allows the brain and the spinal cord to communicate with the sensory systems of the eyes, ears, skin, and mouth, and allows the brain and spinal cord to control the muscles and glands of the body is called the ______. a. peripheral nervous system b. central nervous system c. endocrine system d. secondary nervous system Answer: a. peripheral nervous system Correct. The peripheral nervous system allows the brain and spinal cord to communicate with the sensory systems and control the muscles and glands. b. central nervous system Incorrect. The peripheral nervous system enables the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, to communicate with the sensory systems and control the muscles and glands. 84. The peripheral nervous system consists of the _______ and the ______ nervous systems. a. autonomic; somatic b. autonomic; sympathetic c. parasympathetic; somatic d. parasympathetic; sympathetic Answer: a. autonomic; somatic Correct. The peripheral nervous system consists of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. d. parasympathetic; sympathetic Incorrect. These are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. 85. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the ________ nervous system. a. somatic b. autonomic c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic Answer: a. somatic Correct. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles. b. autonomic Incorrect. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles. 86. The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that is made up of all nerves carrying messages from the senses to the central nervous system and all nerves carrying messages from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles is called the _________. a. autonomic nervous system b. parasympathetic nervous system c. somatic nervous system d. central nervous system Answer: c. somatic nervous system Correct. This describes the somatic nervous system. a. autonomic nervous system Incorrect. The autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands. 87. In the peripheral nervous system, _____________________ carry messages from special sense receptors in the skin, muscles, and other internal and external sense organs to the spinal cord. a. autonomic nerves b. sensory pathway neurons c. motor pathway neurons d. autonomic neurons Answer: b. sensory pathway neurons Correct. Sensory pathway neurons carry messages from sense receptors. c. motor pathway neurons Incorrect. Motor pathway neurons travel from the central nervous system to the voluntary muscles. 88. Vladimir is typing on the computer keyboard. The motion of his fingers on the keys is probably being controlled by ______. a. the autonomic nervous system b. sensory pathway neurons c. motor pathway neurons d. autonomic neurons Answer: c. motor pathway neurons Correct. Movements of fingers are associated with motor pathway neurons, which control voluntary muscles. b. sensory pathway neurons Incorrect. These neurons makes up the nerves that come from the sensory organs. 89. Every deliberate action you make, such as pedaling a bike, walking, scratching, or smelling a flower, involves neurons in the ______ nervous system. a. sympathetic b. somatic c. parasympathetic d. autonomic Answer: b. somatic Correct. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscle movement. d. autonomic Incorrect. The autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands. 90. As she walks out of the living room, Gloriann turns out the light. In this example, Gloriann’s __________________ is active. a. sympathetic nervous system b. parasympathetic nervous system c. autonomic nervous system d. somatic nervous system Answer: d. somatic nervous system Correct. Turning out the light requires voluntary muscle movement. c. autonomic nervous system Incorrect. Turning out the light requires voluntary muscle movement. 91. Involuntary muscles are controlled by the ________ nervous system. a. somatic b. autonomic c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic Answer: b. autonomic Correct. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles like the heart, stomach, and intestines. a. somatic Incorrect. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles. 92. The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands is called the _________ nervous system. a. somatic b. autonomic c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic Answer: b. autonomic Correct. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles and glands. a. somatic Incorrect. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles. 93. When you see someone you have a crush on and your heart pounds, your hands get sweaty, and your cheeks feel hot, your __________________ is/are active. a. skeletal nervous system b. spinal reflexes c. autonomic nervous system d. somatic nervous system Answer: c. autonomic nervous system Correct. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles and glands. d. somatic nervous system Incorrect. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles. 94. The autonomic nervous system has two divisions called the __________ and the ____________. a. central; peripheral b. sympathetic; parasympathetic c. receptors; effectors d. limbic; endocrine Answer: b. sympathetic; parasympathetic Correct. These are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system. a. central; peripheral Incorrect. The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. 95. Which component of the nervous system mobilizes the body in times of stress? a. central b. somatic c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic Answer: c. sympathetic Correct. The sympathetic nervous system mobilizes the body in times of stress. d. parasympathetic Incorrect. The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. 96. The part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal is called the ______________ nervous system. a. central b. somatic c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic Answer: c. sympathetic Correct. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal. d. parasympathetic Incorrect. The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. 97. As Molly is walking across campus, a car swerves toward her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm’s way. This mobilization of energy is due to the action of Molly’s ______________. a. somatic nervous system b. skeletal nervous system c. parasympathetic nervous system d. sympathetic nervous system Answer: d. sympathetic nervous system Correct. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal. c. parasympathetic nervous system Incorrect. The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. 98. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands is called the _________________. a. spinal cord b. somatic nervous system c. sympathetic nervous system d. parasympathetic nervous system Answer: d. parasympathetic nervous system Correct. The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. c. sympathetic nervous system Incorrect. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal. 99. Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs he discovers his cat has knocked over a plant stand. His body begins to relax and return to normal. Which part of his nervous system is responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state? a. spinal cord b. somatic nervous system c. sympathetic nervous system d. parasympathetic nervous system Answer: d. parasympathetic nervous system Correct. The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. c. sympathetic nervous system Incorrect. The sympathetic nervous system mobilizes the body in times of stress. 100. Hormones are chemicals that are secreted and go directly into ________. a. the bloodstream b. specific organs c. nerve endings d. the brain Answer: a. the bloodstream Correct. Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands and go into the bloodstream. d. the brain Incorrect. Hormones go directly into the bloodstream. 101. Endocrine glands ___________. a. secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream b. are chemicals released into the bloodstream c. are an extensive network of specialized cells d. are a thin layer of cells coating the axons Answer: a. secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream Correct. Endocrine glands do secrete hormones. b. are chemicals released into the bloodstream Incorrect. Glands are not chemicals; they are organs that secrete chemicals. 102. Hormones are ___________. a. the female gonads b. chemicals released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands c. chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles, which when released have an effect on the next cell d. the male gonads Answer: b. chemicals released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands Correct. This is the definition of hormones. c. chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles, which when released have an effect on the next cell Incorrect. This is the definition of neurotransmitters, not hormones. 103. Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands? a. thyroid b. adrenal c. thymus d. pituitary Answer: d. pituitary Correct. The pituitary gland controls all other endocrine glands. a. thyroid Incorrect. The thyroid gland does not control other endocrine glands. 104. The idea that the pituitary gland is the “master gland”: a. is completely accurate and appropriate. b. is completely inaccurate since it doesn’t control any other glands or related structures. c. is true; yet, it is still controlled by the brain. d. is a matter of debate since many other researchers refer to the adrenal gland as the “master gland.” Answer: c. is true; yet, it is still controlled by the brain. Correct. The pituitary gland can be thought of as the master of the endocrine system, but it is still controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. a. is completely accurate and appropriate. Incorrect. The pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, so to suggest that calling it the master gland is completely accurate is something of a misnomer. 105. The hormone released by the pineal gland that reduces body temperature and prepares you for sleep is ______. a. melatonin b. DHEA c. parathormone d. thyroxin Answer: a. melatonin Correct. The pineal gland secretes melatonin. d. thyroxin Incorrect. The thyroid secretes thyroxin, which regulates metabolism. 106. Tim is overweight. His physician has decided to test him to see if there is a problem with the regulation of his metabolism. Which endocrine gland will be the focus of diagnostic testing? a. adrenal b. thymus c. thyroid d. pancreas Answer: c. thyroid Correct. The thyroid gland regulates metabolism. a. adrenal Incorrect. The adrenal glands have nothing to do with metabolism. They secrete sex hormones and hormones that regulate salt intake. 107. Denise just received the results of a complete physical that found her body is not producing enough insulin. Which of the following endocrine glands is affecting her body’s ability to produce insulin? a. adrenal b. thymus c. thyroid d. pancreas Answer: d. pancreas Correct. The pancreas controls the level of blood sugar in the body. a. adrenal Incorrect. The adrenal glands have nothing to do with insulin. They secrete sex hormones and hormones that regulate salt intake. 108. The sex glands, which secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction, are called _________. a. the pancreas b. the gonads c. cortisol d. the hypothalamus Answer: b. the gonads Correct. Gonads are sex glands. c. cortisol Incorrect. Cortisol is a hormone that is released when the body experiences stress. 109. The ________, located on the top of the kidneys, secrete(s) hormones that regulate salt intake, control stress reactions, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence. a. adrenal glands b. thymus gland c. thyroid gland d. gonads Answer: a. adrenal glands Correct. The adrenal glands secrete sex hormones and hormones that regulate salt intake. d. gonads Incorrect. The gonads only secrete sex hormones. 110. Joe is very anxious over an upcoming exam. Consequently, his adrenal glands will probably produce ________. a. more testosterone b. less estrogen c. more cortisol d. less cortisol Answer: c. more cortisol Correct. Stressful or tense situations cause the HPA axis to produce more cortisol in the adrenal glands. b. less estrogen Incorrect. Nothing about Joseph circumstance would result in a change in production of estrogen. 111. Insertion into the brain of a thin insulated wire through which is sent an electrical current that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire is called __________. a. deep lesioning b. ESB c. EEG d. CT scanning Answer: a. deep lesioning Correct. Deep lesioning destroys brain cells. b. ESB Incorrect. ESB stimulates brain cells. 112. Sometimes in order to study parts of an animal’s brain, researchers may deliberately damage a part of the brain. They accomplish this by placing into the brain a thin insulated wire through which they send an electrical current that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire. This technique is called ____________. a. deep lesioning b. ESB c. EEG d. CT scan Answer: a. deep lesioning Correct. Deep lesioning destroys brain cells. b. ESB Incorrect. ESB stimulates brain cells. 113. Insertion into the brain of a thin insulated wire through which is sent an electrical current that stimulates the brain cells at the tip of the wire is called ___________. a. deep lesioning b. ESB c. EEG d. CT scan Answer: b. ESB Correct. ESB stimulates brain cells. a. deep lesioning Incorrect. Deep lesioning destroys brain cells. 114. A brain-imaging method that takes computer-controlled X-rays of the brain is called __________. a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) c. positron emission tomography (PET) d. computed tomography (CT) Answer: d. computed tomography (CT) Correct. CT scans take computer-controlled X-rays of the brain. b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Incorrect. MRI is a brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body. 115. Ali is in the hospital about to undergo a brain-imaging process that involves taking many X-rays from different angles aided by the use of a computer. What type of imaging technique is being used? a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) c. positron-emission tomography (PET) d. computed tomography (CT) Answer: d. computed tomography (CT) Correct. CT scans take computer-controlled X-rays of the brain. b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Incorrect. MRI is a brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body. 116. A brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain is called ______________. a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) c. positron emission tomography (PET) d. computed tomography (CT) Answer: b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Correct. MRI is a brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body. d. computed tomography (CT) Incorrect. CT scans use X-rays. 117. Rashad is in the hospital and is about to undergo a brain-imaging process that involves placing him inside a magnetic field so that a computer can create three-dimensional images of his brain. What procedure is he about to undergo? a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) c. computed tomography (CT) d. positron emission tomography (PET) Answer: b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Correct. MRI is a brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body. c. computed tomography (CT) Incorrect. CT scans use X-rays. 118. Electroencephalograph is to electroencephalogram as ________. a. recording is to machine b. machine is to tracing c. brain is to wave d. sleep is to awake Answer: b. machine is to tracing Correct. Electroencephalograph is a machine. That machine produces a tracing called on electroencephalogram. a. recording is to machine Incorrect. This would be the opposite of the correct answer. 119. Small metal disks are pasted onto Miranda’s scalp and they are connected by wire to a machine that translates the electrical energy from her brain into wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. From this description, it is evident that Miranda’s brain is being studied through the use of ___________. a. a CT scan b. functional magnetic resonance imaging c. a microelectrode d. an electroencephalogram Answer: d. an electroencephalogram Correct. Electroencephalograms record brain wave patterns. a. a CT scan Incorrect. CT scans take computer-controlled X-rays of the brain. 120. Which of the following is a machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain? a. deep lesioning b. ESB c. EEG d. CT scan Answer: c. EEG Correct. EEG records brain wave patterns. b. ESB Incorrect. ESB is insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain. 121. Which equipment is used to monitor brain waves? a. CT scans b. functional magnetic resonance imaging c. microelectrode d. electroencephalogram Answer: d. electroencephalogram Correct. Electroencephalograms monitor brain waves. a. CT scans Incorrect. A CT scan is a brain-imaging method. 122. If Mindy’s doctor has taken a series of images of her brain using X-rays, then she has likely had a(n) ________. a. EEG b. MRI c. CT d. PET Answer: c. CT Correct. CT scans use x-rays to create such images. a. EEG Incorrect. An electroencephalogram is a graphical representation of the electrical activity in the brain. 123. A brain-imaging method called ______________ takes advantage of the magnetic properties of different atoms to take sharp, three-dimensional images of the brain. a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) c. positron emission magnetography (PEM) d. computed tomography (CT) Answer: b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Correct. MRI is a brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body. d. computed tomography (CT) Incorrect. CT scans use X-rays. 124. Which of the following is a brain-imaging method in which radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain? a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. computed tomography (CT) c. positron emission tomography (PET) d. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Answer: c. positron emission tomography (PET) Correct. PET scan provides a color-coded image of the activity of the brain. d. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Incorrect. fMRI does not involve radioactive sugar. 125. Libby’s physician refers her to a medical center in order to have the biochemical activity in her brain analyzed. She is given an injection of a radioactive glucose-like substance and then is told to lie down with her head in a scanner. The technique being used is ______________. a. positron emission tomography b. functional magnetic resonance imaging c. microelectrode recording. d. an electroencephalogram Answer: a. positron emission tomography Correct. PET involves injecting a radioactive glucose into the patient. b. functional magnetic resonance imaging Incorrect. fMRI does not involve injecting the patient with glucose. 126. A researcher wants to obtain a “movie” of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods. Which of these would be the best choice for this researcher? a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. computed tomography (CT) c. positron emission tomography (PET) d. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Answer: d. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Correct. fMRI takes MRI images and combines them into a moving image of the brain. c. positron emission tomography (PET) Incorrect. PET provides a color-coded image of the activity of the brain, not moving images of the brain. 127. Marika needs to have a neuroimaging test that will track the activity of her brain, along with changes in her brain oxygen levels. Which of the following offers an alternative to PET scans, with the advantage of using radioactive tracers that are easier to monitor? a. electroencephalography (EEG) b. computed tomography (CT) c. functional positron emission tomography (fPET) d. single photo emission computed tomography (SPECT) Answer: d. single photo emission computed tomography (SPECT) Correct. SPECT offers this stated benefit over PET scans. c. functional positron emission tomography (fPET) Incorrect. There is no neuroimaging technique called fPET 128. Which of the following is the primary benefit of SPECT over PET? a. SPECT is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique, while PET is invasive. b. SPECT offers the benefit of using radioactive tracers that are easier to monitor than PET. c. SPECT allows monitoring of actual brain activity, while PET does not. d. SPECT offers monitoring of brain oxygen changes, while PET does not. Answer: b. SPECT offers the benefit of using radioactive tracers that are easier to monitor than PET. Correct. SPECT allows the use of tracers that can be more easily tracked than PET scans. d. SPECT offers monitoring of brain oxygen changes, while PET does not. Incorrect. Both PET and SPECT can track changes in brain oxygenation levels. 129. The _______________ is a structure in the brain stem responsible for life-sustaining functions, such as breathing and heart rate. a. reticular activating system b. pons c. medulla d. cerebellum Answer: c. medulla Correct. The medulla is responsible for life-sustaining functions. b. pons Incorrect. The pons plays a role in sleep, dreaming, left–right body coordination, and arousal. 130. An auto accident rendered Chris’s nervous system unable to send messages for him to breathe, so he is on a respirator. Which brain structure was damaged in the accident? a. pons b. medulla c. cerebellum d. reticular formation Answer: b. medulla Correct. The medulla is responsible for breathing. a. pons Incorrect. The pons plays a role in sleep, dreaming, left–right body coordination, and arousal. 131. The brain is divided into several different structures on the bottom part of the brain referred to as the “hindbrain.” Which of the parts of the brain listed below is NOT located in the hindbrain? a. medulla b. pons c. cerebellum d. thalamus Answer: d. thalamus Correct. This part of the brain is in the forebrain. c. cerebellum Incorrect. This part of the brain is in the hindbrain. 132. The point at which the nerves from the left side of the body cross over into the right side of the brain, and vice versa, is the ______. a. reticular activating system b. pons c. medulla d. cerebellum Answer: c. medulla Correct. This is the point where nerves cross over. b. pons Incorrect. The pons connects the top of the brain to the bottom. 133. The ________________ is a structure in the brain stem that plays a role in sleep, dreaming, left–right body coordination, and arousal. a. reticular activating system b. pons c. medulla d. cerebellum Answer: b. pons Correct. The pons plays a role in sleep, dreaming, left–right body coordination, and arousal. c. medulla Incorrect. The medulla is responsible for life-sustaining functions but does not play a role in sleep, dreaming, and arousal. 134. A college student is having difficulty staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night. Her difficulties are MOST likely due to problems in the ______. a. hippocampus b. pons c. medulla d. cerebellum Answer: b. pons Correct. The pons plays a role in sleep, dreaming, and arousal. a. hippocampus Incorrect. The hippocampus is responsible for the formation of long-term memory and does not play a role in keeping people awake and alert. 135. Which of the following is responsible for the ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of information in one’s surroundings and become alert to changes? a. reticular formation b. pons c. medulla d. cerebellum Answer: a. reticular formation Correct. The reticular formation plays a role in selective attention. b. pons Incorrect. The pons plays a role in sleep, dreaming, and arousal but not in selective attention. 136. What is the main function of the reticular formation? a. to control thinking b. to regulate emotions c. to control levels of alertness d. to coordinate involuntary rapid fine-motor movements. Answer: c. to control levels of alertness Correct. The reticular formation controls levels of alertness. d. to coordinate involuntary rapid fine-motor movements. Incorrect. This is the role of the cerebellum. 137. Alice is typing her term paper in the computer lab. Although a class is going on just a few feet away, she does not seem to notice. Which part of the brain allows Alice to focus on her typing and ignore the distractions that surround her? a. reticular formation b. pons c. medulla d. cerebellum Answer: a. reticular formation Correct. The reticular formation is responsible for selective attention. b. pons Incorrect. The pons plays a role in sleep, dreaming, and arousal but not in selective attention. 138. The cerebellum ______. a. controls blood pressure b. is involved in emotional behavior c. coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement d. relays messages from the sensory receptors Answer: c. coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement Correct. The cerebellum does coordinate involuntary rapid fine-motor movement. d. relays messages from the sensory receptors Incorrect. The cerebellum coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement. 139. Which of the following coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement? a. medulla b. pons c. reticular formation d. cerebellum Answer: d. cerebellum Correct. The cerebellum coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement. c. reticular formation Incorrect. The reticular formation is not involved in movement. 140. Damage to the cerebellum is likely to disrupt which of the following? a. playing basketball b. sleeping c. homeostasis d. thinking Answer: a. playing basketball Correct. The cerebellum coordinates movements that have to happen in rapid succession. b. sleeping Incorrect. The pons plays a role in sleep and dreaming, not in movement. 141. Since Jessica suffered a head injury in a car accident 3 months ago, she has not experienced dreams as she had in the past. She used to dream vivid, active dreams. Which part of her brain most likely was affected during the car accident which is related to her problem dreaming? a. pons b. cerebellum c. cerebral cortex d. pituitary gland Answer: a. pons Correct. The pons have been shown to influence sleep and dreaming as well as arousal. d. pituitary gland Incorrect. The correct answer is the pons. 142. Katie has grown up sleeping with a fan running in her room since she was an infant. This provides white noise to drown out the television programs being watched by other family members who were still awake. In an effort to save electricity, her mother has started coming into her room and turning her fan off after she thinks Katie is asleep. However, each time Katie wakes up and asks for the fan to be turned back on. Katie is selectively attending to certain kinds of information in her surroundings has been linked to the ______ part of the brain. a. reticular formation b. pons c. cerebellum d. medulla Answer: a. reticular formation Correct. Research has shown that the RF in the brain would be sensitive to this difference in the environment. d. medulla Incorrect. The correct answer is the reticular formation 143. Jennifer has been diagnosed with spinocerebellar degeneration. The first stage of the disease involve tremors and unsteady gate. In the later stages, she will be unable to stand, walk, and will be uncoordinated in her movements. This disease affects the ______ part of the brain. a. hippocampus b. amygdala c. cerebellum d. cerebral cortex Answer: c. cerebellum Correct. This is the part of the brain which is affected by this disease. d. cerebral cortex Incorrect. This is not the part of the brain that is effected. 144. Tracey has been unable to participate in her gymnastics class and is very uncoordinated since she was involved in an accident where she suffered a head injury. As a result of the accident, she was likely to have suffered damage to her ________________. a. cerebellum b. medulla c. cerebral cortex d. hypothalamus Answer: a. cerebellum Correct. This part of the brain controls coordination and balance. d. hypothalamus Incorrect. This is not the correct part of the brain that controls these functions. 145. If a person is described as “punch-drunk,” then it is quite likely that he or she is ________. a. suffering the effects of chronic alcohol consumption b. delirious due to addiction furthered by the nucleus accumbens c. suffering from sleep deprivation due to damage to the pons d. an aging prizefighter with damage to the cerebellum. Answer: d. an aging prizefighter with damage to the cerebellum. Correct. Repeated trauma to the brain can cause damage to the cerebellum, which will result in difficulties with motor coordination or balance. c. suffering from sleep deprivation due to damage to the pons Incorrect. As your authors point out, the term punchdrunk often refers to somebody who has received serious and repeated head trauma resulting in damage to the cerebellum. 146. If your ________ was damaged, you might walk oddly and have trouble standing normally. a. pons b. medulla c. cerebellum d. amygdala Answer: c. cerebellum Correct. The cerebellum is responsible for balance and fine motor coordination. b. medulla Incorrect. The tool is responsible for life-sustaining functions like respiration and circulation. 147. Which of the following is a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation? a. limbic system b. cerebellum c. cerebral cortex d. cerebrum Answer: a. limbic system Correct. This structure is involved in learning, memory, emotion, and motivation. d. cerebrum Incorrect. The cerebrum consists of the cerebral hemispheres and connecting structures. 148. The structures of the limbic system play an important role in ________________ and _________________. a. heart rate; breathing b. breathing; decision making c. memory; emotion d. spatial tasks; sequential tasks Answer: c. memory; emotion Correct. These structures play a role in memory and emotion. d. spatial tasks; sequential tasks Incorrect. The limbic system does not play an important role in these tasks. 149. What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information? a. hypothalamus b. thalamus c. cerebellum d. pituitary gland Answer: b. thalamus Correct. The thalamus acts as a relay station. a. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. 150. Signals from the neurons of which sense are not sent to the cortex by the thalamus? a. hearing b. smell c. taste d. vision Answer: b. smell Correct. Signals from the neurons of the sense of smell go directly into special parts of the brain called olfactory bulbs that are the structures responsible for smell. c. taste Incorrect. Signals from the neurons involved in taste are sent to the cortex by the thalamus. 151. The thalamus could be thought of as being analogous to a(n) ________. a. airline hub b. speedway c. police station d. bus stop Answer: a. airline hub Correct. If you think of an airline hub as being the place where planes go before they depart for their final destination, you will see the analogy to the thalamus. d. bus stop Incorrect. This analogy does not work, because all people at the bus stop get on the same bus that goes to the same place. The thalamus routes sensory information to the correct part of the cerebrum for processing. 152. The thalamus is often compared to a(n) ________. a. triage nurse b. fast food menu c. stop sign d. bus stop Answer: a. triage nurse Correct. As your authors note, the thalamus is often compared with a triage nurse because it routes sensory information to different parts of the cerebral cortex. b. fast food menu Incorrect. There is really nothing about this answer that could be considered correct. 153. Jerry loves the smell of the grass after it rains. This is a result of his ____________ which have received signals from neurons in his sinus cavity. a. thalamus b. olfactory bulbs c. opticfactory Bulbs d. hippocampus Answer: b. olfactory bulbs Correct. This is the part of the brain that is related to the sense of smell. d. hippocampus Incorrect. The correct answer is the olfactory bulbs. 154. Which part of the brain is very small but extremely powerful and controls the pituitary gland? a. hippocampus b. thalamus c. hypothalamus d. amygdala Answer: c. hypothalamus Correct. The hypothalamus is very small but extremely powerful and controls the pituitary gland. b. thalamus Incorrect. The thalamus acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information. 155. Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the ______. a. hippocampus b. thalamus c. hypothalamus d. amygdala Answer: c. hypothalamus Correct. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. b. thalamus Incorrect. The thalamus acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information and is not involved in eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control. 156. Which of the following is a likely effect of damage to the hypothalamus? a. reduced use of left arm b. deregulation of hormones c. development of aphasia d. reduced ability to reason Answer: b. deregulation of hormones Correct. The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland and, therefore, damage can result in the deregulation of hormones. c. development of aphasia Incorrect. Damage to Broca’s and Wernicke’s area plays a role in the development of aphasia. 157. The ________ is the part of the brain responsible for the formation of long-term memories. a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. fornix d. amygdala Answer: a. hippocampus Correct. The hippocampus is responsible for the formation of long-term memories. b. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex and is not involved in memory. 158. If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for damage to the ___________ area of the brain. a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. fornix d. amygdala Answer: a. hippocampus Correct. The hippocampus is responsible for the formation of long-term memories. b. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex, but not memory. 159. The ____________ is located within the temporal lobe on each side of the brain and if electrically stimulated it may produce dream-like or memory-like experiences. a. thalamus b. amygdala c. hypothalamus d. hippocampus Answer: d. hippocampus Correct. This part of the brain produces this result. b. amygdala Incorrect. The Hippocampus produces this result. 160. People suffering from Alzheimer’s disease have much lower levels of acetylcholine in the ______________. a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. fornix d. amygdala Answer: a. hippocampus Correct. Acetylcholine is involved in the memory function of the hippocampus. b. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex, but not memory. 161. Which of the following brain structures is located near the hippocampus and is responsible for fear responses and memory of fear? a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. fornix d. amygdala Answer: d. amygdala Correct. The amygdala is responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. b. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex, not fear responses. 162. Rats that have a damaged _________ will show no fear when placed next to a cat. a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. fornix d. amygdala Answer: d. amygdala Correct. The amygdala is responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. b. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex, not fear responses. 163. Stan has been extremely afraid of cats since he was scratched as a 5-year-old. Whenever he sees a cat, he remembers the time he was scratched across his face and starts to feel afraid. If a cat comes towards him, he often runs away immediately as he is afraid of being scratched again. Stan’s behaviors and recollection of this trauma is a result of the ____________ in the limbic system. a. hippocampus b. thalamus c. amygdala d. medulla Answer: c. amygdala Correct. This is the part of the brain which controls many fear responses and memories. d. medulla Incorrect. The correct answer is the Amygdala 164. As Joe walks to his car late at night, he hears footsteps behind him. Feeling afraid, Joe grips his keys and quickens his pace. It is likely that Joe's ________ has been activated a. hypothalamus b. hippocampus c. amygdala d. cerebellum Answer: c. amygdala Correct. The amygdala processes the emotions of anger and fear. a. hypothalamus Incorrect. The hypothalamus would be responsible for activating the fight or flight system, but only after the amygdala interpreted a fearful or threatening response. 165. The outermost part of the brain that is made up of tightly packed neurons and is only a tenth of an inch thick is called the ________. a. amygdala b. medulla c. cerebellum d. cortex Answer: d. cortex Correct. The outermost part of the brain is called the cortex. c. cerebellum Incorrect. The cerebellum is not the outermost part of the brain. 166. The cortex is divided into two sections referred to as ____________. a. cerebral hemispheres b. cerebellums c. corpus callosums d. neurotransmitters Answer: a. cerebral hemispheres Correct. The two sections of the cortex are called cerebral hemispheres. b. cerebellums Incorrect. The cerebellum is not a section of the cortex. 167. The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the ___________. a. cortex b. cerebrum c. corpus callosum d. cerebellum Answer: c. corpus callosum Correct. The corpus callosum connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. a. cortex Incorrect. The cortex is the outermost part of the brain. 168. Which of the following is the section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere and contains the visual centers of the brain? a. occipital lobe b. parietal lobe c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: a. occipital lobe Correct. The occipital lobes contain the visual centers of the brain. b. parietal lobe Incorrect. The parietal lobe contains the somatosensory cortex, not the visual centers. 169. After a head injury a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in the ______ lobe. a. occipital b. parietal c. temporal d. frontal Answer: a. occipital Correct. The occipital lobes contain the visual centers of the brain. b. parietal Incorrect. The parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex, not the visual centers. 170. Which of the following regions contains the primary visual cortex? a. occipital lobe b. parietal lobe c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: a. occipital lobe Correct. The occipital lobes contain the primary visual cortex. b. parietal lobe Incorrect. The parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex, not the primary visual cortex. 171. The part of the occipital lobe that is responsible for receiving visual information from the eyes is called the ______. a. primary visual cortex b. somatosensory cortex c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: a. primary visual cortex Correct. The occipital lobes contain the primary visual cortex. b. somatosensory cortex Incorrect. The parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex. 172. The section of the brain responsible for interpreting the visual information in the primary visual cortex is called the __________. a. visual association cortex b. somatosensory cortex c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: a. visual association cortex Correct. This part of the brain is responsible for interpreting visual information. b. somatosensory cortex Incorrect. The somatosensory cortex processes information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, and body position, not visual information. 173. Damage to the ________ would result in an inability to identify and comprehend what is seen through the eyes. a. visual association cortex b. primary visual cortex c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: a. visual association cortex Correct. This part of the brain is responsible for interpreting visual information. b. primary visual cortex Incorrect. The primary visual cortex receives visual information from the eyes but does not interpret it. 174. Suzie Q. was rollerblading when a cat jumped right in front of her causing her to fall. She landed on the back of her head at which point she saw “stars.” Which lobe would have been most affected by this fall given what she saw? a. frontal b. temporal c. parietal d. occipital Answer: d. occipital Correct. If Susie is having an artificial visual experience, it is due to trauma to her occipital lobe. b. temporal Incorrect. The temporal lobe is not involved in visual processing, so it would not be the best answer to this question. 175. John has decided to start to learn how to wrestle. His first day at practice, a seasoned wrestler slams the back of his head to the mat. John was shaken and reported to the trainer that he “saw stars” after he hit his head. As a result of “seeing stars,” John’s ______ was temporarily affected as a result of the slam. a. corpus callosum b. occipital lobe c. parietal lobes d. somatosensory cortex Answer: b. occipital lobe Correct. This part of the brain is in the back of the head and controls vision. c. parietal lobes Incorrect. This is not correct as the occipital lobe controls vision. 176. Which of the following regions contains the somatosensory cortex? a. occipital lobe b. parietal lobe c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: b. parietal lobe Correct. The parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex. a. occipital lobe Incorrect. This region contains the primary visual cortex. 177. The ________ lobes are located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere, containing the centers for touch, body position, and temperature. a. frontal b. temporal c. occipital d. parietal Answer: d. parietal Correct. The parietal lobes contain the centers for touch, body position, and temperature. b. temporal Incorrect. The temporal lobes are responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, not for touch, body position, or temperature. 178. Suppose Al is trying to decide whether the shower is hot enough to step in, Hal is listening to his MP3 player, and Sal is looking at a beautiful painting in an art museum. Which individual is using his parietal lobe? a. Al b. Hal c. Sal d. Hal and Sal are, but Al is not. Answer: a. Al Correct. The processing of “touch” information like this is handled by the parietal lobe. b. Hal Incorrect. Auditory processing is handled by the temporal lobe, not the parietal lobe. 179. Darla was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. Her sense of touch has been affected. Which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage? a. frontal lobe b. temporal lobe c. occipital lobe d. parietal lobes Answer: d. parietal lobes Correct. The parietal lobes contain the centers for touch, taste, and temperature. b. temporal lobe Incorrect. The temporal lobes are responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, not touch. 180. Which of the following regions contains the auditory cortex? a. temporal lobes b. parietal lobes c. frontal lobes d. occipital lobes Answer: a. temporal lobes Correct. The temporal lobes contain the auditory cortex. b. parietal lobes Incorrect. The parietal lobes contain the somatosensory cortex but not the auditory cortex. 181. The part of the brain located just behind the temples, containing neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, is called the ___________. a. temporal lobes b. parietal lobes c. frontal lobes d. occipital lobes Answer: a. temporal lobes Correct. The temporal lobes are responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech. b. parietal lobes Incorrect. The parietal lobes are not involved with hearing or speech. 182. Bobby B. was rollerblading when a cat jumped right in front of him causing him to fall. When he fell, he landed on the side of his head. Shortly afterwards, Bobby complained that he could not understand what people were saying to him. Which lobe would have been most affected by this fall given what he experienced? a. frontal b. temporal c. parietal d. occipital Answer: b. temporal Correct. The comprehension of language is one of the many tasks handled by the temporal lobe. d. occipital Incorrect. The occipital lobe is really responsible for visual processing, and does not play any role in the comprehension of language. 183. Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality? a. temporal lobes b. parietal lobes c. frontal lobes d. occipital lobes Answer: c. frontal lobes Correct. The frontal lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality. a. temporal lobes Incorrect. This part of the brain is responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, not planning, memory, or personality. 184. Joella was rollerblading when a cat jumped right in front of her causing her to trip and fall. When she fell, she partially landed on the front side of her head near her forehead. Shortly afterwards, Joella exhibited symptoms similar to that of Phineas Gage. Which lobe would have been most affected by this fall? a. frontal b. temporal c. parietal d. occipital Answer: a. frontal Correct. Phineas Gage suffered extreme trauma to the frontal lobe of his brain, impacting all sorts of functions including his personality. b. temporal Incorrect. The famous story of Phineas Gage gave us insight into the functioning of the frontal lobe of the brain. 185. Phineas Gage tragically had a tamping iron propelled through his head. Both left and right sides of the prefrontal cortex were severely damaged. As a result of the accident, Phineas Gage a. died from his injuries. b. suffered loss of his arms and legs. c. lost his sense of hearing. d. suffered a change in personality. Answer: d. suffered a change in personality. Correct. After Phineas Gage's accident, his personality changed dramatically. c. lost his sense of hearing. Incorrect. Hearing is handled by the temporal lobe, not the frontal lobe of the brain. 186. Ito was driving through a rough part of town late at night when a stray bullet hit the front side of his head. Both the left and right sides of his prefrontal cortex were severely damaged. As a result of the accident, Ito most likely a. died from his injuries. b. suffered loss of his arms and legs. c. lost his sense of hearing. d. suffered a change in personality. Answer: d. suffered a change in personality. Correct. The correct answer is option d, suffered a change in personality. Damage to the prefrontal cortex, particularly on both left and right sides as in Ito's case, can lead to alterations in personality traits, emotional regulation, and social behavior. This region of the brain is crucial for executive functions such as decision-making, impulse control, and social conduct. The case of Phineas Gage, who experienced similar frontal lobe damage resulting in profound personality changes, serves as a classic example. b. suffered loss of his arms and legs. Incorrect. Damage to the prefrontal cortex is not directly associated with loss of limb function. This option is unrelated to the consequences of damage to the specific brain region mentioned. 187. Ever since he suffered a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zack’s wife has continued to tell the doctor that his personality has changed. He used to be fun loving and care-free, but he is now more critical and yells at his children for seemingly little reason. Zack is likely to have suffered damage to the _______ of his cortex. a. occipital lobe b. parietal lobe c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe Answer: d. frontal lobe Correct. The frontal lobes are connected to personality and decision making processes. a. occipital lobe Incorrect. If his vision was affected, this would be accurate. 188. Warren is having trouble deciding what he wants to eat for breakfast. Which lobe of his brain is especially active as he makes his selection? a. temporal b. parietal c. frontal d. occipital Answer: c. frontal Correct. The frontal lobes are responsible for decision-making skills. a. temporal Incorrect. This part of the brain is responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech. 189. _______________ are fired when an animal performs an action or when the animal observes that same action being performed. For example, an infant will mimic the facial expressions of adults. a. Mirror neurons b. Statue neurons c. Facial neurons d. Observation neurons Answer: a. Mirror neurons Correct. Mirror neurons are fired. d. Observation neurons Incorrect. This is a fictitious name for a neuron. 190. Marta was in an automobile accident and suffered an injury to her brain resulting in paralysis of her left arm. What part of Marta’s brain was injured? a. auditory association area b. motor cortex c. association areas d. somatosensory cortex Answer: b. motor cortex Correct. The motor cortex is responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system. d. somatosensory cortex Incorrect. This area processes information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, and body position but is not involved with arm muscles. 191. Messages from the brain to the muscles and glands in the body begin their journey in the ______. a. auditory association area b. motor cortex c. association areas d. somatosensory cortex Answer: b. motor cortex Correct. Messages from the brain to the muscles and the glands begin their journey in the motor cortex. d. somatosensory cortex Incorrect. This area is not involved with muscles and glands. 192. Incoming sensory messages are made sense of in ______. a. Broca’s area b. the motor projection areas c. the association areas d. Wernicke’ s area Answer: c. the association areas Correct. The association areas help people make sense of incoming sensory input. a. Broca’s area Incorrect. Broca’s area is devoted to the production of speech rather than helping people make sense of incoming sensory input. 193. The area of the frontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is ______ area. a. Broca’s b. Gall’s c. Wernicke’s d. Korsakoff’s Answer: a. Broca’s Correct. Broca’s area is devoted to the production of fluent speech. c. Wernicke’s Incorrect. Wernicke’s area is devoted to the production of meaningful language. 194. Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. When Bill’s son visited, he found his father was unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. If Bill’s difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage? a. Broca’s b. Gall’s c. Wernicke’s d. Korsakoff’s Answer: a. Broca’s Correct. Broca’s area is devoted to the production of fluent speech. c. Wernicke’s Incorrect. Wernicke’s area is devoted to the production of meaningful language. 195. The area at the back of the temporal lobe that is crucial in the ability to listen, process, and understand what others are saying is ______ area. a. Broca’s b. Gall’s c. Wernicke’s d. Korsakoff’s Answer: c. Wernicke’s Correct. Wernicke’s area is devoted to the production of meaningful language. a. Broca’s Incorrect. Broca’s area is devoted to the production of fluent speech. 196. Mary suffered a head injury in a car accident last week. Since that time she is able to speak fluently but uses the wrong words when expressing herself. Mary may be exhibiting ________ aphasia. a. Broca’s b. Gall’s c. Wernicke’s d. Korsakoff’s Answer: c. Wernicke’s Correct. Someone with Wernicke’s aphasia often uses the wrong words. a. Broca’s Incorrect. Someone with Broca’s aphasia has halting speech and mispronounces words but does not use the wrong words. 197. Robert’s mother is usually meticulous in her presentation. When picking her up for a family dinner, he noticed that her make-up was only applied to the right side of her face. Her hair was also brushed on the right side, but on the left it was matted and uncombed. He immediately took her to the hospital after she was unaware of any problems. She was diagnosed with ______ which is evidenced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere. a. Wernicke’s aphasia b. Broca’s aphasia c. spatial neglect d. split-brain Answer: c. spatial neglect Correct. This would be the cause of her attention to the right side of her body and neglecting the left. b. Broca’s aphasia Incorrect. If her speech was affected this could be the possible cause. 198. Which of the following is the upper part of the brain consisting of two cerebral hemispheres and the structures that connect them? a. occipital lobe b. cerebrum c. corpus callosum d. cerebellum Answer: b. cerebrum Correct. The cerebrum consists of the two cerebral hemispheres and the structures that connect them. d. cerebellum Incorrect. The cerebellum is at the base of the skull, not the upper part of the brain. 199. Since Norma is a split-brain patient, we can infer that she likely has a history of ________. a. mental illness b. severe epilepsy c. anosognosia d. frontal lobe damage Answer: b. severe epilepsy Correct. One of the very few medical conditions that is split brain procedure is used to treat is severe epilepsy. d. frontal lobe damage Incorrect. Split brain procedure's are not used to treat the frontal lobe damage; in fact, he would make no sense at all to use this procedure for this type of medical problem. 200. Pat has decided to undergo surgery to treat her severe epilepsy. Consequently, her doctors will use a surgical procedure during which they will sever her ________. a. parietal lobe b. corpus callosum c. cerebral cortex d. subcortical structure Answer: b. corpus callosum Correct. The corpus callosum is the thick band of axons that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. It is what is severed during a split brain procedure to treat severe epilepsy. d. subcortical structure Incorrect. In order to treat severe epilepsy, the corpus callosum is caught in a split brain procedure. This is a last treatment effort and is only done in the most serious cases. 201. Researcher Roger Sperry won a Nobel prize for his research on epilepsy. Sperry cut through the ________ which joins the two hemispheres of the brain. a. medulla b. pons c. pituitary gland d. corpus callosum Answer: d. corpus callosum Correct. This part of the brain is severed creating “two brains in one body.” c. pituitary gland Incorrect. This part of the brain is not severed in split-brain individuals. 202. Traditionally, many have made the analogy that the left brain is to the right brain as ________. a. logical is to artistic b. verbal is to analytical c. intuitive is to perceptual d. intuitive is to analytical Answer: a. logical is to artistic Correct. Though recent research suggests that this analogy may not be completely accurate, it is what most people have believed about the brain for many years. c. intuitive is to perceptual Incorrect. Traditionally, the left brain has been thought of as analytical, and the) has been thought of as perceptual. 203. If Darren’s brain is like that of most people, then language will be handled by his ________. a. corpus callosum b. occipital lobe c. right hemisphere d. left hemisphere Answer: d. left hemisphere Correct. For most people the left hemisphere controls language. c. right hemisphere Incorrect. The right hemisphere does not control language for most people. 204. Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere? a. perception, expression of emotion, and recognition of patterns b. sense of time and rhythm c. speech, handwriting, and calculation d. language processing in most individuals Answer: a. perception, expression of emotion, and recognition of patterns Correct. These are functions of the right hemisphere. d. language processing in most individuals Incorrect. This is a function of the left hemisphere. 205. Which is not a specific function of the left hemisphere of the brain? a. spoken language b. written language c. mathematical calculations d. pattern recognition Answer: d. pattern recognition Correct. This is controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. c. mathematical calculations Incorrect. This is controlled by the left hemisphere. 206. Which is not a specific function of the right hemisphere of the brain? a. nonverbal b. analysis of detail c. music and artistic expression d. emotional thought and recognition Answer: b. analysis of detail Correct. This is controlled by the left hemisphere. d. emotional thought and recognition Incorrect. This is controlled by the right hemisphere. 207. Adironke has recently been diagnosed with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Her psychiatrist tells her that there are several different brain areas that might contribute to her various symptoms. Which of the following would the psychiatrist be unlikely to name as an involved brain structure? a. the cerebellum b. the basal ganglia c. the striate nucleus d. the corpus callosum Answer: c. the striate nucleus Correct. There is no research implicating this brain structure in bipolar disorder. d. the corpus callosum Incorrect. The brain structure that joins the right and left hemispheres has been found to play a role in bipolar disorder. 208. Which of the following cognitive abilities has been found to be normal in people diagnosed with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? a. some aspects of attention b. vigilance (watching out for something important) c. staying on-task d. engaging in self-control Answer: a Correct. While individuals with ADHD may struggle with sustained attention, they may perform normally on certain aspects of attention tasks. Incorrect. b. vigilance (watching out for something important) Individuals with ADHD may have difficulties with vigilance tasks due to their attention deficits. TRUE OR FALSE 1. One function of the nervous system is to send information to and receive information from all parts of the body. Answer: True Rationale: The nervous system is responsible for transmitting signals to and from various parts of the body, allowing for communication between different organs, tissues, and cells. This function enables coordination of physiological processes and responses to internal and external stimuli. 2. The axon receives messages from other neurons. Answer: False Rationale: The axon is responsible for transmitting messages away from the cell body of a neuron to other neurons, muscles, or glands. It does not receive messages; rather, it transmits them. 3. Glial cells provide structure for neurons. Answer: True Rationale: Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, support and protect neurons. They provide structural support, insulation, and nutrients to neurons. Glial cells also play a role in regulating the extracellular environment of neurons. 4. Myelin not only insulates the neuron, it also slows down the neural message helping with transmission of messages traveling down the axon. Answer: False Rationale: Myelin acts as an insulating sheath around the axon, which increases the speed of neural impulses rather than slowing them down. Myelination allows for rapid and efficient transmission of nerve impulses along the axon. 5. Cell membranes are semipermeable. Answer: True Rationale: Cell membranes are selectively permeable, meaning they allow certain substances to pass through while restricting the passage of others. This property allows cells to maintain internal homeostasis by controlling the movement of ions, molecules, and other substances. 6. Neurons that are at rest are still electrically charged. Answer: True Rationale: Even when neurons are at rest, they maintain a difference in electrical charge across their cell membranes. This resting membrane potential is essential for the neuron's ability to generate and transmit electrical impulses. 7. During a resting potential, the neuron is positively charged inside and negatively charged outside. Answer: False Rationale: During resting potential, the neuron is negatively charged inside relative to the outside. This negative charge is primarily due to the presence of more negatively charged ions inside the cell compared to outside. 8. A synapse is like a locked door that only certain neurotransmitter keys can unlock. Answer: False Rationale: A synapse is a junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a target cell (such as a muscle or gland). Neurotransmitters released from the presynaptic neuron diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or target cell, initiating a response. It is not a locked structure; rather, neurotransmitters can bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane if they are compatible. 9. Acetylcholine is an agonist or an excitatory neurotransmitter also found in a part of the brain responsible for forming new memories and stimulating muscle contraction. Answer: True Rationale: Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that acts as both an agonist (mimicking the action of another neurotransmitter) and an excitatory neurotransmitter, meaning it stimulates the postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential. It is involved in various physiological processes, including memory formation and muscle contraction. 10. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Answer: True Rationale: The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for processing and coordinating sensory input, motor commands, and higher cognitive functions. The CNS plays a crucial role in integrating information from the peripheral nervous system and orchestrating appropriate responses. 11. Motor neurons carry messages from special receptors in the skin, from muscles, and from sense organs to the spinal cord. Answer: False Rationale: Motor neurons are responsible for carrying signals from the central nervous system to muscles and glands, resulting in motor responses. They do not carry messages from receptors in the skin, muscles, or sense organs to the spinal cord; rather, sensory neurons perform this function. 12. Interneurons connect sensory neurons to the motor neurons. Answer: True Rationale: Interneurons, also known as association neurons, are located entirely within the central nervous system and facilitate communication between sensory neurons and motor neurons. They integrate and interpret sensory information and form connections between different parts of the nervous system. 13. Neuroplasticity is the concept that when the brain is injured it is unable to change the structure and function of the cells to adjust to the damage. Answer: False Rationale: Neuroplasticity refers to the brain's ability to reorganize and adapt its structure and function in response to experience, learning, injury, or disease. It involves the formation of new neural connections, rewiring of existing ones, and even the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis). Neuroplasticity plays a crucial role in recovery from brain injuries and rehabilitation. 14. Stem cells can become other cells, such as blood cells, nerve cells, and brain cells. Answer: True Rationale: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into various specialized cell types. They have the ability to self-renew and give rise to different cell lineages. Stem cells can differentiate into blood cells (hematopoietic stem cells), nerve cells (neural stem cells), brain cells (neural stem cells), and many other cell types, depending on their developmental stage and environmental cues. 15. The somatic nervous system is made up of nerves carrying messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. Answer: True Rationale: The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary control of skeletal muscles and sensory input from external stimuli. It consists of sensory neurons that transmit information from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints to the central nervous system, as well as motor neurons that carry commands from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles. 16. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to pupil dilation, inhibition of digestion, and an accelerated heartbeat. Answer: True Rationale: The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response to stress or danger. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to physiological changes such as pupil dilation (to improve visual acuity), inhibition of digestion (to divert energy to more immediate needs), and an accelerated heartbeat (to increase oxygen delivery to muscles). 17. Endocrine glands secrete chemicals directly into the body’s tissues through ducts. Answer: False Rationale: Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream rather than into ducts. These hormones are then carried throughout the body to target tissues and organs, where they exert their effects. 18. The pineal gland secrets a hormone called insulin. Answer: False Rationale: The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin, which regulates the sleep-wake cycle (circadian rhythm) and has other functions related to the regulation of reproductive hormones. 19. The thyroid gland secretes a hormone called thyroxin. Answer: True Rationale: The thyroid gland produces and secretes hormones such as thyroxine (also known as T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which regulate metabolism, growth, and development throughout the body. 20. If the pancreas secretes too little insulin, the result is diabetes. Answer: True Rationale: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells. Insufficient insulin production or reduced sensitivity of cells to insulin can lead to diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. 21. If the body secretes too much insulin, the result is hyperglycemia. Answer: True Rationale: Insulin is responsible for lowering blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells. If the body secretes too much insulin or if there is an excessive response to insulin, it can lead to hypoglycemia, where blood sugar levels drop dangerously low. However, if insulin levels are too high relative to blood sugar levels, it can also result in hyperglycemia, especially if cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. 22. Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) is a brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain. Answer: False Rationale: Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) is a brain-imaging method that uses a radioactive tracer to detect positrons emitted by the tracer substance. It does not involve the use of radio waves or magnetic fields like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PET scans provide detailed images of metabolic activity in the brain, rather than the brain's structure. 23. The medulla is responsible for people’s ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of information in their surroundings. Answer: False Rationale: The medulla oblongata, located at the base of the brainstem, is primarily responsible for regulating vital autonomic functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. Selective attention to certain kinds of information in the surroundings is primarily controlled by higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex and thalamus. 24. The cortex “wrinkles” as a result of fluid filling the brain over the lifespan. Answer: False Rationale: The cortex, particularly the cerebral cortex, develops wrinkles and folds known as gyri and sulci, respectively, as a result of growth and expansion of the brain during development. This folding increases the surface area of the cortex, allowing for more neurons and synapses to be packed into a smaller space. It is not caused by fluid filling the brain over the lifespan. 25. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres that control opposite sides of the body. Answer: True Rationale: The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres: the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body (contralateral control) and is responsible for various functions such as sensory processing, motor control, language, and higher cognitive functions. 26. The occipital lobes contain the visual cortex, where visual signals are processed. Answer: True Rationale: The occipital lobes, located at the back of the brain, contain the primary visual cortex (also known as V1 or the striate cortex) where visual signals from the eyes are processed and interpreted. The occipital lobes are primarily involved in visual perception and processing. 27. A person who suffered brain damage is likely to have problems controlling his emotions as a result of damage with the connection from the temporal lobe to the limbic system. Answer: False Rationale: While the temporal lobes play a role in emotional regulation and memory processing, problems with emotional control following brain damage are more likely to result from damage to structures within the limbic system itself, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, rather than damage to connections between the temporal lobe and the limbic system. 28. Researchers in the field of autism are considering that lack of empathy is related to a faulty mirror system in the brain. Answer: True Rationale: Some researchers have proposed that deficits in empathy observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be related to dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Mirror neurons are brain cells that fire both when an individual performs an action and when they observe another individual performing the same action, and they are thought to play a role in understanding and mimicking others' behaviors and emotions. 29. The cerebral cortex is severed in individuals who are considered to have a “split brain” after a surgery to stop epileptic seizures. Answer: False Rationale: In individuals with a "split brain" (corpus callosotomy), the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain, is surgically severed to prevent the spread of epileptic seizures from one hemisphere to the other. The cerebral cortex itself remains intact, but communication between the hemispheres is disrupted, leading to specific cognitive and perceptual differences in these individuals. SHORT ANSWER 1. List three main parts of the human neuron and explain the role each plays in the transmission of neural communication. Answer: 1. Cell Body (Soma): The cell body, or soma, is the central part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and other organelles. It integrates incoming signals from dendrites and, based on the summation of these signals, generates electrical impulses known as action potentials. The cell body plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall metabolic functions of the neuron. 2. Axon: The axon is a long, slender projection of the neuron that transmits electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Axons are covered by a myelin sheath, which acts as an insulating layer and enhances the speed of neural transmission. At the end of the axon, terminal branches form synaptic connections with other neurons, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit signals across the synapse. 3. Dendrites: Dendrites are branched extensions of the neuron that receive incoming signals from other neurons or sensory receptors. They serve as the primary site for receiving synaptic inputs from neighboring neurons. Dendrites contain numerous receptor sites where neurotransmitters released by adjacent neurons bind, initiating electrical impulses that travel toward the cell body. The dendritic tree's structure and connectivity determine the neuron's ability to integrate and process incoming information. 2. List two different functions of glial cells. Answer: 1. Support and Maintenance: Glial cells provide structural support and maintenance for neurons in the nervous system. They form the framework that holds neurons in place, insulate neurons from one another, and regulate the extracellular environment by removing excess neurotransmitters and ions. Glial cells also contribute to repairing damaged neurons and forming scar tissue in response to injury. 2. Insulation and Myelination: Glial cells, particularly oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), play a crucial role in insulating axons by producing myelin. Myelin sheaths wrap around axons, forming an insulating layer that enhances the speed and efficiency of neural transmission. This myelination process allows for rapid propagation of action potentials along the axon, facilitating fast and efficient communication between neurons. 3. What is a synapse? Answer: A synapse is a specialized junction or gap between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell, such as a muscle or gland. It is the site where two neurons communicate with each other or where a neuron communicates with its target cell. At the synapse, the presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, which then bind to receptor molecules on the postsynaptic membrane of the receiving neuron or effector cell. This neurotransmitter binding triggers changes in the postsynaptic cell, either initiating or inhibiting an electrical signal, thereby transmitting neural information from one cell to another. The synapse plays a crucial role in signal transmission and information processing within the nervous system. 4. What are neurotransmitters? Answer: Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that transmit signals across synapses, the junctions between neurons or between neurons and effector cells (such as muscles or glands). They are released by the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft in response to an action potential, where they bind to specific receptor molecules on the postsynaptic membrane of the receiving cell. Neurotransmitters play a crucial role in signal transmission and communication within the nervous system, influencing various physiological and psychological processes. 5. Name three neurotransmitters and their functions. Answer: 1. Serotonin: Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in regulating mood, emotion, sleep, appetite, and cognition. It contributes to feelings of well-being and happiness and is often associated with the regulation of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. Serotonin also plays a role in controlling appetite, sexual behavior, and gastrointestinal function. 2. Dopamine: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with motivation, reward, pleasure, and movement. It plays a key role in the brain's reward system, reinforcing behaviors that lead to pleasurable experiences. Dopamine is involved in various functions, including motor control, learning, memory, attention, and decision-making. Dysregulation of dopamine function has been implicated in conditions such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction. 3. Acetylcholine: Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes, including muscle contraction, memory, attention, and arousal. It plays a crucial role in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, controlling involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. Acetylcholine also contributes to cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation, with deficits in acetylcholine function linked to conditions like Alzheimer's disease. 6. Explain the difference between the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Answer: The Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) are two major divisions of the nervous system: Central Nervous System (CNS): The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are enclosed and protected by bone (skull and vertebrae). It serves as the main processing center for sensory information, integration of signals, and coordination of motor responses. The brain is responsible for higher cognitive functions, emotions, and voluntary movements, while the spinal cord facilitates communication between the brain and the rest of the body, as well as coordinating reflex responses. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): The PNS includes all nerve structures outside the CNS, including nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors. It connects the CNS to the body's organs, muscles, and sensory organs, facilitating communication between the CNS and the rest of the body. The PNS is further divided into the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and transmits sensory information, and the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and glandular secretion. 7. What is the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? Answer: Sympathetic Nervous System: The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for activating the body's "fight or flight" response in response to stress or danger. It prepares the body for action by increasing heart rate, dilating airways, mobilizing energy reserves, and redirecting blood flow away from non-essential organs towards muscles and vital organs. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in heightened arousal and readiness for action. Parasympathetic Nervous System: In contrast, the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for promoting relaxation, rest, and recovery. It counterbalances the sympathetic response by conserving energy and restoring the body to a state of equilibrium after the stressor has passed. The parasympathetic system slows heart rate, constricts airways, stimulates digestion, and promotes restorative functions such as digestion, elimination, and energy storage. 8. Name two hormones that are of particular interest to psychologists and state which gland they are related to and some of the tasks that these hormones perform. Answer: 1. Cortisol: Cortisol is a hormone primarily produced by the adrenal glands, specifically the adrenal cortex. It is often referred to as the "stress hormone" because its levels increase in response to stress and low blood glucose levels. Cortisol plays a crucial role in regulating the body's stress response by mobilizing energy reserves, suppressing the immune system, and modulating metabolism. Chronically elevated cortisol levels have been linked to various psychological and physical health problems, including anxiety, depression, and impaired immune function. 2. Epinephrine (Adrenaline): Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is synthesized and released by the adrenal medulla, which is part of the adrenal glands. It is a key component of the body's acute stress response, triggering physiological changes that prepare the body for "fight or flight" reactions. Epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, dilates airways to enhance oxygen intake, and redirects blood flow to vital organs and muscles. These effects help to mobilize energy and enhance physical performance during times of danger or stress. 9. How does an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan allow the exploration of the brain without the injection of chemicals? Answer: MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) utilizes powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to generate detailed images of the brain's structure and function. Unlike other imaging techniques that rely on ionizing radiation or injected contrast agents, MRI does not require the injection of chemicals into the body for imaging purposes. Instead, MRI exploits the magnetic properties of hydrogen atoms in the body's tissues, particularly in water molecules. When exposed to the strong magnetic field of the MRI scanner, hydrogen atoms align their magnetic moments in the direction of the magnetic field. By applying radiofrequency pulses, these aligned hydrogen atoms are temporarily disrupted from their equilibrium state. When the radiofrequency pulses are turned off, the hydrogen atoms return to their original alignment, releasing energy in the form of radiofrequency signals. Detectors in the MRI scanner measure these emitted radiofrequency signals, which vary depending on the different tissue types and their microstructural properties. By analyzing these signals, MRI produces high-resolution images that depict the anatomical structures and physiological processes of the brain without the need for chemical injections. MRI is a non-invasive and versatile imaging technique widely used in neuroscience research and clinical diagnosis. 10. Why is the cortex in the brain so wrinkled? Answer: The cortex of the brain is wrinkled or convoluted to increase its surface area within the limited space of the skull. These wrinkles, known as gyri (singular: gyrus) and sulci (singular: sulcus), allow for a greater density of neurons and synaptic connections, which are essential for higher cognitive functions. The increased surface area enables a larger volume of gray matter to be packed into the limited space of the skull, accommodating more neurons and enhancing the brain's computational capacity. This structural complexity of the cortex is associated with higher cognitive processes such as perception, language, memory, and decision-making. 11. What are the symptoms of Broca’s aphasia? Answer: Broca's aphasia, also known as non-fluent aphasia, is a language disorder characterized by difficulty in producing speech and forming grammatically correct sentences. Individuals with Broca's aphasia typically exhibit the following symptoms: Reduced speech fluency, characterized by hesitant, effortful speech with short, telegraphic phrases. Difficulty in articulating words and producing complex sentences. Preservation of comprehension skills, where individuals can understand spoken and written language relatively well. Frustration or awareness of language difficulties. 12. What are the symptoms of Wernicke’s aphasia? Answer: Wernicke's aphasia, also known as fluent aphasia, is a language disorder characterized by impaired language comprehension and fluent but nonsensical speech. Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia typically exhibit the following symptoms: Fluent speech with normal or increased speech rate but containing numerous grammatical errors and nonsensical words (paraphasia). Impaired comprehension of spoken and written language, leading to difficulties in understanding instructions, conversations, or written text. Lack of awareness of their language deficits (anosognosia), where individuals may not recognize their speech as nonsensical. Production of jargon or word salads, where sentences lack coherent meaning despite being grammatically correct. Difficulty in finding the right words (anomia) and often substituting words with similar-sounding ones (phonemic paraphasia). Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia are both types of aphasia resulting from damage to specific areas of the brain, namely Broca's area and Wernicke's area, respectively, which are involved in language processing and production. 13. Briefly explain Roger Sperry’s split-brain research. Answer: Roger Sperry's split-brain research involved studying patients who had undergone a surgical procedure called corpus callosotomy, which severed the corpus callosum, the main bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. Sperry and his colleagues investigated how this split-brain condition affected cognitive functioning by presenting stimuli to either the left or right visual field of split-brain patients. They found that when information was presented to the right visual field, processed by the left hemisphere, patients could verbally report what they saw due to the dominant language processing in the left hemisphere. Conversely, when information was presented to the left visual field, processed by the right hemisphere, patients were unable to verbally report what they saw but could use their left hand (controlled by the right hemisphere) to indicate their response. This research demonstrated hemispheric specialization and led to insights into the functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. 14. What are the differences in how the right and left cerebral hemispheres function? Answer: The right and left cerebral hemispheres exhibit functional specialization, with each hemisphere playing distinct roles in cognitive processing: Left Hemisphere: The left hemisphere is typically dominant in language processing, including speech production, comprehension, and reading and writing skills. It is also involved in analytical and logical reasoning, mathematical abilities, and sequential processing of information. Additionally, the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body. Right Hemisphere: In contrast, the right hemisphere is specialized for non-verbal and visuospatial processing, including recognizing faces, interpreting emotions, and understanding spatial relationships. It is involved in holistic and intuitive reasoning, creativity, imagination, and recognizing patterns and melodies. Moreover, the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. Although the hemispheres have distinct functions, they are interconnected by the corpus callosum, allowing for communication and coordination between the two hemispheres. Disorders or injuries that disrupt this communication, such as split-brain conditions, can result in unique cognitive profiles and provide insights into the specialized functions of each hemisphere. ESSAY 1. What is a neuron? Describe major parts of a neuron and their functions. Explain the process of how a neural message is transmitted from the end of one neuron to the beginning of another and the process by which a neuron moves from a resting state (resting potential) to firing (action potential) and then back to a resting state. Answer: A neuron is a specialized cell that transmits nerve impulses. It is the basic building block of the nervous system. Major Parts of a Neuron and Their Functions: Cell Body (Soma): Contains the nucleus and other organelles necessary for the neuron's functioning. Dendrites: Branch-like extensions that receive signals from other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. Axon: Long, slender projection that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body toward other neurons or muscles. Myelin Sheath: Fatty covering that insulates the axon, speeding up the transmission of nerve impulses. Axon Terminals (Synaptic Terminals): Endings of the axon where neurotransmitters are released to communicate with other neurons. Transmission of Neural Message: When a neuron is stimulated, an electrical impulse called an action potential is generated. This impulse travels down the axon and reaches the axon terminals. At the terminals, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, the gap between neurons. These neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the dendrites of the next neuron, generating an electrical signal in the postsynaptic neuron. This process continues until the signal reaches its destination. Resting Potential to Action Potential: Resting Potential: The neuron is in a polarized state, with a higher concentration of positively charged ions outside the cell and negatively charged ions inside. This creates a resting potential. Depolarization: When stimulated, sodium channels open, allowing sodium ions to rush into the cell, reversing the charge and depolarizing the membrane. Action Potential: If the depolarization reaches the threshold, voltage-gated sodium channels open along the axon, causing an action potential to travel down the axon. Repolarization: Potassium channels open, allowing potassium ions to leave the cell, restoring the negative charge inside the cell. Refractory Period: Sodium-potassium pumps restore the resting potential by actively transporting ions across the membrane. 2. Describe the functions of the brain and the spinal cord. How are these functions similar? How are these functions dissimilar? Answer: Similarities: Both the brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system and are involved in processing and transmitting information. Dissimilarities: Brain Functions: Responsible for higher cognitive functions, sensory processing, and coordinating motor responses. Spinal Cord Functions: Primarily serves as a conduit for nerve signals between the brain and the rest of the body, and it plays a crucial role in reflex actions. 3. What are the primary functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the peripheral nervous system? Describe a situation or experience in which activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions has occurred. Answer: Sympathetic Division: Prepares the body for "fight or flight" responses during stressful situations by increasing heart rate, dilating airways, and releasing adrenaline. Parasympathetic Division: Promotes "rest and digest" activities, conserving energy and promoting digestion, lowering heart rate, and relaxing muscles. Situation of Activation: Consider a scenario where you encounter a dangerous animal. The sympathetic division would be activated, causing your heart rate to increase, your breathing to become rapid, and redirecting blood flow to your muscles, preparing you to either fight or flee. Once the danger passes, the parasympathetic division would become dominant, slowing your heart rate, calming your breathing, and returning your body to a relaxed state. 4. How does the endocrine system influence behavior? Describe the functions of three glands and the hormones each secretes. Answer: The endocrine system regulates various physiological processes, including mood, stress response, metabolism, and growth. Hypothalamus: Secretes hormones that regulate the pituitary gland, which in turn controls other endocrine glands. It also produces oxytocin and vasopressin, which influence social behavior and bonding. Adrenal Glands: Produce cortisol, which helps regulate stress response, metabolism, and immune function. Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are also produced, preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses. Thyroid Gland: Secretes hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and energy levels. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are the main hormones produced. 5. Choose any three methods that psychologists use to learn about the functions of the brain. Describe the method, how it works, and the type of information we can learn from it. Answer: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): Description: Measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow. How It Works: Participants undergo MRI scans while performing tasks or in resting states. Areas of increased blood flow indicate higher activity. Information Gained: Helps identify brain regions involved in specific tasks or cognitive processes. Electroencephalography (EEG): Description: Records electrical activity in the brain using electrodes placed on the scalp. How It Works: Measures changes in voltage caused by neurons firing. Information Gained: Provides temporal information about brain activity and helps diagnose neurological disorders. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Description: Uses magnetic fields to stimulate or inhibit neural activity in specific brain regions. How It Works: A magnetic coil is placed near the scalp, generating electrical currents in the brain. Information Gained: Allows researchers to study the causal relationship between brain activity and behavior, aiding in the understanding of brain function and dysfunction. Chapter 2 - Quick Quiz 1 1. The two main divisions of the nervous system are the ________ and ________. a) brain; spinal cord b) autonomic; somatic nervous systems c) peripheral nervous system; central nervous system d) glands; muscles Answer: c Explanation: These are the two main divisions of the nervous system. 2. Which part of the neuron is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell? a) axon b) soma c) dendrite d) cell membrane Answer: b Explanation: The soma is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell. 3. Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? a) serotonin b) GABA c) acetylcholine d) norepinephrine Answer: b Explanation: GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. 4. Which part of the nervous system takes the information received from the senses, makes sense out of it, makes decisions, and sends commands out to the muscles and the rest of the body? a) spinal cord b) brain c) reflexes d) interneurons Answer: b Explanation: That is the responsibility of the brain. 5. The part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal is called the ______________ nervous system. a) central b) somatic c) sympathetic d) parasympathetic Answer: c Explanation: The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal. 6. Hormones are ___________. a) the female gonads b) chemicals released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands c) chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles, which when released have an effect on the next cell d) the male gonads Answer: b Explanation: This is the definition of hormones. 7. A brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain is called ______________. a) electroencephalography (EEG) b) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) c) positron-emission tomography (PET) d) computerized axial tomography (CT) Answer: b Explanation: MRI is a brain-imaging method using ratio waves and magnetic fields of the body. 8. What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information? a) hypothalamus b) thalamus c) cerebellum d) pituitary gland Answer: b Explanation: The thalamus acts as a relay station. 9. Which of the following regions contains the primary visual cortex? a) occipital lobe b) parietal lobe c) temporal lobe d) frontal lobe Answer: a Explanation: The occipital lobes contain the primary visual cortex. 10. Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere? a) perception, expression of emotion, and recognition of patterns b) sense of time and rhythm c) speech, handwriting, and calculation d) language processing in most individuals Answer: a Explanation: These are functions of the right hemisphere. Chapter 2 - Quick Quiz 2 1. The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called ______. a) axons b) nerve bundles c) dendrites d) synapses Answer: c Explanation: Dendrites receive messages from other neurons. 2. Which of the following are tiny sacs in a synaptic knob that release chemicals into the synapse? a) synaptic vesicles b) synaptic nodes c) terminal buttons d) synaptic gaps Answer: a Explanation: Synaptic vesicles are structures within the synaptic knobs. 3. Which of the following are responsible for acting as a facilitator of communication between neurons? a) motor neurons b) interneurons c) sensory neurons d) reflexes Answer: b Explanation: Interneurons connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons. 4. Every deliberate action you make, such as pedaling a bike, walking, scratching, or smelling a flower, involves neurons in the ______ nervous system. a) sympathetic b) somatic c) parasympathetic d) autonomic Answer: b Explanation: The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscle movement. 5. Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands? a) thyroid b) adrenal c) thymus d) pituitary Answer: d Explanation: The pituitary gland controls all other endocrine glands. 6. The point at which the nerves from the left side of the body cross over into the right side of the brain, and vice versa, is the ______. a) reticular activating system b) pons c) medulla d) cerebellum Answer: c Explanation: This is the point where nerves cross over. 7. Signals from the neurons of which sense are NOT sent to the cortex by the thalamus? a) hearing b) smell c) taste d) vision Answer: b Explanation: Signals from the neurons of the sense of smell go directly into special parts of the brain called olfactory bulbs that are the structures responsible for smell. 8. Which of the following is the section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere and contains the visual centers of the brain? a) occipital lobe b) parietal lobe c) temporal lobe d) frontal lobe Answer: a Explanation: The occipital lobes contain the visual centers of the brain. 9. The area of the frontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is ______ area. a) Broca’s b) Gall’s c) Wernicke’s d) Korsakoff’s Answer: a Explanation: Broca’s area is devoted to the production of fluent speech. 10. Which of the following is the upper part of the brain consisting of two cerebral hemispheres and the structures that connect them? a) occipital lobe b) cerebrum c) corpus callosum d) cerebellum Answer: b Explanation: The cerebrum consists of the two cerebral hemispheres and the structures that connect them. Test Bank for Psychology: Dsm 5 Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White 9780205986378

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