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Chapter 14 Influence, Power, and Leadership END OF CHAPTER FEATURES • Terms to Understand – encourage students to make use of the flashcards available on the student website. Also, suggest they visit the Manager’s Toolkit section on the website for tips and suggestions for aspiring managers. • Action Learning Exercise – What is your Emotional Intelligence (EQ). Have students complete the survey. After compiling the results, have them respond to the questions for discussion that follow. • Ethics Exercise – Do the Right Thing – Some Truth About Lying. Have students read the case study and findings and then respond to the ethical questions that follow. Possible responses they are likely to offer are included. What are the ethical implications of the following interpretations? 1. It is always wrong to tell a lie, especially for managers and others in positions of authority. Lying is a bad habit and liars can’t be trusted. If this is your belief, how faithfully do you adhere to it? Answer: This is an easy one for me as my non-verbal communication gives me away every time. I can’t even manage to lie about a surprise party for a family member. I will never offer up a secret but if someone asks me a direct question I cannot tell a convincing lie. Of course, most people around me find this reassuring and they know I am trustworthy. 2. People in positions of power often have access to privileged information and cannot tell everyone everything they know. Lying either by commission (altering the facts) or omission (failing to reveal relevant facts) sometimes is a necessary evil when trying to get the job done in organizations. Answer: Management responsibility does often include keeping information confidential. If it is in the best interest of the company andor an employee is appropriate to keep things to yourself. This is not the same as lying by omission with the intent to deceive. Rather than lying, it is far better to simply explain that you may discuss the matter now, when final information is available and you can share it, you will. 3. Lying is a matter of degree, ranging from harmless little white lies (“your new outfit makes you look thinner.”) to deceitful bold-face lies (“My dog ate my research project.”). Little white lies are okay as long as they don’t hurt anyone, or maybe even help someone feel better. Do small lies generally lead to bigger lies? Explain. Answer: Yes, lying can head down a slippery slope rather quickly; the occasional compliment to make someone feel better may be okay. However, once someone realizes they are a convincing liar, it may be more tempting to repeat this behavior. If they continue to get away with it, they may find themselves causing harm to themselves, the company, friends, or coworkers. In the end, the truth usually comes out. If someone is caught in a lie it can be terribly difficult to earn someone’s trust again. My advice. don’t risk it! 4. Your own ethical interpretations? Answer: When framing my own ethical interpretations regarding management's social and ethical responsibilities, I believe that ethical management involves a commitment to transparency, fairness, and accountability. Managers must prioritize the well-being of employees, customers, and the community while making decisions that balance profit with social good. Ethical responsibilities also include respecting environmental sustainability, promoting diversity and inclusion, and upholding integrity in all business practices. Ultimately, ethical management requires a proactive approach to identifying and addressing ethical dilemmas, fostering a culture of ethical behavior, and ensuring that the organization contributes positively to society • Managers-In-Action Video Case Study – Greensburg, KS - Leadership CHAPTER 14 MANAGERS-IN-ACTION VIDEO CASE STUDY: GREENSBURG, KS – LEADERSHIP Length: 7 minutes and 59 seconds Topics: Leadership, Empowerment, Delegation, Crisis Management, Emotional Intelligence, Politics, Power, Transformational, and Situational. Company Background From the Greensburg GreenTown website January 10, 2011 http://www.greensburggreentown.org Background At 9:45 pm on May 4th, 2007 an EF5 tornado leveled the rural town of Greensburg, Kansas. Just days after the storm, the community came together and decided to rebuild sustainably, striving to become a model green town for the future. The city leader’s approach to this 100 year decision was supported by many but there were also several residents and business owners that spoke out against the decision to go green. Ever since this landmark commitment was made, Greensburg GreenTown -- a grassroots community-based organization -- has worked side-by-side with city and county officials, business owners and local residents to incorporate sustainable principles into their rebuilding process. We serve as an educational resource for the community, a conduit through which donations can be distributed, and a representative to those outside the community who are interested in the Green Initiative. Mission To provide inspiration and leadership to Kiowa County in order to be a model of sustainable living for the world. Vision Greensburg GreenTown exists to: • Make it easier for residents to ascribe to, and adhere to, green practices and to make green living appealing to residents. • Engage as many residents as possible in the enthusiastic pursuit of making Greensburg a model green community. • Establish incentives in order to maximize the participation of businesses and residents in rebuilding Greensburg as a model green community. • Bring in resources and support from around the country to make the dreams of Greensburg as a model green community a reality. • Make it easier for builders, building supply companies and all local businesses to do business as green as possible. • Work to spur economic development with a green emphasis. • Serve the residents in an unbiased consumer advocate capacity, striving to get them the best value for their money as they rebuild their homes and businesses. Program Plan Programs undertaken by Greensburg GreenTown are in service to the mission of providing the residents of Greensburg, Kansas and the surrounding area with the resources, information and support they need to rebuild Greensburg as a model green community. Greensburg GreenTown is a grassroots community owned organization that represents the townspeople as Greensburg rebuilds in a sustainable fashion. Consulting by Staff and Volunteers - GreenTown provides technical assistance and support for individuals, businesses, nonprofits and government offices seeking to build and operate programs guided by green principles. This is done through a volunteer matching program as well as through staff consulting. Energy Rater - We work with Certified Energy Rater Brian Wendland to assist homeowners to maximize energy savings in their homes. This professional is available to both new and existing homeowners. Library - We stock and maintain a library of materials so that people can educate themselves in the green building/living process. Educational Materials - We write and distribute information that assists people in making their decisions easier. There is a great quantity of information already available which we sift through, making the best available to Greensburg residents. Educational Series - We provide a series of classes and speakers addressing issues related to sustainable building and green living. These classes are taught at locales in and around Greensburg as well as through online and telephone courses for those residents with telephone and computer access. Website - This is a place where people find information about happenings related to the green initiative, extensive resources for those seeking education and links to other helpful websites. There is also a forum where questions about all aspects of green building and living is posted and responded to. Outreach - We interview residents as a means of gathering information about what is most important to them in the green rebuilding of their community. During the interview process we share information about how a model green town might look. Chain of Eco-Homes - The Chain of Eco-Homes project plans to build up to twelve model homes in Greensburg. Each home will serve as a “living laboratory” featuring a variety of building techniques, prices, sizes, energy efficiency features, and green living products and services. Each will be unique, and will be available both as an informational center and as eco-lodging where people can experience green living first-hand in homes that interest them. Planning - Greensburg GreenTown works in concert with the other parties interested in moving forward with the Green Initiative in Greensburg and the surrounding area. GreenTown serves as eyes and ears of the city and county leadership in carrying out the vision of Greensburg as a model green community. Fundraising - GreenTown brings in funds from outside the community to support innovative programs and infuse the efforts with energy and resources. Show and Tell Registry - In order to provide the best examples to residents of what "green" means, a registry has been established to list those in the area that already have in place the latest in sustainable or green technologies. Synopsis of Video Leadership Steve Hewitt, the Greensburg City Manager was faced with an immediate crisis following the tornado that destroyed his town. Beyond the first few days of managing urgent needs such as safety, power, and water; Hewitt faced the challenge of what to do next in the rebuilding effort. In this video, you will hear from several city officials including the former mayor who resigned in the midst of the crisis. The impact of politics, power, and various leadership styles are revealed as Greensburg emerges from this natural disaster. For more information about Greensburg visit the Greensburg GreenTown website: http://www.greensburggreentown.org. Previewing Questions 1. What is the difference between a leader and a manager? Answer: According to the stereotypes leaders make chaos out of order and managers make order out of chaos. In other words, leaders are farsighted visionaries who pay little or no attention to details. Managers implement the leader’s vision. Today’s reality is that organization’s need people who can lead AND manage. 2. What is emotional intelligence and why is it important for leaders? Answer: Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to monitor and control one’s emotions and behavior in complex social settings. Managers who lack EQ, or street smarts, run the risk of that they will let their emotional outbursts and foul moods poison their work environment leading to distrust and decline in productivity. 3. What are the essential qualities and characteristics of an effective leader? Answer: Personal opinion question, answers will vary but some common responses will include: visionary, intelligent, good communicator, trustworthy, ability to understand and develop people, and inspiring. Postviewing Questions 4. What aspects of emotional intelligence were present in this video? Answer: All aspects of emotional intelligence (EQ) were present in this video including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. 5. Provide a few individual examples – who revealed what aspects of emotional intelligence? Answer: Lonnie McCollum, the former mayor demonstrated self-awareness, self-management, and social awareness when he stepped down as mayor to let others lead the rebuilding effort. Steve Hewitt, the city manager demonstrated very high EQ. His relationship management was evident as the calm leader in a crisis who was able to tell the Greensburg story and get the community behind the vision for rebuilding. He also demonstrated high levels of self-awareness and social awareness. 6. Why is Steve Hewitt’s leadership style well-suited to the rebuilding effort? Answer: He has a big heart balanced with a very strategic, analytical mind. He demonstrated the first four influence tactics, consultation, rational persuasion, inspirational appeal, and ingratiating tactics. In addition, he has incredible capacity and endurance, he remains calm in a crisis, he adapts to change quickly, he empowers his team, and he gives credit to others. All of these attributes are essential for a leader to move a township out of crisis and to believe in a future that is better. His confidence, intelligence and ability lead made him the ideal person for Greensburg to have leading the rebuilding effort. 7. Describe Hewitt’s approach to empowerment and explain why he was successful in empowering his employees. Answer: Hewitt may have ended up committed to empowerment out of necessity as he simply did not have enough time to do everything. However, he was successful because of his open leadership style. He shared information, delegated authority, and did not micromanage. He worked with department heads to prioritize goals and then got out of the way to let them do their jobs and accomplish their goals. The evidence is in the fact that no staff members left. CLOSING CASE: SOLUTION LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT GE-STYLE 1. Absolutely. These programs combine training with real-world assignments, covering 70 percent of the ways people learn to manage. 2. I imagine it is. In the first place, everyone is committed to the same company. Since you don’t get to come to the first course until you’ve been there for 10 years, the participants are clearly a proven commodity. Second, with no grades or evaluation, participants can take more risks and focus on learning rather than scoring. Finally, the cost per person must be much higher than in universities, so the program design, facilitators, and facilities are top notch. 3. Personal opinion question. I would love to attend any program there. I guess the fear would be of being shown up by some of the other participants, but I would get over it! 4. It might be interesting to have mentors who have been through the Business Manager Course mentor those who are currently going through it. That experienced perspective might help participants get off on the right foot. 5. I think it’s both. Everyone, even the best natural leaders, can benefit from training—if for no other reason than to provide new perspectives and a framework for what they already know. On the other hand, some people can’t learn something when it’s handed to them on a platter. INSTRUCTIONAL TIPS 1. To help students understand about empowered teams, have them work together to redesign the curriculum, schedule, and work expectations for an introductory course on some management topic. Discuss (1) how it would make them feel if they had a say in the design of course requirements and deadlines and (2) the advantages and disadvantages of running a class that way. 2. To understand trait leadership theory, have students list the traits they feel leaders should possess. Then have them use those traits to describe the other theories of leadership discussed in this chapter. Did a look at the other approaches to leadership require them to expand the trait list? Explore the possibility that the greatest value of new theories of leadership is that they expand your definition of leadership and the leader’s role. 3. Have students select current leaders—both business and political—or make up a list to show them. Have them determine which type of leadership theory, profile, or trait best describes their approaches to being a leader. 4. Most people have horror stories about people who behave inappropriately in the workplace. Using Goleman’s EQ, discuss some of these stories and which type(s) of emotional intelligence the individuals were missing. 5. Have any of the students had experience with a mentor or with being a mentor? The value of mentors in career development has been clearly established. Discuss how they can go about discovering opportunities to have a mentor or to be a mentor, both in the workplace and elsewhere. 6. Students can personalize the basic concepts of behavior modification by identifying and recording specific antecedent-behavior-consequence situations in their own lives (e.g., for studying, smoking, working, budgeting, or eating behavior). Then they can analyze how to change or improve their behavior patterns by adjusting the antecedents and/or consequences. Actual behavior modification attempts should be encouraged to build behavioral problem-solving skills. 7. The value of positive reinforcement vis-à-vis negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment can be explored in class by having your students discuss their personal experiences with these various types of behavioral consequences. Special attention can be focused on the undesirable side effects of negative reinforcement and punishment. ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION/ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. How does influence occur on the job, and why is influence an important aspect of management? Answer: Influence on the job occurs through various means, such as interpersonal communication, role modeling, and the use of formal and informal power. Managers use influence to guide, motivate, and direct employees towards the achievement of organizational goals. Influence can be exerted through: 1. Interpersonal Communication: Effective communication helps managers convey their expectations, provide feedback, and inspire employees. Managers who are good communicators can persuade and motivate their teams more effectively. 2. Role Modeling: Managers influence employees by setting an example through their behavior, work ethic, and attitudes. When managers demonstrate integrity, dedication, and professionalism, employees are more likely to emulate these qualities. 3. Formal Authority: Managers have positional power granted by the organizational hierarchy. This power allows them to make decisions, allocate resources, and direct employee actions within the scope of their authority. 4. Expert Power: Managers with specialized knowledge or skills can influence others by sharing their expertise and providing valuable insights that help employees perform their tasks better. 5. Referent Power: Managers who build strong, trusting relationships with their employees can influence them through respect and admiration. This type of power is based on personal qualities and the ability to create a positive rapport with team members. 6. Reward and Coercive Power: Managers can use rewards such as promotions, bonuses, and recognition to influence employee behavior. Conversely, they can use coercive power through disciplinary actions to ensure compliance with organizational standards. Influence is an important aspect of management because it directly impacts employee engagement, motivation, and productivity. When managers effectively influence their teams, they can: • Enhance Performance: By motivating and guiding employees, managers can improve individual and team performance, leading to better organizational outcomes. • Foster Collaboration: Influence helps in building a cooperative and cohesive work environment where team members are willing to collaborate and support each other. • Facilitate Change: Managers who can effectively influence others are better equipped to implement and manage organizational changes, ensuring smooth transitions and minimal resistance. • Improve Morale: Positive influence boosts employee morale, leading to higher job satisfaction and lower turnover rates. • Achieve Goals: Through influence, managers can align employee efforts with organizational goals, ensuring that everyone is working towards the same objectives. In summary, influence on the job is achieved through communication, role modeling, and the use of various forms of power. It is crucial for management as it enhances performance, fosters collaboration, facilitates change, improves morale, and helps achieve organizational goals. 2. How is power related to authority, and what are the major bases of power? Answer: Power and authority are closely related concepts in management, but they are not synonymous. Authority is a formal right granted to managers by the organization to make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others. It is a legitimate power that comes with a specific position within the organizational hierarchy. Power, on the other hand, is the ability to influence others and get things done, regardless of one's formal position. While authority is a type of power, power can also be derived from other sources beyond formal authority. The major bases of power are: 1. Legitimate Power: This power comes from the formal authority granted by the organization. It is based on the manager's position and the responsibilities that come with it. Employees comply because they recognize the manager's right to issue directives and expect compliance. 2. Reward Power: This power is derived from the ability to give rewards or incentives. Managers can influence employees by offering promotions, bonuses, raises, or other benefits. Employees are motivated to comply in anticipation of receiving these rewards. 3. Coercive Power: This power is based on the ability to impose penalties or punishments. Managers use coercive power to enforce compliance through the threat of disciplinary actions, demotions, or other negative consequences. While effective in the short term, overuse of coercive power can lead to resentment and decreased morale. 4. Expert Power: This power comes from possessing specialized knowledge, skills, or expertise that others value. Managers with expert power are influential because they are seen as credible and competent. Employees are likely to follow their guidance because they trust their judgment and insights. 5. Referent Power: This power is based on personal characteristics and the ability to attract others' admiration, respect, and loyalty. Managers with referent power influence employees because they are likable and inspire others. This type of power often stems from personal relationships and charisma. 6. Informational Power: This power arises from access to valuable information and the ability to control its distribution. Managers who possess important information can influence others by sharing or withholding it. This power is particularly significant in decision-making processes where timely and accurate information is crucial. Understanding the relationship between power and authority and recognizing the various bases of power are essential for effective leadership. Managers who skillfully leverage these different forms of power can enhance their influence, motivate their teams, and achieve organizational goals more efficiently. 3. How does a high EQ lead to better leadership capabilities? Answer: A high Emotional Quotient (EQ), or emotional intelligence, significantly enhances leadership capabilities by enabling leaders to effectively manage their own emotions and understand and influence the emotions of others. Here’s how a high EQ contributes to better leadership: 1. Improved Self-Awareness: Leaders with high EQ have a keen awareness of their own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses. This self-awareness allows them to remain grounded and authentic, which fosters trust and respect among team members. They can recognize their emotional triggers and manage their reactions, maintaining composure and making well-informed decisions even under pressure. 2. Enhanced Self-Regulation: High EQ leaders can control their impulses and moods, maintaining a calm and positive demeanor. This self-regulation helps in managing stress, avoiding rash decisions, and setting a stable and consistent example for their team. By demonstrating self-control, they create a work environment that values stability and rational decision-making. 3. Empathy and Understanding: Leaders with high EQ are adept at empathizing with others, understanding their feelings, and considering their perspectives. This empathy allows leaders to build strong relationships, foster collaboration, and resolve conflicts effectively. By showing genuine concern for their team members’ well-being, they enhance morale and loyalty. 4. Effective Communication: High EQ leaders excel in both verbal and non-verbal communication. They can articulate their vision clearly, listen actively, and provide constructive feedback. This effective communication ensures that team members are aligned with organizational goals and feel valued and understood. 5. Social Skills and Relationship Building: Leaders with high EQ possess strong social skills, which enable them to build and maintain positive relationships within their team and across the organization. They are skilled in networking, negotiating, and conflict resolution, which helps in creating a cohesive and cooperative team environment. Their ability to inspire and motivate others leads to higher levels of engagement and productivity. 6. Increased Adaptability: High EQ leaders are more adaptable and open to change. They can navigate the complexities of organizational dynamics and respond flexibly to evolving circumstances. This adaptability ensures that they can lead their teams through transitions smoothly, fostering a culture of innovation and resilience. 7. Better Decision-Making: Leaders with high EQ can balance emotional and rational considerations when making decisions. They understand the impact of their choices on their team and the organization as a whole. By considering the emotional aspects, they can make more compassionate and ethical decisions that are likely to garner support and commitment from their team members. In summary, a high EQ leads to better leadership capabilities by enhancing self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, communication, social skills, adaptability, and decision-making. Leaders with high emotional intelligence can create a positive and productive work environment, build strong relationships, and guide their teams effectively toward achieving organizational goals. 4. How does the servant leadership theory fit in with other theories of management? Does it complement or conflict with other approaches? Answer: The servant leadership theory, introduced by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, emphasizes the leader’s role as a servant first, prioritizing the needs and development of others before their own. This theory contrasts with traditional leadership models that focus on the accumulation and exercise of power by those at the top of the organizational hierarchy. Understanding how servant leadership fits with other management theories involves examining its principles and comparing them with other prominent leadership approaches. 1. Transformational Leadership: Both servant and transformational leadership theories prioritize the development and well-being of followers. Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their teams by creating a vision and fostering an environment of trust and empowerment. Servant leadership complements transformational leadership by emphasizing service to others, which can enhance the ethical foundation and long-term commitment of followers. Both approaches focus on personal growth, team cohesion, and organizational change. 2. Transactional Leadership: Transactional leadership is based on a system of rewards and punishments to achieve compliance and performance. This approach focuses on short-term goals, task completion, and adherence to organizational policies. Servant leadership can complement transactional leadership by infusing ethical considerations and a focus on follower development into the transactional framework. However, there can be conflict between the two if the transactional approach becomes overly rigid and neglects the personal growth and well-being of employees. 3. Situational Leadership: Situational leadership, developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, posits that leaders should adapt their style to the maturity and competence of their followers. This flexible approach aligns well with servant leadership, as servant leaders inherently focus on the needs and development levels of their followers. Both theories advocate for a personalized approach to leadership, adjusting strategies to fit the unique context and individuals involved. 4. Autocratic Leadership: Autocratic leadership centers on centralized decision-making and control, with leaders making decisions unilaterally. This approach can conflict with servant leadership, which emphasizes shared decision-making, empowerment, and collaboration. Autocratic leadership may undermine the servant leader’s focus on serving others and fostering a participative environment. 5. Democratic Leadership: Democratic or participative leadership involves shared decision-making and encourages input from team members. Servant leadership complements this approach by promoting inclusivity and valuing each member’s contribution. Both theories support a collaborative and participative leadership style that can enhance team morale and innovation. 6. Laissez-Faire Leadership: Laissez-faire leadership involves a hands-off approach, allowing team members to make decisions and manage their work independently. While servant leadership encourages autonomy and empowerment, it also emphasizes the leader’s active role in supporting and developing their followers. Therefore, while there are complementary aspects, servant leadership involves a more engaged and supportive approach compared to the often passive nature of laissez-faire leadership. In summary, servant leadership theory generally complements other management theories that prioritize follower development, ethical behavior, and participative decision-making, such as transformational, situational, and democratic leadership. However, it can conflict with more control-oriented and less participative approaches like autocratic and transactional leadership if these neglect the well-being and growth of followers. Integrating servant leadership principles can enhance the ethical and developmental focus of various leadership styles, fostering a more supportive and committed organizational culture. 5. What aspects of behavior modification theory can managers use to encourage employees to pursue and achieve organizational objectives? Could using behavior modification techniques in the workplace ever be unethical? How, and what can be done to avoid this? Answer: Behavior modification theory, based on the principles of operant conditioning developed by B.F. Skinner, can be effectively used by managers to encourage employees to pursue and achieve organizational objectives. This theory involves the use of reinforcement and punishment to shape behavior. Managers can apply various aspects of behavior modification to influence employee behavior positively: Aspects of Behavior Modification Theory Managers Can Use 1. Positive Reinforcement: Rewarding employees for desired behaviors increases the likelihood of those behaviors being repeated. Managers can use incentives such as bonuses, promotions, praise, and recognition to reinforce productive actions and achievements. 2. Negative Reinforcement: Removing an unpleasant consequence when a desired behavior occurs can also encourage that behavior. For example, if an employee meets a deadline early, a manager might reduce their workload as a reward. 3. Punishment: Introducing an unpleasant consequence in response to undesired behavior can deter that behavior. For instance, consistently arriving late to work might result in a formal warning or loss of privileges. 4. Extinction: Reducing undesired behavior by removing any reinforcement that maintains it. If employees are used to receiving attention for negative behavior, ignoring it might lead to a decrease in that behavior. 5. Shaping: Gradually reinforcing closer approximations to the desired behavior. Managers can set incremental goals and reward employees as they progress toward the ultimate objective. 6. Schedules of Reinforcement: Utilizing different reinforcement schedules (e.g., fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-interval) to maintain and enhance desired behaviors. Variable schedules, for example, can lead to more consistent performance as employees are unsure when the next reward will come. Ethical Concerns and Potential Unethical Use Using behavior modification techniques in the workplace can become unethical in several ways: 1. Manipulation and Control: If managers use these techniques to excessively control or manipulate employees, it can lead to a loss of autonomy and create a coercive work environment. Employees might feel like they are being treated as means to an end rather than as valued individuals. 2. Unfair Punishment: Overly harsh or unfair punishment can lead to fear, resentment, and decreased morale. Punishments should be appropriate, consistent, and communicated clearly to avoid misunderstandings and feelings of injustice. 3. Deception: Using behavior modification techniques without transparency can erode trust. Employees should be aware of the policies and systems in place for reinforcement and punishment. 4. Overemphasis on Extrinsic Rewards: Relying too heavily on external rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation. Employees may become more focused on the rewards than on the quality of their work or the organizational mission. Avoiding Unethical Practices To avoid unethical use of behavior modification techniques, managers should: 1. Ensure Transparency: Communicate the reasons behind rewards and punishments clearly and ensure employees understand the criteria and processes involved. 2. Maintain Fairness and Consistency: Apply reinforcement and punishment fairly and consistently to all employees to avoid perceptions of favoritism or bias. 3. Balance Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation: Recognize the importance of intrinsic motivation and strive to create a work environment that values personal growth, job satisfaction, and a sense of purpose. 4. Respect Autonomy: Encourage employee participation in setting goals and developing strategies for achieving them, fostering a sense of ownership and control over their work. 5. Provide Constructive Feedback: Focus on constructive feedback and positive reinforcement to build a supportive and encouraging work environment rather than one based on fear or control. In summary, behavior modification theory offers valuable tools for managers to encourage employees to achieve organizational objectives. However, it is crucial to use these techniques ethically by ensuring transparency, fairness, and respect for employee autonomy, and by balancing extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Discussion Starter: Mentors Mentors matter! At least that is what most successful managers will tell you. Their relationship with their mentors has helped them advance their careers and become better managers. In fact one accounting professional shared with me that he has a personal “board of directors” a diverse group of advisors that he knows well and trusts. He will seek their input and guidance on major decisions and strategies. In some cases he may actually consult with two or more of his advisors. He has discovered that these individuals are willing to share their knowledge and contacts to open doors. For Discussion: 1. What is your personal experience with mentors? Answer: My personal experience with mentors has been profoundly impactful, shaping both my professional development and personal growth in significant ways. Reflecting on these experiences, several key aspects stand out: Early Career Guidance In the early stages of my career, I was fortunate to have a mentor who provided invaluable guidance. This mentor helped me navigate the complexities of my first professional role, offering insights into industry practices and organizational culture. Their support was instrumental in helping me build confidence and develop essential skills, such as effective communication and project management. Skill Development and Knowledge Sharing Throughout my career, mentors have played a crucial role in my skill development. One mentor, in particular, was an expert in data analysis and research methodologies. They took the time to teach me advanced techniques and shared their extensive knowledge, which significantly enhanced my analytical capabilities. This mentorship not only improved my technical skills but also sparked a deeper interest in continuous learning and professional development. Career Advancement and Opportunities Mentors have also been pivotal in opening doors to new opportunities. A senior colleague who became my mentor recognized my potential and recommended me for a high-profile project. Their endorsement and support provided me with the chance to demonstrate my abilities to a broader audience, leading to a promotion and greater responsibilities. This experience highlighted the importance of having advocates within the organization who can help elevate your career. Personal Growth and Confidence Building Beyond professional skills, mentors have contributed to my personal growth. They have offered perspectives that challenged my thinking and encouraged me to step outside my comfort zone. Through regular discussions and constructive feedback, mentors have helped me develop a more resilient mindset and greater self-awareness. This personal growth has been invaluable in building the confidence to take on leadership roles and make informed decisions. Networking and Relationship Building Mentorship has also expanded my professional network. Mentors have introduced me to key industry contacts and facilitated connections that have proven beneficial for my career. These relationships have provided additional support, advice, and opportunities for collaboration. The network I have built through mentorship has been a critical resource for both personal and professional growth. Reciprocal Mentorship In my later career, I have also had the opportunity to mentor others. This reciprocal relationship has been incredibly rewarding, allowing me to give back and share the knowledge and experiences I have gained. Mentoring others has reinforced my own learning and provided fresh perspectives on various challenges. Conclusion Overall, my personal experience with mentors has been enriching and transformative. Mentors have provided guidance, knowledge, opportunities, and support that have been essential to my development. The relationships built through mentorship have not only advanced my career but also fostered personal growth and resilience. The impact of mentorship on my journey underscores its importance as a vital element of professional and personal development. 2. What is the difference between a role model and a mentor? Answer: The terms "role model" and "mentor" are often used interchangeably, but they represent distinct concepts in the context of influence, power, and leadership. Understanding the differences between them is crucial for comprehending their unique roles and impacts on personal and professional development. Role Model A role model is someone who serves as an example for others to emulate. They exhibit behaviors, qualities, and achievements that inspire and motivate individuals. Key characteristics of a role model include: 1. Passive Influence: Role models typically exert influence indirectly. They may not have a personal relationship with those who look up to them. Their impact is based on observation rather than direct interaction. 2. Public Persona: Role models often have a prominent public presence. They can be celebrities, leaders, or successful professionals who are visible through media, their work, or their achievements. 3. Inspiration: The primary role of a role model is to inspire. They demonstrate what is possible through their actions, success, and the way they live their lives. 4. General Guidance: While role models set an example, they do not provide specific advice or personalized support. Their influence is broader and less tailored to individual needs. Mentor A mentor, on the other hand, is someone who provides direct guidance, support, and advice to an individual. Mentors are typically more involved in the personal and professional development of their mentees. Key characteristics of a mentor include: 1. Active Engagement: Mentors engage actively with their mentees. They build a relationship based on trust, communication, and mutual respect, offering personalized advice and support. 2. Personal Relationship: Mentoring involves a closer, often one-on-one relationship. Mentors understand the unique needs, strengths, and goals of their mentees, tailoring their guidance accordingly. 3. Development Focus: Mentors are committed to the growth and development of their mentees. They provide specific feedback, help set goals, and offer strategies for overcoming challenges. 4. Knowledge Sharing: Mentors share their experience, knowledge, and expertise. They provide practical insights and learning opportunities that are directly applicable to the mentee's personal and professional context. Comparison • Scope of Influence: Role models influence broadly and passively, often inspiring many people simultaneously through their actions and success. Mentors, however, influence more narrowly and actively, focusing on the individual development of their mentees. • Interaction Level: Role models may not have any direct interaction with those they inspire. In contrast, mentors build a personal relationship with their mentees, providing ongoing support and guidance. • Nature of Support: Role models offer inspiration and general examples of success. Mentors offer specific, actionable advice and support tailored to the mentee's needs and goals. • Commitment: The commitment of a role model is generally unintentional and indirect, as they may not be aware of the individuals they are inspiring. A mentor, however, intentionally commits time and effort to support the growth of their mentee. Conclusion While both role models and mentors play significant roles in personal and professional development, their impacts are different. Role models provide a source of inspiration and an example to aspire to, whereas mentors offer direct, personalized support and guidance. Understanding these distinctions helps individuals seek out the right kind of influence and support based on their specific needs and goals. 3. What does a protégé (an understudy) need to do to take full advantage of a good mentor? Answer: To take full advantage of a good mentor, a protégé (or understudy) must actively engage in the mentoring relationship and adopt behaviors and attitudes that maximize the benefits of this valuable guidance. Here are key actions a protégé should take: 1. Show Initiative and Enthusiasm A protégé should demonstrate a genuine interest in learning and a proactive attitude. This involves: • Seeking Opportunities: Actively look for opportunities to learn from the mentor. This could be through participating in projects, attending meetings, or asking for additional responsibilities. • Asking Questions: Show curiosity by asking insightful questions. This helps in gaining a deeper understanding of the mentor’s knowledge and experiences. 2. Set Clear Goals Having clear, well-defined goals helps both the protégé and the mentor focus their efforts. To do this: • Define Objectives: Identify specific skills, knowledge, or career milestones you want to achieve through the mentoring relationship. • Communicate Goals: Share these goals with your mentor to ensure they understand your aspirations and can tailor their guidance accordingly. 3. Be Open to Feedback Receiving and acting on feedback is crucial for growth. A protégé should: • Listen Actively: Pay close attention to the mentor’s advice and feedback, even if it is critical. • Reflect and Act: Reflect on the feedback and make necessary changes to improve. Show your mentor that you are committed to learning and growing. 4. Build a Trusting Relationship A strong mentoring relationship is built on trust and mutual respect. To cultivate this: • Be Honest: Share your challenges, aspirations, and concerns honestly with your mentor. • Respect Boundaries: Understand and respect the mentor’s time and commitments. Be punctual and prepared for meetings. 5. Take Responsibility for Your Development While a mentor provides guidance, the protégé is ultimately responsible for their own development. This involves: • Self-Motivation: Take charge of your learning process. Seek out resources, practice new skills, and apply what you learn. • Follow Through: Implement the advice and strategies provided by your mentor. Show that you can take initiative and deliver results. 6. Seek Continuous Learning A protégé should have a mindset of continuous improvement. To achieve this: • Expand Knowledge: Beyond the mentor’s guidance, seek additional learning through courses, reading, and other resources. • Stay Updated: Keep abreast of industry trends and best practices. Share these insights with your mentor to enrich your discussions. 7. Show Appreciation Recognizing the mentor’s efforts and expressing gratitude strengthens the relationship. This can be done by: • Acknowledging Help: Thank your mentor regularly for their time and support. • Reciprocating: Offer to help your mentor in ways that you can, whether through assisting with tasks or providing feedback on their initiatives. 8. Network and Build Connections Leverage your mentor’s network to expand your own professional connections. To do this: • Attend Events: Participate in networking events, conferences, or social gatherings recommended by your mentor. • Build Relationships: Actively engage with people in your mentor’s network, fostering new relationships that can provide additional support and opportunities. Conclusion By showing initiative, setting clear goals, being open to feedback, building a trusting relationship, taking responsibility for their development, seeking continuous learning, showing appreciation, and leveraging networking opportunities, a protégé can fully capitalize on the benefits of having a good mentor. These actions help maximize the mentor's guidance and support, leading to significant personal and professional growth. BONUS VIDEOS BIZFLIX VIDEO CASES FROM THE TEXTBOOK WEBSITE Discussion Questions and Guide Video Case: Because I Said So VIDEO CASE SYNOPSIS Meet Daphne Wilder (Diane Keaton)—your typical meddling, overprotective, and divorced mother of three daughters. Two of her three beautiful daughters have married. That leaves Millie (Mandy Moore) as the focus of Daphne’s undivided attention and compulsive behavior to find Millie a mate. Daphne places some online advertising, screens the applicants, and submits those she approves to Millie. Along the way, Daphne meets Joe (Stephen Collins), the father of one applicant. Romance emerges and the film comes to a delightful though expected conclusion. This scene starts after Daphne answers her cellular telephone and says the person has the wrong number. A conversation about Millie’s love life, Daphne’s love life, and boundaries ensues. VIDEO CASE DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTED ANSWERS 1. Which influence tactic or tactics does Daphne try to use to persuade Millie to go out with Jason, the man Daphne has chosen for her? Answer: Daphne tries to come across as if she’s consulting with Millie and making rational, inspirational, and ingratiating appeals. However, she flubs all of these attempts by insulting and criticizing Millie along the way. Ultimately, Daphne’s approach can best be described as pressure tactics. 2. Of the five types of power described in the chapter, which type or types of power does Daphne have over Millie? Explain your answer. Answer: Some students may feel that Daphne holds legitimate power over Millie because she is Millie’s mother and deserves a high degree of respect. Additionally, this scene suggests that, despite their frustration with each other, there is genuine love, respect, and concern between the two. Daphne’s desire to make Millie happy could be seen as appealing, even charismatic. Thus, some students may feel that Daphne has referent power over Millie. 3. Review the discussion of emotional intelligence earlier in this chapter. Assess both Daphne and Millie on the four parts of emotional intelligence. Answer: Both Daphne and Millie know who they are (self-awareness), although Daphne shows less of this quality than Millie. It is not clear from the scene or elsewhere in the film about Daphne’s sense of self in social interactions. The self-management part of emotional intelligence appears moderate to high for both people with Millie likely lower than her mother. Millie’s behavior in this scene suggests she loses control at times, which creates some difficulties for herself and her relationships. Millie is high on social awareness while her mother is moderate to low. Millie understands her mother’s view of how she should behave. Daphne, on the other hand, seems to be unable to read Millie’s emotions and reactions, and thus does not adapt her behavior into a more constructive and helpful approach. Relationship management is the one dimension that is hard to assess from this single and strongly played scene. The mother-daughter relationship, of course, has many forms of relationship management. Film director Michael Lehman chose a frantic approach to this scene to establish an obsessive-compulsive quality to Daphne’s personality and to render a comical result. BONUS COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY: INSTRUCTOR NOTES This activity can be assigned as homework for individuals or teams, or it can be used as a class activity to open up a dialogue about well known leaders and leadership styles. Leaders and Leadership Styles 1. Identify a public leader who you think demonstrates one of the classic behavioral leadership styles presented in Table 14.3. a. Who did you identify? Answer: I identified Angela Merkel, former Chancellor of Germany. b. Which of the leadership styles does she/he demonstrate? Explain your answer. Answer: Angela Merkel demonstrates the participative leadership style. This style is characterized by involving team members in the decision-making process. Merkel was known for her inclusive approach to leadership, encouraging dialogue and collaboration among European leaders, and valuing input from her advisors and experts. Her leadership style fostered a cooperative environment, which was crucial in navigating complex issues such as the Eurozone crisis and the refugee crisis. 2. Identify a public leader who you think demonstrates one of the situational leadership models presented in the chapter. a. Who did you identify? Answer: I identified Barack Obama, former President of the United States. b. Which of the situational leadership models does he/she demonstrate? Explain your answer. Answer: Barack Obama demonstrates the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model. This model suggests that leaders should adapt their style based on the maturity and competence of their followers. Obama often adjusted his approach depending on the situation. For instance, he was more directive during crises such as the financial meltdown in 2008 but adopted a more delegating approach when dealing with healthcare reforms, relying heavily on experts and Congress to shape the policy. 3. Identify a public leader who you think demonstrates servant leadership and explain your answer. Answer: I identified Jacinda Ardern, former Prime Minister of New Zealand. Jacinda Ardern demonstrates servant leadership. This leadership style focuses on serving others, prioritizing the needs of employees, customers, and the community. Ardern has been widely recognized for her empathy, compassion, and focus on well-being. Her leadership during the Christchurch mosque shootings and the COVID-19 pandemic emphasized care, communication, and community, placing the needs of New Zealanders at the forefront of her actions. 4. Which of the leaders you identified in questions a-c would you want to follow? Explain your answer. Answer: I would want to follow Jacinda Ardern. Her servant leadership style aligns with my values of empathy, community focus, and inclusive decision-making. Ardern's ability to connect with people on a personal level, combined with her strong moral compass and dedication to public service, makes her an inspiring and effective leader. Her approach creates a supportive and collaborative environment, which I find motivating and conducive to both personal and professional growth. Solution Manual for Management Robert Kreitner, Charlene Cassidy 9781111221362

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