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This document contains chapters 13 to 15 Chapter 13 Sexual orientation, identity, and behavior TOTAL TEACHING PACKAGE OUTLINE Lecture Outline Resources Reference Chapter 13: Sexual Orientation, Identity, and Behavior UNDERSTANDING SEXUAL ORIENTATION Teaching Suggestions: 1(B), 1(C), 2(A), 8(B) Learning Objectives: #1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 13 CONCEPTUALIZING SAME-GENDER SEXUAL ORIENTATION Teaching Suggestions: 1(A), 1(B), 1(C) Learning Objectives: #14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21, 22,23,24 FORMING A SEXUAL ORIENTATION IDENTITY Teaching Suggestions: 2(A), 2(B), 3(A), 3(B) Learning Objectives: #25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND SOCIETY Teaching Suggestions: 4(A), 4(B), 5(A), 5(B), 6(A), 7(A), 7(B), 8(A) Learning Objectives: #33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40, 41,42 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, students should be able to: Briefly describe the general views of sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity. Describe the Kinsey scale and its benefits and limitations for explaining sexual orientation. Describe reported roles of same-gender sexual behavior prior to the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). Describe the NHSLS concerns regarding same-gender orientation classifications. List three aspects of same-gender orientation studied in the NHSLS. Describe the NHSLS aspects of desire and self-identification as well as rates for each. Describe how the NHSLS supports the position that same-gender sexuality is multidimensional. Briefly describe how age and geography influence same-gender sexuality. Describe cross-cultural rates of same-gender sexual behavior. Describe cross-cultural reactions to same-gender sexual behavior. Describe the effects of professional corporate responses to homophobia and biphobia. Describe historical and contemporary religious views of same-gender sexual behavior. Briefly describe how views about same-gender sexual orientation are socially constructed. Describe how psychodynamic theory views sexual orientation. Describe the result of two studies that influenced how same-gender orientation is seen within a normal variant model. List and describe five conclusions about sexual orientation from the Bell et al. study. Briefly describe how a biological position could be supported by the Bell et al. research. Describe perceived hormonal influences concerning gender and sexual orientation. Describe genetic explanations of same-gender sexual orientation. Briefly describe heritability as related to same-gender sexual orientation. Describe the relationship between sexual orientation and gender nonconformity. Describe the perceived relationship of the X chromosome to same-gender sexual orientation. Describe other biological factors and gender trait differences seen in same-gender orientated individuals. Describe the dynamics of the multifactorial model of sexual orientation. Describe how evolutionary theory addresses homosexuality. Describe how therapists personally and professionally address same-gender orientation. Briefly describe the six dimensions of heterosexual identity that are accomplished over time. List and describe Cass’s six stages of same-gender sexual identity formation. Briefly describe limitations of the Cass model of sexual identity formation. Describe male same-gender identity formation. Describe female same-gender identity formation. Describe challenges faced in developing a bisexual identity. Describe bisexuality identity formation. Briefly describe sexual identity formation among racial and ethnic minorities. Describe cultural dimensions of the homosexual culture. Describe the functions of the homosexual community. Describe three controversies associated with same-gender couples/relationships. Describe responses of gay men to HIV/AIDS. Briefly describe ways for reducing HIV transmission. Briefly describe the emotional impact of HIV on the homosexual community. Describe historical and contemporary vs. military positions regarding sexual orientation. Briefly describe the reasons same-gender orientated individuals marry opposite-gender partners. Describe government positions regarding same-gender relationships and families. CHAPTER OVERVIEW Much of the general material on same-gender sexual orientation and behavior has been moved out of Chapter 13 and introduced in earlier chapters or placed in later chapters. It is important to note that there is still an on-going debate between biological essentialists and social constructionists regarding sexual orientation. Research is currently focusing less on sexual behaviors and more toward the dynamics and implications of loving relationships. The chapter continues to uphold the view that the term “homosexual” no longer has a very specific meaning. The title of the chapter reflects sensitivity to the recommendations on nomenclature of the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns of the American Psychological Association (1991), which some readers see as an unnecessary degree of political correctness. In describing any under-represented groups, we have a responsibility to be as accommodating as possible in adopting terms that members of the group find most acceptable. In a text of this sort, we also have a responsibility to use terminology that can be commonly understood in the sexological field. The terms used throughout the text seem to satisfy both criteria. The chapter also takes a more integrative approach to issues relating to bisexual orientation and behavior. Once thought to be a confusing phenomenon, bisexuality is not so much confusing as it is complex. There are no clear-cut lines of definition and demarcation surrounding it. We in sexuality education have too long dismissed bisexuality because it did not fit easily into the dichotomized heterosexual/homosexual model, which we were all along attempting to dismiss as simplistic anyway. Sexual orientation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Concepts of sexual orientation and identity are ever evolving. Kinsey developed a scale demonstrating that there is no single pattern of same-gender sexual behavior, but different degrees between the heterosexual (opposite-gender) and same-gender orientations. His bipolar scale is less useful today. The incidence of same-gender orientation among humans has been an issue of controversy, and different studies have reached their conclusions in different ways. Some people may not identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual even though their behaviors seem consistent with the labels, and vice versa. The National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) data examined desire, behavior, and self-identification with regard to same-gender sexuality, finding differences in the incidence of each, with some overlap among three factors. More people indicated having felt attraction to members of their own gender than had experienced same-gender sex. Same-gender orientation and behavior have been viewed differently in various societies and historical periods. In some cultures, orientation intertwines with gender roles. Homophobia and biphobia can have negative effects on individuals with same-gender orientations and behaviors. Leading professional organizations no longer view same-gender sexual orientation within the framework of pathology, and many businesses are attempting to reach gay and lesbian markets. Religions take various morally based positions regarding sexual orientation and behavior. Some religious groups have taken an accepting and positive view of same-gender orientation and are working to dispel myths and create reform. The Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith research represented one of the most thorough studies on the development of sexual orientation and established a foundation on which more biologically based models could be built. There is much speculation about the possible biological determinants of sexual orientation. Some researchers believe that hormonal factors during prenatal life may predispose people to particular sexual orientations. Twin studies have suggested that same-gender orientation may be genetically linked and partly heritable. Researchers have identified a portion of the X chromosome that tends to show up in gay males. Studies of brain anatomy have demonstrated some measurable differences in brain structure among gay men, heterosexual men, and women. There is research that suggests hormones may play a part in development of orientation. The multifactorial model holds that there are shades of difference in sexual orientation, determined partly by biological factors that interact with socioenvironmental factors. Among professionals who have viewed same-gender orientation and behavior within a model suggesting illness or abnormality, attempts have been made to change people to be more heterosexual. Current professional opinion is more oriented toward seeing this as one of several orientations that need no particular invention or cure. Gay and lesbian people have no more psychological problems than heterosexual people. Several theories have been advanced concerning the development of lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity. Cass’s theory proposes that sexual identity forms through a series of up to six stages that are also referred to as the coming out process. Different people proceed through these stages differently, and a person’s perceptions of his or her sexual orientation may shift over time. Indeed there are differences in formation of sexual identity between men and women, as well as gay/lesbian people and people who identify as bisexual. These differences are attributed to how the genders are socialized in our culture. Conflict model of bisexuality suggests that the individual is confused, conflicted, and ambivalent about orientation. The flexibility model associates bisexual identity with personal growth and a wider range of possibilities for fulfillment. Most cities have well-developed, same-gender communities that permit communication and support for lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. This may be one reason why city populations have a higher proportion of people with the same-gender orientation. AIDS was first identified in the United States among gay men, and HIV spread rapidly among the gay population. This has led to increased homophobia and biphobia. Loss of friends and partners to AIDS has had a strong impact on the gay community. The repeal of the “Don’t ask, Don’t tell” policy (effective in the U.S. military from February 1994 through September 2011) has not markedly changed the fact that gays and lesbians are frequently discharged from the armed forces on the basis of being “incompatible with military service”. Many bisexuals, gays, and lesbians marry heterosexual partners and raise families. Their same-gender orientation may or may not be known by their partners. Gays and lesbians have been fighting for the right to have legalized partnerships with members of the same gender because these rights have financial and legal implications. Although same-gender marriage is not yet sanctioned by law, some churches will perform holy union ceremonies and some cities register domestic partnerships. Vermont has legislated civil unions so that gay and lesbian residents can enjoy all benefits and privileges afforded to heterosexual couples. Children raised by gay or lesbian parents do not seem to differ particularly from children raised by mixed-gender parents, nor are they more likely to develop same-gender sexual orientations themselves. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS 1. Discussion Topics A) Present a history of the gay movement beginning with Stonewall. Discuss what changes in attitudes have and have not occurred since then. B) Present the influences on the development of sexual orientation: nature versus nurture, or a combination. C) Discuss whether the class thinks someone can change their orientation. Bring in news articles about how some people believe that sexual orientation can be changed. Discuss whether this seems to be “scientific” or not. Several other “treatments” for gays are mentioned in the book. Offer professional organizations’ (American Psychological Association, National Association of Social Workers, American Medical Association, American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists, etc.) documented views about homosexuality and therapy programs that preach conversion. 2. Role-Plays A) Have students assume the role of a gay or lesbian who is “coming out.” Place them in different scenarios: first with friends, then work, and then parents. What made each scenario different? Which was more difficult? If you think the students would be uncomfortable, have them imagine what it would be like. Have them act out receiving this information. B) Have one student play a gay young person who has just told his or her parents that he or she is gay and was kicked out of the house. Another student will play a friend who had not known about this person’s sexual orientation. The gay young person is asking if he or she can stay with the friend. Explain that this is often a scenario that young gay people experience when telling their parents about their sexual orientation. 3. Case Study Questions A) The case study of Martha (in the main text) tells about a woman who is reexamining her sexual orientation. How does Martha’s reexamining process correspond to Cass’s stages of sexual identity formation? Do you think Martha could have ignored her feelings? How would you respond if you were a friend of Martha’s, her husband, or one of her children? B) The case study “Out, Proud, and Very Young” introduces teen gay activists who are standing up for their beliefs and rights. How do you believe the students, teachers, and administrators from your high school would have responded to these students? How do you believe the students, teachers, and administrators from your college campus would respond? Do you know of gay or lesbian students on your campus who are afraid to speak up? 4. Essays/Papers A) What are the characteristics of a good parent, and do you believe that these characteristics are influenced by sexual orientation? Why or why not? B) What would it be like living in a world where you could not show affection for your partner because you might be arrested, harmed, or killed? Have students write essays about specific issues regarding same-gender orientation. 5. Small Group Activities A) Objective: To have students explore the myths regarding gay/lesbian and bisexual lifestyles. Method: Break students into small groups and ask each group to come up with as many myths regarding homosexuality and bisexuality as they can think of. Be prepared to give examples, such as: Just haven’t met a good man/woman. Just haven’t made up their minds yet. In a couple, one will assume a more masculine role while the other is more feminine. They always dress well. All hairdressers are gay. They don’t form lasting relationships. You can always tell when someone is gay. Have students share their myths. Ask students to cite examples of exceptions to these myths. For instance, politicians, police officers, and lawyers who are gay. Some students might know of long-term homosexual relationships. Discuss the problems with stereotypes. (Stereotype of what? This bullet is not very clear.) Analyze personal orientation from the list constructed. When did you first know you were heterosexual or homosexual? (This bullet refers to what list? When was a list constructed? ) Upon completion: Students will have a greater understanding of the role stereotypes have in maintaining prejudices. (It seems “stereotype,” it’s meaning and implication, needs to be discussed more thoroughly as it has not been discussed much.) 6. Project A) Objective: To have students become conscious of couple behaviors on campus and how much, if any, includes homosexual couples. Methods: Tell students to spend one or two days observing couple behaviors on campus. These behaviors can include holding hands, hugging, kissing, etc. Have them keep a record of the behaviors and how often they saw them exhibited. In class, ask for results, making a list on the board and placing numbers next to each behavior. The following are examples of questions that could facilitate discussion: Did anyone see two men or two women engaging in these activities? What does that say about the freedom homosexuals have to express their feelings? If you had seen two men or two women together, what would you have thought or felt? What sort of message does this send to homosexuals? Upon completion: Students will have seen how, even though there is a lot of talk about tolerance, gay and lesbians are still not as free to show affection. 7. Guest Speakers Invite a guest speaker from the gay/lesbian/bisexual organization on campus or in the community to come to your class. PFLAG (Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) is another source for speakers. Invite an anthropologist to your class to discuss how sexual orientation is treated in other cultures. 8. SexSource Video Bank The SexSource video bank provides an excellent array of short videos that may serve as discussion starters. In order to elicit the best responses, it is advisable to pair students in groups of two for “pair sharing.” Give them the initial starter questions below, and then show the videos after some initial discussion. Instructors should preview videos for time and content. Additionally, you may want to download clips prior to class to ensure they are ready for viewing regardless of network connectivity. All video clips may be found at: http://www.mhhe.com/sexsource That’s a Family video clip – Ask paired students: Did you grow up with a mom and a dad, just one parent, or two moms or two dads? What would it be like to be raised in a gay family? Would you become gay if you were raised by same-sex parents? This is a truly excellent video that shows a number of children speaking about their gay and lesbian families. The video helps to dispel some of the myths about gay families and is an excellent discussion starter for the many different family options that exist. Corey Johnson video clip – Ask paired students: When did you choose to be straight? What would you do if your best friend came out to you? Should gay people be treated differently then straight people? This video shows Corey Johnson coming out to the rest of the members of his football team. It can evoke a lively discussion of the need for sexual orientation education and the prejudices and discrimination that often impact gay and lesbian people. GLOSSARY coming out: to acknowledge to oneself and others that one is lesbian, gay, or bisexual. sexual orientation: the set of physical and emotional qualities that attracts human beings to one another sexually and romantically sexual orientation identity: an inner awareness of what one’s sexual orientation means for one’s life in terms of sexual and romantic relationships, and social interaction. Chapter 14 The Spectrum of Human Sexual Behavior TOTAL TEACHING PACKAGE OUTLINE Lecture Outline Resources Reference Chapter 14: The Spectrum of Human Sexual Behavior VARIABILITY IN SEXUAL INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES Teaching Suggestions: 1(A), 2(A), 3(A), 5(A) Learning Objectives: #1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 TRANSGENDER BEHAVIORS Teaching Suggestions: 2(A), 4(A), 7(A), 5(A), 8(A) Learning Objectives: #10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17, 18,19 COMMON EROTIC TARGETS THAT TRIGGER SEXUAL EXCITATION Teaching Suggestions: 6(A) Learning Objectives: #20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28, ATYPICAL AND POTENTIALLY PROBLEMATIC EROTIC TARGETS Teaching Suggestions: 5(A), 6(A), 7(B), 8 (B) Learning Objectives: #29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36, 37,38,39,40,41,42 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, students should be able to: Describe the distinction between sexual performance and subjective erotic experiences. Describe sexologists’ use of the terms “variant” and “paraphilia.” Review the Dual Control Model and its relationship to variability in sexual interests and activities. Define and give examples of erotic target location errors (ETLEs). Define incentive motivation theory as it applies to sexuality and the assumptions of this theory. List some of the gender differences in sexual motivation and plasticity. Describe the perceptions why men express more variability of sexual behavior. Define and describe erotophilia and erotophobia. Describe hypersexuality and hyposexuality. Describe promiscuity and culturally positive and negative implications. Briefly describe two forms of hypersexuality. Describe reasons why individuals may be celibate. Describe general and specific forms of transvestism. Briefly describe rates of cross-dressing. Briefly describe characteristics and rates of the transvestite subculture. Describe transgenderism. Describe autogynephilia and the potential conflict with heterosexuality. Describe transexualism and cultural, ethical, and hormonal concerns associated with this variance. Briefly describe the evidence that sexual orientation is independent of a transsexual identity. Briefly describe the relationship of transgenderism and sexual orientation. Briefly describe general considerations involving sexual excitation. Describe rates and use of erotic/pornographic materials for arousal. Describe the use of sexual devices and toys for women and men. Describe rates, onset, and use of sexual fantasies. Briefly list and describe four types of sexual fantasies. Describe general and extreme fetishism. Briefly describe cultural influences of multiple-partnered sex. Briefly describe two forms of group sex. Briefly describe concerns about group sex. Briefly list and describe two types of male sex workers (“indoor” and “outdoor”) Briefly list and describe different types of female sex workers. Briefly describe the victimization controversy associated with sex workers. List and describe three types of sex associated with telephones and the internet. Briefly describe two forms of sexual variances involving touching. Describe frotteurism and toucherism. Describe forms of exhibitionism. Describe motivations for, and reactions to exhibitionism. Describe rates and degrees of voyeurism. Describe sadomasochism and two roles associated with this practice. Describe the rates of sadomasochism, including its dangerous variants. Describe rates of, and theoretical explanations for sadomasochism. Describe some of the practices that fall under the category of sadomasochism. Describe rates of, reasons for, and concerns about bestiality or zoophilia. Briefly describe concerns about necrophilia. Describe some other unconventional sexual variations. CHAPTER OVERVIEW Chapter 14 broadens the perspective on the variability of human sexual orientations and activities. Students should be made aware of the difficulties of finding appropriate nonjudgmental labels for all types of sexual behaviors. It is made clear at the outset that the “total sexual outlet” theory of sexuality that has constituted a fundamental assumption for a long time has been debunked by the findings of the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). Early in the chapter, a distinction is made among aspects of sexual performance and the more subjective factors of sexual desire, sensuosity, and sensuality. These concepts are particularly useful for students as they explore the different dimensions of human sexuality. The concept of fetishes and paraphilias, or sexual behaviors considered on a spectrum of atypical to pathological within a particular society, is also introduced. We live in a culture that has created the mistaken impression that almost everyone is interested in sex almost all of the time. Young people sometimes feel bound to live up to this standard, even if it does not fit them individually. Celibacy is now a choice that more people are making because of HIV/AIDS. Although the discussion is purely hypothetical, the latter part of this section of the chapter presents some possible reasons why men seem to exhibit greater sexual diversity than women. This theory is highly speculative but may well generate some interesting ideas and discussions in the classroom. This entire chapter demands that the instructor have a critical level of awareness of his or her personal attitudes and values. Students often have strong reactions to various sexual behaviors without having sorted through the many social factors involved in them. There will certainly be people in any classroom who find themselves attracted to one or more of the activities or orientations, and there will be some who are repelled. Therefore, it behooves instructors to create the sort of climate that permits some level of self-exploration and understanding. This material may also cause students who wish to talk more specifically about their own sexual orientations or behaviors to initiate a conference with the instructor. Each instructor will need to carefully sort through how far he or she is willing to pursue such matters before referring students to professional counselors. The total sexual outlet concept (hydraulic theory) of sexuality by Kinsey has been modified by data from the newest sex research. Contemporary sex research has emphasized the physical, orgasmic aspects of sex. The subjective erotic experience that includes sensuosity and desire is also important. Preferences for various sexual behaviors and objects of sexual desires may change with circumstances and time. Human beings are diverse in their sexual behaviors and activities. Behaviors that differ from whatever is considered the norm may be classified by terms such as deviance, variance, or paraphilia. There is a wide range of levels of interest in sex and amounts of actual sexual activity among people, ranging from the erotophilic to erotophobic. An unusually high level of sexual interest or drive is called hypersexuality, whereas an especially low level is called hyposexuality. Although either condition may reflect a normal pattern for a particular person, they may also signal deeper emotional distress. Compulsive sexual behavior can result from traumatic life experiences. Erotomania is a rare form of mental illness characterized by extreme sexual compulsivity. It has been called nymphomania in females and satyriasis in males. Celibacy refers to the choice to not share sexual activity with other people. It can represent a response to ethical or religious values or concern for personal safety and wellness. People with transgender identities may sometimes cross-dress or live for periods of time as if they were members of the other sex. Autogynephilia is a relatively new term used to describe transgendered males who frequently fantasize about being a woman, having a woman’s body, or having a woman’s sexual organs. There are specific surgical procedures for male-to-female transsexuals who desire reassignment surgery. Although transgender identity and sexual orientation are largely separate phenomena, there is some evidence that they interact to some degree. Now that diagnostic guidelines are available for gender identity disorder in children, controversy exists over what treatments or counseling should be made available to them. People sometimes enhance sexual experiences through the use of various sexual media and toys, and through sexual fantasy. Fetishism is the term used to describe sexual arousal by objects, parts of the body, or materials not usually considered sexual. There are both female and male sex workers. Legal debates over prostitution continue, and the HIV/AIDS issue has raised new concerns for this kind of casual sex. Among the sex-related behaviors that have unwilling or unwitting victims are obscene telephone calls, frotteurism, and toucherism. Consensual telephone sex and Internet chat lines offer opportunity for sex-related communication on a relatively anonymous basis. Frotteurism and toucherism involve sexual arousal through close contact with other people without their consent. Exhibitionism refers to exposing the genitals or breasts to others, usually for sexual arousal. Voyeurism refers to finding sexual arousal in viewing others in the nude, disrobing, or engaged in sexual activity. Sadomasochism encompasses a range of behaviors involving inflicting pain or humiliation, tying parts of the body (bondage), or acting out dominant-submissive fantasies, all for sexual arousal. Hypoxphilia is the practice of using devices to reduce oxygen to the brain for sexual enhancement. Sex with animals (bestiality) has been reported in a small percentage of humans. Sex with the dead (necrophilia) is a rare phenomenon and is typically prohibited by law. The term “pansexual” refers to people who are open to a wide range of sexual activities. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS 1. Discussion Topics A) Introduce the chapter and the various topics to be covered. Then ask the class to discuss the following questions: How would you determine what is normal sexual behavior? (Refer back to Chapter 7, Sexual Individuality and Sexual Values.) Who should decide what constitutes normal behavior? How does consent enter into the discussion? Introduce the concept of a double standard when it comes to viewing sexual behaviors in men and women. Use words like promiscuity, nymphomaniac, satyriasis, celibacy, erotomania, one-night-stands, teasing, etc. Ask the class to think about whether male or female came to mind when they heard the words. Discuss why. 2. Role-Play A) Have students role-play a scene between a young boy of 14 and his parents. The boy comes home from school and is crying uncontrollably. He tells his parents that he was called “queer”, “faggot”, and “fairy”. He was also beaten up. Through his tears, he tells his parents that he believes he is a girl inside. Don’t tell the “parents” what the boy is going to tell them. Let it be a surprise. After completion of the scenario, discuss what happened. Ask students if there were students who were treated differently in their high school because others believed the males were effeminate and the females masculine. 3. Small Group A) Objective: To engage students in thinking about the wide range of human sexual behaviors and societal attitudes toward some of them. Method: In small groups, have students make a list of as many various sexual behaviors and acts as they can. Have a member of each group write their list on the board. Erase duplicates. Have students in their small groups decide which ones should be regulated by law. How does consent enter into the discussion? How many people agree on which behaviors or acts should be and which should not be regulated. Facilitate a discussion of the results. Upon completion: Students will be able to see the degree of agreement and disagreement there is within their class and have a greater understanding of the difficulty with accepting the vast differences in human sexual behavior. 4. Case Study A) “Vincent: Living a Cross-Gender Identity” (in the main text) introduces a college student living in the dorm who is a cross-genderist. How would you respond if Vincent lived in your dorm or apartment complex? What if he was your roommate? What facilities, clubs or oganizations are available on your campus for people who cross-dress or are transgendered? 5. Essays/Papers A) Have students write essays about the treatment of sexual differences in other cultures. Were sexual differences rejected by all cultures? What are some that have and some that have not been rejected? Ask the students to include why they believe some cultures reject the differences and others don’t. 6. Self-Evaluation Exercise A) Using Exercise #2 in the self-evaluation section at the end of the main text about sexual fantasies, have students anonymously complete the survey. For the next class, bring in the class ratings of the fantasies. Facilitate a discussion about the outcome. Was the class typical or atypical? 7. Guest Speakers A) Invite a panel from the transgendered community to come and speak to the class. Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual centers now include transgendered people. Be sure to talk to the class ahead of time about who is coming and the importance of being able to listen to such a presentation with an open mind. Depending on your campus and its openness to different speakers, you might want to invite someone from the SM/leather community to speak. Often community members are willing to talk in order to reduce the stereotyping. Again, it is important to talk to your students ahead of time to prepare them. B) Invite a sex therapist to discuss the different fetish and paraphilic behaviors and impact on a person’s life. What determines if a fetish is healthy or unhealthy? What treatment modalities are available for hypersexual, hyposexual and paraphilic concerns? 8. SexSource Video Bank The SexSource video bank provides an excellent array of short videos that may serve as discussion starters. In order to elicit the best responses, it is advisable to pair students in groups of two for “pair sharing.” Give them the initial starter questions below, and then show the videos after some initial discussion. Instructors should preview videos for time and content. Additionally, you may want to download clips prior to class to ensure they are ready for viewing regardless of network connectivity. All video clips may be found at: http://www.mhhe.com/sexsource Changing Genders video clip – Ask paired students: When did you become aware that you were male or female? Imagine that you woke up one morning trapped in the body of the opposite sex. What would you do? What would you do if your friends insisted that you were crazy? In this video clip, you will see Angela talk about her past career and interests when she was David. Note that while living as a man, David’s life was decidedly masculine. Angela’s “wife” accompanies her into the garage where an old car is stored that David used to work on. Interestingly, Angela reports that when she began the transition to become a female, her former male interests and hobbies seemed to fade away. Whipsmart video clip – Ask paired students: What is strange or weird in sexual variation? Have you ever had a partner try something sexually you didn’t like? What would you do if your partner asked you to engage in bondage? In this video, you will see Brandon and Pria discuss and experiment with sadomasochism (specifically, bondage). GLOSSARY asexuality: a condition characterized by a low interest in sex. autoerotic asphyxiation: accidental death from pressure placed around the neck during masturbatory behavior. Autogynephilia (aw-toh-gahy-nuh-FILee-uh): a tendency found in some males to become sexually aroused by obsessive thoughts and images of being females and having female attributes, or even female sex organs. bestiality (bes-chee-AL-i-tee): a human being having sexual contact with an animal. bondage: tying, restraining, or applying pressure to body parts as part of sexual arousal. brothels: houses of prostitution. call boys: highly paid male prostitutes. call girls: highly paid female prostitutes who work by appointment with an exclusive clientele. celibacy (SEL-uh-buh-see): choosing to not share sexual activity with others. coprophilia: sexual arousal connected with feces. erotomania ( i-roh-tuh-MEY-nee-uh): a very rare form of mental illness characterized by a highly compulsive need for sex. erotophilia ( i-roh-tuh-FIL-ee-uh): consistent positive responding to sexual cues. erotophobia ( i-roh-tuh-FOH-bee-uh): consistent negative responding to sexual cues. Erotic target location errors (ETLEs): a theoretical concept that assumes that a psychological glitch in some people leads people to focus their sexual energy on an unusual object of attraction or some unusual sexual activity. exhibitionism: exposing the genitals to others for sexual pleasure. fetishism ( FET-i-shiz-uhm): sexual arousal triggered by objects or materials not usually considered sexual. frotteur: one who practices frotteurism. frotteurism (frah-TUR-iz-uhm): gaining sexual gratification from anonymously pressing or rubbing one’s genitals against others, usually in crowded settings. hookers: street name for female prostitutes. hustlers: male street prostitutes. hypersexuality: unusually high level of interest in, and drive for sex. hyposexuality: an especially low level of sexual interest and drive. hypoxphilia: creating pressure around the neck during sexual activity to enhance sexual pleasure. kleptomania: extreme form of fetishism in which sexual arousal is generated by stealing. masochist: the individual in a sadomasochistic sexual relationship who takes the submissive role. massage parlors: places where women can be hired to perform sexual acts under the guise of giving a massage. ménage à trois (mey-NAZH-ah-TRWAH): troilism or group sex involving three people. necrophilia (nek-ruh-FIL-ee-uh): having sexual activity with a dead body. nymphomania (nim-fuh-MEY-nee-uh): a term sometimes used to describe erotomania in women. orgy (AWR-jee): group sex. pansexual: lacking highly specific sexual orientations or preferences; open to a range of sexual activities. pimps: men who have female prostitutes working for them. promiscuity ( prom-i-skyoo-I-tee): sharing casual sexual activity with many different partners. pyromania: sexual arousal generated by setting fires. sadist: the individual in a sadomasochistic sexual relationship who takes the dominant role. sadomasochism ( sey-doh-MAS-uh-kiz-uhm): refers to sexual themes or activities involving bondage, pain, domination, or humiliation of one partner by the other. satyriasis ( sey-tuh-RAHY-uh-sis): a term sometimes used to describe erotomania in men. streetwalkers: female prostitutes who work on the streets. toucherism: gaining sexual gratification from the touching of an unknown person’s body, such as on the buttocks or breasts. troilism (TROY-i-liz-uhm): sexual activity shared by three people. urophilia: sexual arousal connected with urine or urination. voyeurism ( vwah-YUR-iz-uhm): sexual gratification from viewing others who are nude or who are engaging in sexual activities. zoophilia ( zoh-uh-FIL-ee-uh): bestiality. Chapter 15 Dealing with Sexual Problems TOTAL TEACHING PACKAGE OUTLINE Lecture Outline Resources Reference Chapter 15: Dealing with Sexual Problems WHEN AND HOW DOES SEX BECOME A PROBLEM? Teaching Suggestions: 1(A), 2(A), 3(B) Learning Objectives: #1,2,3,4,5,6 crossing sexual boundaries Teaching Suggestions: 2(C), 5(A), 8(A) Learning Objectives: #7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15,16 SEXUAL BOUNDARY VIOLATIONS BY PROFESSIONALS Teaching Suggestions: 3(B) Learning Objectives: #17 consent, COERCION, AND FORCED SEX Teaching Suggestions: 1(B), 2(B), 6(A), 8(B) Learning Objectives: #18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25, 26,27,28, 29,30,31,32,33 SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Teaching Suggestions: 1(B), 3(B) Learning Objectives: #34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47 PREVENTING AND DEALING WITH PROBLEMATIC SEX Teaching Suggestions: 4(A), 7(C) Learning Objectives: #48,49,50 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, students should be able to: Describe how sexual problems are socially constructed. Describe rates and characteristics of negative self-attitudes regarding bodies and sexual needs. Describe body dysmorphic disorder. Briefly describe different forms of coercion in sexual relationships. Briefly describe how prejudice impacts individuals sexually. Give an overview of paraphiles and paraphilics. Describe hypersexuality and typical treatment plans for this behavior. Describe how hypersexuality can be considered an addiction and controversies associated with this position. Define sexual harassment, as well as reported rates of, and gender perceptions about it. List and describe four bases for a claim of sexual harassment. Describe factors associated with increased rates of harassment. Describe rates of sexual harassment in schools and colleges. Briefly describe sexual harassment concerns within the workplace. Describe rates of, and concerns about sexual harassment in the military. Briefly describe rates of, and company responses to sexual harassment. List and describe five steps for individuals to take to address sexual harassment. Briefly describe general concerns regarding abuse by professionals (e.g. therapists, doctors, social workers, etc.). Briefly describe the continuum for conceptualizing coercive sexual behavior. Describe and define consent. Describe controversies regarding the legal definition of rape. Describe developmental and social factors associated with coercive and abusive individuals. Describe seven warning signals of potential sexual aggression. List incidence rates of forced sex. Briefly describe rates of, and social factors associated with, acquaintance rape (also called date rape). Describe relational and communication concerns involving acquaintance rape. Briefly describe social circumstances that may increase and decrease the risk of acquaintance rape. Briefly describe cultural differences on perspectives of statutory rape. Describe the concept of marital rape and the challenges faced by women victimized in this manner. List rates and describe reactions of male sexual assault victims. List and describe some strategies to prevent drug-facilitated rape. Describe rape trauma syndrome. Describe the two phases of treatment for sexual assault. Describe six criteria that indicate a successful resolution of a forced sexual event. Compare long-term and short-term treatment goals for therapy with victims of sexual assault. List rates of child molestation. Describe general characteristics of adult sexual abusers. Describe the characteristics of adolescent sexual abusers. Briefly describe problematic caregiver reactions to a child’s report of victimization. Briefly describe potential psychological effects of sexual abuse. Describe challenges faced when treating children and adult victims of child sexual abuse. Describe methods of treatment for sexual offenders. Describe rates and cultural definitions of incest. Describe familial factors and child responses to incest. Describe perceptions and controversies about recovered and false memories of sexual abuse. List and describe five general ways of avoiding and dealing with problematic sex. List and describe seven guidelines and considerations when considering and deciding upon seeking professional therapy. CHAPTER OVERVIEW Chapter 15 focuses on problems that can arise from the cultural values and social judgements that surround sexual behaviors. The chapter begins by outlining how sex can become a problem, the various ways in which these problems manifest, and how they relate to the appropriate boundaries established a culture. Although the topics of coercion and abusive behavior have been mentioned previously, they are examined here from different perspectives as human behaviors.The chapter concludes by covering how people can prevent sexual problems and how they can properly manage issues that do arise. Determination varies highly when concerning the development of some sexual orientation, preference, or behavior in a problem. It often needs to be viewed within the contexts of an individual’s reactions and lifestyle and the surrounding cultural and social belief systems. Negative attitudes about the self and one’s body image, lack of accurate information related to sexuality, or a failure of the body to function as expected in a sexual situation can become a problem. Some sexual behaviors represent obvious physical dangers to individuals and sometimes reflect self-destructive qualities. Paraphilias are sexual interests that are considered antisocial and harmful. Hypersexual behavior can lead to risk of negative consequences. Sex addiction is not considered to be an official diagnosis as a behavioral addiction, and treatment modes have not been well tested. Cultures establish sexual boundaries that people are not supposed to cross. When they do, problems arise. Sexual harassment refers to unwanted sexual advances. There are four main types: coercion and bribery, hostile environment, aggressive acts, and third-party effects. Students in grades 7 through 12 experience frequent sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in the schools/colleges, the military, and the workplace has required strict policies, laws and educational programs to prohibit such behavior. It is best to respond promptly to harassing situations by getting personal support, seeking out appropriate authorities, being clear about yourneeds, possibly writing a letter to the harasser, and making use of mediation services. Sexuality education for professionals who work with other people aims at developing competence for dealing with sexual problems. Consent is a fundamental issue in sexual interactions that has not been studied extensively. Many factors can compromise the validity of consent and lead to charges of sexual coercion or force. The term rape is used in various ways to refer to forced sex. There are several different motivations behind rape. Statutory rape relates to the legal age of consent. Forced sex is believed to be far more common than is generally realized or reported. It often represents an attempt to humiliate someone and exercise power over the person. Men and women frequently perceive sexually coercive situations differently. In many cases, the offender in forced sex is known by the victim, and the offense is called acquaintance rape or date rape. Care should be taken to avoid the possibility of being incapacitated by a date rape drug. Victims of forced sex go through various phases of the rape trauma syndrome, a type of post-traumatic stress disorder. Counseling and support are necessary during these phases of adjustment. Sexual abuse of children, pedophilic disorder or child molestation, is a common and serious problem. Sexual attraction to or abuse of adolescents is also called hebephilia. Adult sexual abusers may have experienced neurological problems during development. Psychologically, they may view children as sexually motivated, have a history of being abused themselves, and exhibit symptoms of denial and depression. A child who is sexually abused may have a sense of guilt, shame, and betrayal, and the abuse may lead to an unhealthy sexualization of the child’s life. Correlations have been found in adult survivors with physical and psychological problems, but cause-and-effect relationships have not yet been supported. Victims of sexual abuse may be helped by immediate crisis intervention as well as longer-term supportive and counseling services. Treatment programs are available for child sexual abuse offenders; the most effective of these programs emphasize ways to control their sexual impulses and reduce their sexual desire for children. Some medications may have some effect in controlling sexual desire. The term incest applies to sexual activity between closely related family members. It usually stems from unhealthy family patterns and creates serious confusion for the developing child or adolescent. The best ways to prevent and deal with sexual problems are to be knowledgeable about human sexuality, develop healthy communication skills, have realistic expectations about sex, and exercise caution and responsibility. Sometimes it makes sense to seek professional help for dealing with sexual problems. Check out such professionals with great care and be suspicious about behavior that makes you uncomfortable or seems unethical. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS 1. Discussion Topics A) Give a brief lecture on how “rape myths,” such as women who say “no” but really enjoy being forced, are reinforced in the media. See if the class can come up with others. Explain that you will be talking more about rape in the next chapter. Ask the class what their image of rape is—what comes to mind? B) Facilitate a discussion about the difference between what is seen in the media and what their image or experience is regarding sexual assault. C) Explore how these myths are perpetuated in books, movies, videos, and CDs. 2. Role-Plays A) Have two students create scenarios in which two people are discussing having sex. One is more insistent and doesn’t want to take “not yet” for an answer. B) Ask three students to role-play a party situation where one of their friends has gotten very drunk (possibly drugged) and a young man is offering to take her to the back bedroom where she can lie down until she feels better. C) Have two students act out a situation where one tells the other that one of her professors has made sexual comments to her and has implied that he is interested in dating her. She is doing well in the class. Take the above scenario, but have a male tell his friend that his professor has made sexual comments to him. 3. Case Study A) “A T-Shirt Places a Male Residence Hall Underfire” (in the main text) In this case study, a student-designed T-shirt of two cave men dragging a woman into their cave by the hair caused controversy on the campus. Some believed it was anti-woman, whereas others believed it to be freedom of expression. How does the class see the T-shirt issue? When does something cross the line between freedom for some and oppression for others? Are there T-shirts that the students have seen that they would consider offensive? B) Introduce the case study at the beginning of the text chapter about the 34-year-old attorney who sought therapy for her lack of interest in sex. It is a short case study, so you might want to read it. Ask students to look at the case from different perspectives: the therapist, the woman, and the husband. What do they think these people are feeling and thinking? The questions following this case can be used to start discussion and dialogue about communication, sexual needs, and responsibilities. Essays/Papers Ask students to write their opinions on whether or not someone can be a sex addict. What are some examples of sexually addictive behaviors? Do they think this behavior could just be an excuse for taking advantage of others? 5. Small and Large Group Activity A) Objective: To show the four main bases of sexual harassment complaints. Method: Divide the class into at least four groups. Give each group one of the four main bases for sexual harassment complaints as listed in the text. Ask each group to develop a scenario around their particular base. These can be shared with the class or acted out by group members. After hearing or seeing the scenarios, facilitate a discussion on how each scenario was handled. Did the class agree that it was sexual harassment? Ask the class to share any sexual harassment situations they are aware of on campus or at work. As the instructor, be prepared to explain how your campus deals with sexual harassment claims. Also, if the class is unsure about a scenario, refer them to the main text “How Men Can Tell If Their Behavior Is Sexual Harassment.” Upon completion: Students will have a good understanding of the different types of sexual harassment and how to deal with it. 6. Large Group Activity A) Objective: To have students understand the importance of consent when engaging in sexual behaviors. Method: Have students read the boxed feature: “Ten Reasons to Obtain Verbal Consent.” Discuss their reaction to the reading. Ask them to think about possible levels of sexual behaviors where consent would be important. A few are first date, touching, kissing, petting, undressing, etc. See if students can come up with other levels of sexual behaviors. This will help them realize that there are many steps before sex. Facilitate a discussion about why it would be important to get consent for all of these levels before proceeding any farther. Whose responsibility is it to obtain consent? Upon completion: Students should have an understanding of the responsibilities and consequences involved when deciding to engage in sexual activities. 7. Guest Speakers A) Invite a representative from your local Rape Crisis Center to speak on sexual assault and its effects on survivors. B) A social worker from Child Protective Services could be a powerful resource as a speaker on child abuse. C) Invite a campus representative to discuss the college/university’s policy on acquaintance rape. Encourage the speaker to include information about excessive drinking behaviors and the connection with unwanted sexual advances. 8. SexSource Video Bank The SexSource video bank provides an excellent array of short videos that may serve as discussion starters. In order to elicit the best responses, it is advisable to pair students in groups of two for “pair sharing.” Give them the initial starter questions below, and then show the videos after some initial discussion. Instructors should preview videos for time and content. Additionally, you may want to download clips prior to class to ensure they are ready for viewing regardless of network connectivity. All video clips may be found at: http://www.mhhe.com/sexsource Behind Closed Doors video clip – Ask paired students: What is sexual respect? Do we learn sexual scripts that are unhealthy? This clip interviews several campus activists about how social and cultural attitudes can contribute to a “sick mentality” that leads to rape. It is an excellent discussion starter for rape. Sarah Recalls Being Raped video clip – Ask paired students: When a woman says “no” does she ever mean “yes?” What is date rape and what makes it different than rape? In this video we see Sarah discussing an acquaintance that she had met at a bar, where they both were drinking. She talks about the role alcohol played in the encounter, realizing that both her intuitions and her inhibitions might have been more on guard had it not been for the alcohol. GLOSSARY acquaintance (date) rape: a sexual encounter forced by someone who is known to the victim. body dysmorphic disorder: a psychiatric problem that may develop in some individuals who become obsessive about the perceived inadequacies of their bodies. child molesting: sexual abuse of a child by an adult. incest (IN-sest): sexual activity between closely related family members. incest taboo: cultural prohibitions against incest, typical of most societies. hebephilia (hee-buh-FIL-ee-uh): a term being used to describe the sexual abuse of adolescents marital rape: a woman being forced by her husband to have sex. paraphile (paraphiliac): a person who is drawn to one or more of the paraphilias. pedophilia (pee-duh-FIL-ee-uh): another term for child sexual abuse. rape trauma syndrome: the predictable sequence of reactions that a victim experiences following a rape. sex addiction: inability to regulate sexual behavior. sexual harassment: unwanted sexual advances or coercion that can occur in the workplace or academic settings. statutory rape: a legal term used to indicate sexual activity when one partner is under the age of consent; in most states that age is 18. Instructor Manual for Sexuality Today Gary Kelly 9780078035470

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